Knowledge is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as (i) expertise, and skills acquired by a person through experience or education; the theoretical or practical understanding of a subject, (ii) what is known in a particular field or in total; facts and information or (iii) awareness or familiarity gained by experience of a fact or situation.
Knowledge management (KM) Comprises a range of strategies and practices used in an organisation to identify, create, represent, distribute, and enable adoption of insights and experiences. Such insights and experiences comprise knowledge, either embodied in individuals or embeddedin organisational processes or practice.
You undoubtedly learned something about teaching from your teachers, but what if they were bad teachers? What is a bad teacher? Can you learn without thinking? What happens when to transfer knowledge
Communication Noise is anything physical, psychological, physiological, sociological, cultural etc. that prevents transmission of information
Signals are the selective items removed from noise Data is the collection of similar events Information is a summary and interpretation of these occurrences – you can lead the horse to the library but it will not get wise Knowledge is where information can be applied – know-how, know-why, know-who, know-what etc.
The smallest units – a,b,c,d,e, f, g, Next – apple, boat, call, egg, fog, gather Next – Appreciate balloons causing excitement Next – paragraph Next – chapter Next – article, paper, book Which is the level of plagiarism? Which is the smallest level of meaning?
Close your eyes When you design something you understand it in a unique way Content on its own doesn’t make sense – i.e. The word ‘red’ is abstract, what do you see in your mind’s eye? What do you see if I say ‘red box’ What do you see if I say ‘square read box’ or ‘round red box’? The more I give you the better chance we all imagine the same thing – make the important parts clear...
Lecturing style: one way communication, choice examples offered objective: transference of salient points aim: introduction to topic
Recital Style: Some questions asked and answered Objective: Further examples given Aim: To extend lecture
Tutorial Style: Group work Objective: Examples now developed by students Aim: To ensure learning has taken place and knowledge transferred
Some things are universal, some are individual What are the ‘building blocks’ of your programme/subject/topic area? What are the ‘building blocks’ of everyday life? What are the ‘building blocks’ of various industries?
What are the learning objectives of the module – explore each one – why? At the end test them with it – if they can’t answer can they perform in exam?
In learning to play chess, the person will have to learn the rules of the game (cognitive domain) they also have to learn how to set up the chess pieces on the chessboard And also how to properly hold and move a chess piece (psychomotor) The person may even learn to love the game itself, value its applications in life, and appreciate its history (affective domain).
GETTING STUDENTS’ ATTENTION, GETTING THEM TO THINK AND GETTING THEM INOVOLVED!
Creative and emotional Observing Doing Rational and logical
Inductive learning Traditional instruction is deductive, beginning with theories and progressing to applications of those theories (examples). More inductive methods have topics introduced by presenting specific examples, scenarios, case studies or problems, with theories taught or the students are helped to discover them only after the need to know them has been established. Ask the students for questions. This gives students an opportunity to clarify their understanding of the content. Get them to question each other. Ask questions of the students. Several questions which focus on the main points of the content may be used to summarize the content of the lecture – i.e. Questions on the learning outcome of the topic.
Look for ways to make the students experience an active learning process rather than a passive one. Examples include lecture handouts with blanks to be filled in, using microquizzes in tutorials, getting students involved in answering questions from other students. Encourage students to teach other students. Students who tutor others learn more themselves and the students they tutor learn more
“The student is not the product. The learning is the product, and the teacher and the students should work together to produce the best quality product they can.”
“Education is not an end in itself – it is part of the journey leading towards a career.
“Academic management, lecturers, the students, the public and private sectors, foreign aid and donor organisations need to work together to foster the conditions whereupon the economy, and by extension society, can diversify, grow and develop.”
The students world knowledge – their common sense, their upbringing, school experience, home life, exposure to civic life, life experience, their motivation, beliefs, attitudes etc. At best, students extend what they have been introduced to in class by researching in the library or on the internet – they develop insights through discovering further examples to that given by the lecturer At best , the lecturer introduces all the major salient points regarding a topic
Nunan (1993:8) defines curriculum “ . . . as concerned with the planning, implementation, evaluation, management, and administration of education programs.” Nunan sees a syllabus as a process that “ . . . focus[es] more narrowly on the selection of grading and content.”
Degree of 'fit' between the needs and aims of the learner (as social being and as individual) and the activities which will take place in the classroom. Degree of 'fit' between the needs and aims of industry (as a social institution and as an organization with a mission) and the activities which will take place in the classroom.
Relevance and value according to abilities to apply theories and develop models, reports and case studies in a variety of contexts Relevance and value attested to by usefulness and usage by organisations Relevance and value attested to by rubrics of assessment
Information, i.e. Text, pictures, video, sounds - It must have meaning. Communication requires transferring content, but the transferring of content does not imply communication. Context is external to content, but provides information that illuminates or otherwise alters the meaning of the content. – i.e. Doing something as an academic exercise or doing it to concord with the needs of an external organisation Context How to strategically apply information and knowledge, knowledge of processes and procedures Activity and ability to practice that which applies knowledge of processes and procedures so as to support the making of an end product - i.e. Know-how
Metacognition Getting them to ‘think about thinking’ – like letting them teach each other this is very good for developing critical abilities Awareness – i.e. What am I doing as I work on this project? Planning – i.e. What kind of task is this? Monitoring – i.e. Is what I am doing working?
Practical tips Use an opening summary. At the beginning of the lecture, present major points and conclusions to help students organize their listening. Present key terms. Reduce the major points in the lecture to key words that act as verbal subheadings or memory aids. Offer examples. When possible, provide real-life illustrations of the ideas in the lecture. Use analogies. If possible, make a comparison between the content of the lecture and knowledge the students already have. Use visual backups. Use a variety of media to enable students to see as well as hear what is being said – video, sound, pictures – all ripped from the internet – make slides more visually appealing.
The first few minutes of a lecture are important. Plan them well! Tips for Creating an Effective Introduction Review lecture objective(s). Ask a rhetorical question. Ask for a show of hands in response to a general question. Ask a series of questions related to the lecture topic. Use an interesting or famous quotation. Relate the topic to previously covered content. Use a case study or problem-solving activity. Use a videotape or other media. Show an appropriate cartoon with the overhead or slide projector. Make a provocative statement to encourage discussion. Give a demonstration. Use a game or role play. Relate the topic to future work experiences. Share a personal experience. Relate the topic to a real-life experience.