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  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/countrushmore/1447206923/in/photostream/
  • Through my presentation I will teach about how to make jewelry and the basic processes taught in a beginners metal-smithing class. I will also give history jewelry and of teaching the arts, while giving background on how to teach the arts.
  • Egyptians made jewelry out of all sorts of materials, most famously Gold, but also other materials such as woods and stones and other natural materials. http://www.fashion-era.com/jewellery.htm#Gold%20And%20Gems%20In%20Greece%201400%20BC
  • The Egyptians started out makingjewelry in the Badari and Naqada eras.They used natural materials, such as stones and wood. As they grew they started using more sophisticated materials such as pealed bones and branches. Here we see a pair of Cobras holding an Ankh which is an Egyptian cross and a Cartouche which is a box with hieroglyphics in it, it is to symbolize that the symbols inside are royal. http://www.fashion-era.com/jewellery.htm#Gold%20In%20Egypt%203000%20BC http://cgi.ebay.com.my/Egyptian-jewelry-pair-Cobra-holding-Ankh-Cartouche-/350152533930,
  • As the years went on, the Egyptians mastered the processes of cutting and polishing stones and eventually started making the beautiful masterpieces one can see in museumstoday.Pharaohs decided that they could express themselves better through gold, and that’s why gold became the medium mostly used. http://www.articlealley.com/article_17371_22.html
  • But as time went on and the smiths became better, they used gold and stones. This started around 300 A.D. TheGreek were known for their use of colored glass, emeralds, garnets. They also made a lot of filigree work using gold, filigree is a delicate work of jewelry usually using threads of wire made out of silver or gold. http://www.fashion-era.com/jewellery.htm#Gold%20In%20Egypt%203000%20BC
  • Like the Egyptians, the Greek used jewelry to symbolize their religion. They also used jewelry to symbolize their wealth and to keep away the “Evil Eye”, or dirty looks. http://www.jewelryartdesigns.com/jewelry-jad.asp?p=History
  • A Cameo is a stone that has been carved into to make a face or object or symbol. The first Cameos were make out of Indian Sardonyx which is a striped brown pink and cream colored agate. Hard enough to not break but soft enough to carve.http://www.antique-jewelry-investor.com/history-of-cameo.html
  • There were two ways that the Greek made jewelry, they either cast it, or used hammered sheets of metal. The amount of casted pieces have been fewer than the pieces made of sheet. To make the casted jewelry they would heat the metal to a molten state and then pour it into a form made of stone or clay, while the sheet jewelry was pounded flat and then cut to make the piece. The Grecians also used two sheets of metal with wax in the middle to form the wax into shapes for casting. http://www.kalopedis.com/products.php?ID=78
  • Paste jewelry was a very popular type of jewelry in the 1700’s. Paste is a type of mixture that includes glass lead oxide and potash, it could be used to make almost any stone, even fake opals. Steel was used in England instead of precious metals because it was so much easier to come by and so much cheaper to produce. Fake jewelry was mostly worn out to social gatherings as to give the facade of wealth. http://www.fashion-era.com/jewellery.htm#Gold%20In%20Egypt%203000%20BC
  • To say that past jewelry was fake is only meant in the sense that the materials used were fake. It was still constructed by hand and slaved over just like any other hand made piece of jewelry, but because the stones weren’t real and the metals were of lesser quality it was considered fake. Although the stones in this picture and in the ring on the previous slide may look real and gorgeous they are simply cut glass or glass mixed with chemicals to look real. http://www.fashion-era.com/jewellery.htm#Gold%20In%20Egypt%203000%20BC
  • Because the Queen wanted more jewelry to be made, she had more cities start to produce jewelry, Birmingham (England), Germany. And also jewelry making moved to the western side of the world, Providence, Rhode Island started to mass produce jewelry and ship it to England. Because so much jewelry was being machine made, quality went down. Quality went way down and because of that women started to not wear any in protest. http://www.fashion-era.com/jewellery.htm#Gold%20In%20Egypt%203000%20BC
  • In the same era that Queen Victoria came to power, a small amount of jewelers started making high end, high quality handmade jewelry. This was the start the Arts and Crafts movement. Cities in Europe started to have Tifanny’s stores open. http://www.fashion-era.com/jewellery.htm#Gold%20In%20Egypt%203000%20BC
  • Most of the jewelry was simple and modeled after wallpapers or Celtic designs. The pieces usually only had one stone or two and were hand-made. The Arts and Crafts movement only lasted three decades. At the beginning of the 1900s Art Nouveau popped up. http://www.fashion-era.com/jewellery.htm#Gold%20In%20Egypt%203000%20BC
  • Coming up to the present day jewelry has been affected by the media, in the 1940’s and 50’s Europe was highly affected by the USA’s movie industry they wanted to be very much like the movie stars. In the 80’s glitzy costume jewelry came into style, big gaudy fake stones with high polish metals were used. Then it fell out of fashion very quickly in the 90’s. In the early 2000’s though it was brought back and is still in fashion today. http://www.fashion-era.com/jewellery.htm#Gold%20In%20Egypt%203000%20BChttp://yearsafter.files.wordpress.com/2009/06/retro-modern-1940s-brooch.jpghttp://rubyringsjewelry.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/03/rose-gold-ruby-rings.jpghttp://www.robinmccormickjewelry.com/img/estate-jewelry_008.jpghttp://jewelry.lovetoknow.com/images/Jewelry/3/3d/1980.jpg
  • The other style that has come into play for the 2000’s and this is just recently is very “artsy” jewelry. The style consists of large rings, with long necklaces, also large bangles (bracelets) have come into style. http://www.fashion-era.com/jewellery.htm#Gold%20In%20Egypt%203000%20BChttp://images5.freepeople.com/is/image/FreePeople/91A0296_28_a?$zoom-super$http://www.freepeople.com/easy-corset-slip/_/cmCategoryID/8a61524b-907c-474c-ab37-f357c9ae11e3/&detailcross http://images5.freepeople.com/is/image/FreePeople/18385302_015_a?$detail-item$http://images1.freepeople.com/is/image/FreePeople/18450221_070_c?$detail-item$
  • The first thing that needs to be understood is that to make a simple ring band can take as long as 25 minutes for someone who is experienced but for someone who is just starting it could take as long as three hours.As said with everything, practice makes perfect, I have made almost 100 rings in the past five years of making jewelry.
  • Surprisingly it is very dangerous to make jewelry, I have been in hurt in more than one ways. There are many dangers within the workshop setting.Surprisingly it is very dangerous to make jewelry, I have been in hurt in more than one ways. There are many dangers within the workshop setting.FireChemicals BurningSawsHammersPolishing WheelsSubstances used in processMany chemicals and substances once used in the early 70’s are now in fact illegal to use because they were found to be so deadly. http://www.ganoksin.com/borisat/nenam/safety.htm
  • This is a quote I have that talks about the dangers of substances in the studio setting. Taken from http://www.ganoksin.com/borisat/nenam/safety.htmWhen I was first a student in 1974 we had a bucket of loose asbestos fibers under the soldering bench, we would take a handful, moisten it with water to form a clay-like blob to hold things together for soldering. This would be unthinkable today. In Germany in 1981 none of the goldsmiths I worked with would believe me about the dangers of asbestos and we would dip our fingers in solvents, including tri-chloroethylene for removing pitch (this is such a no-no it is not even funny), we would use cadmium solders, use benzene as a solvent (absolutely, but absolutely unthinkable now-benzene is even banned from university labs with full equipment it is such a carcinogen), we would have carbon tetrachloride available as a solvent, not to mention investing without breathing protection or ventilation, patinating without ventilation and on and on. All that is, in my world, over and finished with - and it should be in yours too-anything else is pretty criminal. At this point many of the worst hazards have at least been recognized and named in the jewelry workshop.
  • When soldering is brought in a whole new issue of safety is started.Acetylene- used in most commercial studios and art classesPropane- used in at home small studio applicationsHydrogenMethyl ethyl ketoneWater torchesWater torches are filled with distilled water and other substances and broken down to oxygen and hydrogen.These torches are mostly used in large city studios where having flammable gasses are not alloud. The water torch system is not as flammable under pressure the other gasses used for soldering. Oxygen mixed with another gasWhen using a gas torch the fumes given off are toxic and without proper ventilation, can cause damage over time. Acetylene http://www.welding-robots.com/articles.php?tag=687http://jewelrymaking.about.com/od/metaljewelrymaking/a/122304.htmOxy-acetylene, oxy-propane, or any other gas mixed with oxygen is only used when high temperatures are needed. When oxygen is added to the gas the temperatures rise substantially.
  • When in a studio workspace it is always a good idea to do the following:If one has long hair, tie it upBe aware of where the soldering station isKnow where the pickle isThe pickle is a liquid used to clean the metal after it has been solderedHave common sense, don’t be recklesshttp://www.silverspiderforge.com/silversmithing.html
  • There are many different tools used in jewelrySaw-frameFilesBench-pinHammerDapping toolsTweezersTorch Torch Tips, Flux, Solder, Copper Tongs, Soldering block, striker, pickle potDrill bitsShearsRulerBezel PusherHammersMallet(McCreight 129)
  • What most teachers do in a beginners jewelry class is have the students first cut out a Abraham Lincoln’s head from a penny. This teaches the students how to cut out shapes while also giving them an idea of the size one could work in. From there the students can design a piece and then lay the design out on a sheet of metal, and rubber cement it down. Once the piece of paper is on there, the student can start cutting. (McCreight 12) (Dawn Bergmaier)
  • The second thing taught is how to file. Go back in to Abraham’s head and file the edges down so it’s smooth and to the line, so that the outline is gone and all that remains is his head. Filing is the process of removing excess metal from the piece, the point of filing is to smoothen edges and make the shapes or patterns cut out more straight. Files are also used to score and crosshatch a piece where two pieces of metals are going to be soldered, this makes more surface area for the solder to adhere to. http://www.ganoksin.com/borisat/nenam/files.htm
  • Starting at 200 grit and going down to 2000 gritSanding is the process of removing dents and scratches, it also takes away scratches made from the filing marks. Start with a lower grit, the lower the grit the more course the paper is. I usually start at 200 grit and move all the way up to 2000 then to microgrit polishing paper. (McGrath 68)
  • Once sanded the head is then polished on a polishing wheel. Use Tripoli first which is more gritty of a substance used to take away sanding marks, then rouge is used. The rouge is the substance that actually polishes the piece. The rouge gives the piece a high gloss finish like one would see in a store. (McGrath 104)
  • To start soldering a safety lesson is given.The next step is to start heating the piece up by going around it with the torch
  • Once sawing, filing, sanding and polishing is understood, the second lesson is on how to solder.The safety behind soldering is that if you have long hair you should tie it upYou should then make sure you don’t have long sleeves, or have anything flammable near you. You also want to have a brick underneath the piece so that the table doesn’t get burnt.The pickle is then explained, the pickle is a solution that cleans the piece after it has been soldered. The act of soldering heats up the metal so much that it can become molten, it gets firescale on it which is oxidation from the metal.Turn on the torch by spinning the knob and then adjusting the size of the flame with the regulator. The regulator adjusts the amount of gas let out of the tank.The higher the flame the faster the metal will get up to temperature. http://www.silverspiderforge.com/silversmithing.html
  • The flux is a substance made to protect the metal from getting to much fire-scale on itThe flux also helps the solder to spread evenly on the piecehttp://www.silverspiderforge.com/silversmithing.html
  • We start the process of soldering by heating the piece up. This is done by going around the entire piece with the torch at a steady slow pace, then once the piece is heated we speed up the motion and start to focus more on where the solder is going to be applied or where it already is. Eventually the solder “flows” which means it becomes liquid and seeps into the crack between the two pieces. The piece is soldered! http://www.silverspiderforge.com/silversmithing.html
  • Once the piece is done in the pickle the next step is to take a brass brush to it The brass brush cleans the piece offThe entire process of soldering makes the piece very dirty that’s why there are so many steps made to keep it clean and to clean it off. Keeping the piece clean is important so that over time and working with it over and over it doesn’t get dirt caked on it.http://www.silverspiderforge.com/silversmithing.html#Soldering
  • The Object of all of this is to make the piece as close to mark-less and scratch-less. After soldering and pickling the piece has a layer of fire-scale on it, so the filing is done to take this away. After the filing is done, you sand down the file marks. (McGrath 104)
  • The fourth lesson consists of polishingThe first step in polishing is to take a brass brush and go over the pieceThe second step is to take Tripoli on a polishing wheel, the Tripoli is used to take any remaining sanding marks awayThe third step is to use Rouge, the rouge is the actual substance that polishes. It gives the piece a shine like you would see on a final piece. http://users.lmi.net/~drewid/PWR_deep_polishing.htm
  • The definition of teaching is; a person who teaches or instructs, esp. as a profession; instructor. http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/teacherMy ideal profession would be to teach jewelry at the college level. My plan is to get my masters in art and possibly even my Doctorate.
  • When teaching the first step is making a lesson planThe lesson plan outlines what the teacher will be teaching to the students throughout the class. The lesson plan also outlines the entire course.What the teacher wants to think about is what time the students enter the room and what time they’re leaving, what new knowledge can they leave the room with at the end of the class.http://www.goshen.edu/art/ed/artlsn.html
  • Get the materials prepped.Get the tools prepped.Make sure the room is clean and that all the supplies necessary for the lesson are present.The teacher should fully know the lesson that is about to be taught, they need to know how to make the piece and how to fix it if someone messes up in process. http://www.goshen.edu/art/ed/artlsn.html
  • http://www.goshen.edu/art/ed/artlsn.html
  • “To quote a kindergarten child, "You can't never know how to do it before you ever did." Students need to know how the materials and process work in order to be creative with their interpretations of the content and design of their work. If it is a new process, it is only fair to allow and expect them do a preliminary practice session.” A very important part of teaching youth, or just teaching in general is to give the students time to practice, if the new project involves new processes than the teacher has to expect that some amount of messing up is going to happen.http://www.goshen.edu/art/ed/artlsn.html#INTRODUCE
  • There are many different styles to teaching art. One style is to take the students style and further there skill, to shape their style and make it better. The other style is to break the student down, and then build them up back into the cookie cutter style artist. A lot of graphic designer’s are made this way, all the same.(Dan Wisner)

Sgp1FINALFINAL Sgp1FINALFINAL Presentation Transcript

  • Jewelry: Making and Teaching
    Dan Wisner
  • Overview
    First Lesson
    Second Lesson
    Third Lesson
    Fourth Lesson
    Class Activity
  • Thesis
    The process of teaching jewelry hones one’s skills as a silver-smith and transfers specific skills and knowledge, paying attention to the vast history of the craft.
  • Personal Relevance
    Jewelry is an important topic to me because it is something I wish to pursue as a career, I am going to college for jewelry and plan on getting my masters in metals. Also making jewelry is one of the only things that keeps me sane, it’s an emotional release.
  • Relevance to You
    My presentation is relevant to you because jewelry is something you all see everyday, and now you know how much history might be on someone’s finger and how much work goes into each piece one might wear.
  • Introduction
  • History of Jewelry
    Jewelry goes as far back as 3000 B.C. and that is just the recorded history, it could go even farther back.
  • Egyptian Jewelry
  • Cutting and Polishing
  • http://ep.yimg.com/ca/I/ash1_2096_22912321
  • Jewelry in Greece
  • The Greeks were the first to make a Cameo.
  • Grecian jewelry was very simple, the designs and the processes were simple but the time taken to make each piece was what set their jewelry apart.
  • The 13th through 17thCenturies
    A lot of paste jewelry was made in Europe during the 13th through 17thcenturies, more specifically France and England were known for making imitation jewelry.
  • This is another example of paste jewelry.
    The market for paste jewelry is not dead. In fact a lot of cheaper jewelry, usually bought at department stores or like stores are made in mostly the same fashion, just by a machine.
  • Victorian Jewelry
    Queen Victoria came to the throne in 1837. She put a lot of focus on the arts making it so more jewelry was made.
  • http://www.itiffanyjewelry.com/images/TFBL193%20Tiffany%20Bracelet.jpg
  • Arts and Crafts Jewelry
    “Arts and Crafts” Jewelry was started in the 1870 to counter-act all of the low quality machine made jewelry coming out of the Victorian age.
  • The Process of Making Jewelry
  • To make this ring could take anywhere from 30 minutes to 3 hours to make.
  • Safety
  • http://www.aaproducts.com/QkSl2lb.jpg
  • http://www.topnews.in/files/Goldsmith.JPG
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/ayayan/506766287/
  • Equipment
  • First lesson
    The first thing taught is how to saw
  • http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_QRVEchpV8nU/S7R4-C6WS7I/AAAAAAAAAZA/epySBvSFEfY/s1600/filing.jpg
  • From there sanding is shown
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/1962_cb77_restore/3375589416/sizes/o/
  • The second lesson
  • Then the flux is applied
  • http://www.flickr.com/photos/23471309@N02/4307961864
  • http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_Q1PLCDeRnC4/SsPADIIu8NI/AAAAAAAAA-M/iSFbuUflkV4/s400/229_soldering.jpg
  • Third lesson
    In the third lesson we go over the process of sanding and filing the piece down.
  • Lesson Plans
  • Preparing to teach
  • Teaching
    Goshen teaching website laid out a very good plan for day to day teaching.
    “Review something that we studied recently and introduce today's work practice what is new before students are asked to be creative with it present main assignment - motivate more than one way student time on task - often motivational open questions are used to help enrich, personalize, and focus ideas during this time.”
  • http://fineartamerica.com/images-medium/gold-wire-bracelet-gisela-naepflin.jpg
  • “Sometimes teachers feel that it is more creative to allow students to have complete freedom to decide on any subject matter. This presents several problems. If the teachers says, "Do whatever you want for subject matter," most students simply do whatever was easy and successful in the past. This lassie faire approach also implies that content is immaterial and unimportant.” http://www.goshen.edu/art/ed/artlsn.html#INTRODUCE
  • Application
    For my application I knew I wanted to teach jewelry to people, I wasn’t sure what to teach them or how many I wanted to teach.
    Eventually I figured out that I wanted to teach two people from this class how to make a ring. I would use my home studio for the production of the rings and I was going to document their progression and their learning.
  • The idea in my head wasn’t working out, the participants did not have enough time to start learning.
    Ms. Oren than asked me if I would like to help her with Diversity Day making Africa jewelry.
  • Of course I said yes, but after talking about some ideas on what to make, I tossed in the idea of using it as my application for my SGP.
    Ms. Oren liked that idea a lot and handed over total control of the day to me.
  • I then started thinking of what to have the students make, I went by these guidelines:
    Could do in under an hour.
    Did not need any more than pliers to make.
    Would be easy enough so that the students would enjoy it but hard enough to challenge them.
  • I came up with three designs for the to make, one being a ring, the next being earrings and the last being a pendant.
    As I was testing the difficulties of producing them I found that the wire I was using was to brittle and broke after the third and fourth bends.
  • There was no other choice than to start over.
    I came up with two different design, earrings and a ring.
  • Class Activity
    For my class activity I would like everyone to design there own piece of jewelry, any style from any era of production. You can use all of the pictures from my presentation as a guide on how to design your piece.
    I would like to see the piece from different angles; such as the sides, the top, bottom.
  • Conclusion
    In conclusion I think by researching so many of the technical sides of jewelry making and also the “art” of teaching art I realized how much it would mean to me by being a professor at a college. I learned how it would make me feel as though I did something important with my life by passing on my knowledge of jewelry to others. I also feel as though I learned a lot about the basics of jewelry making and this will help me to make my own art better.
  • Sources
    Works Cited
    Bartel, Marvin. “How to plan Art Lesonns.” Goshen. N.p., 2001. Web. 10 May 2010. <http://www.goshen.edu/‌art/‌ed/‌artlsn.html>.
    Bibb, Jason. “The history of jewelry from Egypt.” Article Alley. N.p., 2005. Web. 9 May 2010. <http://www.articlealley.com/‌article_17371_22.html>.
    Brain, Charles Lewton-. “Jewelry Making.” Ganoksin. N.p., 1997. Web. 10 May 2010. <http://www.ganoksin.com/‌borisat/‌nenam/‌files.htm>.
    “History of Cameo.” Antique Jewelry Investor. N.p., 2009. Web. 4 May 2010. <http://www.antique-jewelry-investor.com/‌history-of-cameo.html>.
  • Manuel. “Basic Silversmithing.” Silver Spider Forge. N.p., 25 Mar. 2008. Web. 9 May 2010. <http://www.silverspiderforge.com/‌silversmithing.html#Soldering>.
    McCreight, Tim. Jewelry Fundamentals of Metalsmithing. Gloucester, Massachesetts: Hand Books Press, 1997. Print.
    McGrath, Jinks. The Encyclopdedia of Jewelry- Making Techniques. London, England/‌ Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Running Press Book Publishers/‌ Quarto Publishing plc, 1995. Print.
    Rowe, Peter. “Polishing in deep places.” United Artworks. N.p., 2001. Web. 8 May 2010. <http://users.lmi.net/‌~drewid/‌PWR_deep_polishing.htm>.
    Thomas, Pauline Weston. “Jewellery History.” Fashion Era. N.p., 2010. Web. 13 May 2010. <http://www.fashion-era.com/‌jewellery.htm#Gold%20In%20Egypt%203000%20BC>.