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This presentation elaborates on primary and secondary succession concepts presented in Chapter 6 of your text.

This presentation elaborates on primary and secondary succession concepts presented in Chapter 6 of your text.

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  • Fig 10.8 Graphs showing changes in biomass and diversity with succession.
  • Fig 10.9 (a) Hypothesized changes in soil nitrogen during the course of soil development. (b) Change in total soil phosphorus over time with soil development. (Source : P. M. Vitousek and P. S. White, 1981, “Process Studies in Forest Succession,” in D. C. West, H. H. Shugart, and D. B. Botkin, eds. Forest Succession: Concepts and Applications [New York: Springer-Verlag, 1981], Figure 17.1, p. 269.)
  • Fig 10.7 Diagram of bog succession. Open water (a) is transformed through formation of a floating mat of sedge and deposition of sediments (b) into wetland forest (c).
  • Transcript

    • 1. Ecological Succession Population Changes in Context - in Communities!
    • 2. Succession Defined:
      • The gradual, sequential change in the relative abundances of the dominant species in a biological community following a disturbance…
      • Primary succession : beginning from an abiotic environment following a cataclysmic disturbance
      • Secondary succession : beginning from a major disturbance, but all forms of life are not destroyed
    • 3. Primary or Secondary? Volcanic Island
    • 4. Primary or Secondary? 1988 Fires in Yellowstone NP
    • 5. Primary or Secondary? Old Parking Lot
    • 6. Primary or Secondary? Glacial Retreat
    • 7. Primary or Secondary? Old Farm
    • 8. Primary Succession (forest)
      • Colonization: of bare rock, tiny seedless plants like mosses, and lichens, “pioneer species”
      • Early : plants typically small with short lifecycles (annuals), rapid seed dispersal, “environmental stabilizers”
      • Middle : plants typically longer lived, slower seed dispersal (herbs, shurbs, perennials)
      • Late : plant species are those associated with older, more mature ecosystem-largest vegetation (trees)
      • “ Climax Community ” mature forest in this case (but varies by biome)
      *Note: Consumers and decomposer populations will also vary as producer populations change…as well as nutrient cycling…
    • 9. Research on Primary Succession
    • 10.  
    • 11. Research on Secondary Succession
    • 12. Hutcheson Memorial Forest Center (NJ) Old Field Secondary Succession1962-1995
    • 13. Hutcheson Memorial Forest Center (NJ) Old Field Secondary Succession1962-1995
    • 14. Hutcheson Memorial Forest Center (NJ) First Year
    • 15. Hutcheson Memorial Forest Center (NJ) Fifth Year
    • 16. Hutcheson Memorial Forest Center (NJ) Tenth Year
    • 17. Hutcheson Memorial Forest Center (NJ) Twentieth Year
    • 18. Hutcheson Memorial Forest Center (NJ) Twenty-Eighth Year
    • 19. Changes in Biodiversity
    • 20. © 2003 John Wiley and Sons Publishers
    • 21. © 2003 John Wiley and Sons Publishers
    • 22. Succession in Aquatic Ecosystems © 2003 John Wiley and Sons Publishers
    • 23. Succession in a Pond 1960s to 1990s
    • 24. Is a Climax Community Always Inevitable?
      • New research suggests that we cannot always project the course of a given succession or view it as preordained
      • Communities are always subject to disturbances and we cannot always know the outcome
      • Disturbances can be beneficial for communities…
    • 25. The Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis
      • Hypothesis: Communities that experience fairly frequent but moderate disturbances have the greatest species diversity
      • Reasoning: Moderate disturbances are large enough to create openings for colonizing species in disturbed areas, but mild and infrequent enough to allow the survival of some mature species in undisturbed areas
    • 26. ‘ General Ecology’, D.T. Krohne
    • 27. Ecotones
      • Disturbances often create ecotones , but they also exist as natural transitions between biomes or ecosystems
      • An ecotone is a transition area between two adjacent ecological communities
        • a sharp boundary or a gradual blending effect
        • particularly significant for mobile animals, as they can exploit more than one set of habitats within a short distance
        • this can produce an edge effect along the boundary line, with the area possibly displaying a greater than usual diversity of species
    • 28. Edge Effects
      • Disturbances can fragment ecosystems and create edge effects
      • An edge effect describes the differing abiotic and biotic conditions that exist at a border between contrasting environments in an ecosystem
        • the increased light, greater wind and temperature extremes and lower humidity at the boundaries of fragments favor some plant species over others (native colonizing species or invasive species)
        • this can make the combination of species present near the boundary different from that inside the fragment (more diverse or less depending on the factors)
    • 29. Remember This Edge Effect? Kudzu at DCEP
    • 30. Habitat Fragmentation
    • 31. Bibliography