Biomass energy

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Presentation to my APES students on types of biofuels (solid, liquid, gas) using mostly my own photos.

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Biomass energy

  1. 1. Biomass Energy Sources Derrick Willard
  2. 2. What are they? <ul><li>Plant materials and animal wastes that can be burned directly as a solid fuel or converted to liquid or gaseous biofuels. </li></ul><ul><li>ALL are indirect forms of solar energy via photosynthesis. </li></ul><ul><li>Traditionally used for heating and cooking, but can also be used for industrial processes and for generating electricity. </li></ul><ul><li>Considered “carbon-neutral” as carbon dioxide was taken from the atmosphere is returned. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Types <ul><li>Wood/wood chips/wood charcoal </li></ul><ul><li>Crop residues </li></ul><ul><li>Dung (animal manure) </li></ul><ul><li>Liquid biofuels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ethanol (starch or cellulose-based gasoline substitute) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Biodiesel (oil or fat-based diesel substitute) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Biogas </li></ul>
  4. 4. Wood
  5. 5. Crop Residue
  6. 6. Dung Oven Could burn dried dung, or use biodigester to produce methane.
  7. 7. Dung Oven
  8. 8. Biofuel: Ethanol Can be starch or cellulose based
  9. 9. Biofuel: Biodiesel Info courtesy of Jim Thompson, CEO
  10. 10. The Basics: Diesel vs. Gasoline Engines <ul><li>Diesel Engines: </li></ul><ul><li>The air is compressed first, and then the fuel is injected. Because air heats up when it's compressed, the fuel ignites. </li></ul><ul><li>Diesel engines are commonly found in large trucks and commercial marine vehicles. </li></ul><ul><li>Gasoline Engines: </li></ul><ul><li>F uel is mixed with air, then compressed by pistons and then ignited by sparks from spark plug. </li></ul><ul><li>Most passenger vehicles are gasoline powered, but more car manufacturers are releasing diesel models, and they are already very popular in Europe. </li></ul>Both diesel engines and gasoline engines covert fuel into energy through a series of small explosions or combustions. The major difference between diesel and gasoline is the way these explosions happen.
  11. 11. Biodiesel 101 <ul><li>*Fuel for diesel engines made from natural oils (soy, canola, poultry grease) </li></ul><ul><li>*It can be used in any percentage combination with “regular” petroleum diesel fuel. </li></ul><ul><li>*Chemical Definition: Biodiesel is a mono alkyl ester of long chain fatty acid. </li></ul><ul><li>* It superior lubricant, which makes it better for the life of an engine, as opposed to low-sulfur “regular” diesel. </li></ul><ul><li>*Reduces harmful carbon emissions by up to 78.4% as compared to “regular” diesel. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Biodiesel 101 <ul><li>What Biodiesel is NOT: </li></ul><ul><li>It is NOT Ethanol </li></ul><ul><li>It is NOT (necessarily) cheaper </li></ul><ul><li>It is NOT available in great quantities… yet (Especially in Charlotte!) </li></ul><ul><li>It is NOT flammable </li></ul><ul><li>It is NOT hazardous </li></ul><ul><li>It is NOT carcinogenic (cancer causing) </li></ul><ul><li>It does NOT take a long time to biodegrade. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Oil + Chemicals = Reaction
  14. 16. Biodiesel Production Technology
  15. 17. Biodiesel Production Technology
  16. 18. Biodiesel Production Technology
  17. 19. Biodiesel Production Technology
  18. 20. Biodiesel Production Technology
  19. 23. Biogas Digesters http://www.training.gpa.unep.org/images/gif/biogas_digester_sm.gif
  20. 24. Small Scale <ul><li>Production of methane using hog waste on a farm in Costa Rica… </li></ul>
  21. 25. … .for cooking
  22. 26. Large Scale <ul><li>Methane production from human sewage to power heat and cooking units at EARTH University in Costa Rica. </li></ul>
  23. 27. Large Scale <ul><li>Methane production from hog manure to power… </li></ul>
  24. 28. <ul><li>… an electrical generator at EARTH University in Costa Rica. </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  25. 29. So… <ul><li>Pros? </li></ul><ul><li>Cons? </li></ul>
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