Processing Letters


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This presentation shows about steps in processing letters by children and related theories behind.

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Processing Letters

  1. 1. Processing Letters Birch: chapter 5 Group 2: Anik Biati Dwi Firli Ashari Laranti Salaz Nurawati Mina
  2. 2. Outline Presentation What is processing letter? A. Sampling the Text B. Graphs and Graphemes C. Developing Graphemic Knowledge and Processing Strategies (sub domain D. The English L2 Readers E. Spotlight in Teaching (3 Methods of Presenting Grapheme into Phoneme Correspondences)
  3. 3. Sampling The Text Use a certain parts of the text to construct meaning with additional thing (which is prediction) by using graphophonic, syntactic and semantic systems of the language to predict meaning and confirm those predictions with real experiences and knowledge of the language.
  4. 4. Sampling The Text Disadvantages of sampling the text: • Sampling the text places too much emphasis at the top of reading process, skimping the bottom. • Sampling does not describe the reading process for beginning or intermediate readers, or ESL and EFL readers, who must process more of the cues in the text in order to grasp the meaning.
  5. 5. Sampling The Text (cont.) • Instructional method that given by teachers if they believe readers just “sampling”, attention to the nitty-gritty details of English letters and sounds may seem to be a topic to be dispensed as quickly as possible. • Students are sometimes told explicitly to “sample” the text and to rely on strategies like predicting or skimming.
  6. 6. Graphs and Graphemes There are 26 alphabet letters, but more than 65 graphemes and a potentially infinite number of graphs.
  7. 7. Graphs and Graphemes (cont.) • Graph: a concrete instance of a grapheme in the same way that a phone is a concrete instance of phoneme. • Grapheme: an abstract mental symbol of writing that corresponds to a phoneme in a spoken language, and thus, it represents all of the allophones of that phoneme.
  8. 8. Graphs and Graphemes (cont.) Figure 1: Main English consonant graphemes from Venezky, 1970. Used by permission of Mouton de Gruyter.
  9. 9. Graphs and Graphemes (cont.) Figure 2: Main English vowel graphemes from Venezky, 1970. Used by permission of Mouton de Gruyter.
  10. 10. Graphs and Graphemes (cont.) Two types of single graphemes: 1.Single graphemes: use one grapheme to represent the phoneme. Examples: t, d, f, s, a, o, and so on. 2.Double graphemes (digraphs): take two graphemes together to represent a phoneme. Examples: ch, sh, ph, th, and few others.
  11. 11. Graphs and Graphemes (cont.) Two other types of graphemes: 1.Compound graphemes: simple graphemes doubled (or geminated) Examples: gg, tt, nn, ck 2.Complex graphemes is x, which uses one grapheme to represent a sequence of two phonemes, namely /ks/.
  12. 12. Developing Graphemic Knowledge and Processing Strategies Knowledge Base • Identify and write the letters of alphabet • Acquire the system of grapheme listed earlier • Include an inventory of graphemes and their invariant properties -> orthographic processing
  13. 13. Developing Graphemic Knowledge and Processing Strategies (cont.) Processing Strategies: • Eye movement • Selective fixating and projecting • Reading speed • Pattern recognition • Word recognition • Word superiority effect • Word beginning
  14. 14. The English L2 Readers • A research about eye movement in reading of ESL and EFL learners, and a study by Tullius at 1979 of university students found that they have 3 times longer for eye movement. It means they take longer in fixation for processing the word there for they don't have any regressions. (time consuming) • Therefore they need to enriching their experience and knowledge. In reading English readers must match a graph on the page with graphemes on their heads, which also matched with phonemes and make a linkage for graphemes and phonemes in form of word.
  15. 15. The English L2 Readers (cont.) • The problem is students are might be wrong in that matching system, so the teacher should guide them especially in consonants. In some cases, they are able to know how the grapheme and phonemes are working but when it comes into reading they do not know it.
  16. 16. Spotlight in Teaching Text for English speaking, children use different orders when presenting the consonant grapheme to phoneme correspondences why? Factors
  17. 17. 3 Methods of Presenting Grapheme into Phoneme Correspondences 3 methods in processing letter based on Gunning (1988) : 1. Analytical method, gathering the letter with the word. 2. Synthetic method consonants and vowels are isolated and taught separately. 3. The linguistic method series of words are placed in a column cat fat mat and read aloud so the students can "induce"
  18. 18. Application in Making Lesson Plan 1. Phonemic awareness 2. Graphemes awareness 3. Then teach the linkage of grapheme and phoneme in a word 4. Practicing by printing and writing the graphemes 5. Read stories
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