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Thinking about learning
 

Thinking about learning

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A brief overview of learning theories provided as part of CORE Achieve IQ115

A brief overview of learning theories provided as part of CORE Achieve IQ115

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    Thinking about learning Thinking about learning Presentation Transcript

    • New  Thinking   “What  are  the  ideas  about   knowledge,  mind,  and  learning  that   inform  your  current  thinking  about   how  you  teach  and  how  schools   should  be  organised?”   Ref:  Jane  Gilbert  (2005)     Catching  the  Knowledge  Wave  -­‐  NZCER
    • How  we  understand  knowledge   •  Knowledge  is  “stuff”   •  It  can  be  stored  -­‐  in  minds,  books  or  other   kinds  of  databases   •  Knowledge  is  true,  correct,  “the  facts”   •  It  is  something  stable  that  accumulates  slowly   over  Ome;  new  knowledge  builds  on  older   knowledge   •  It  is  built  up  by  people,  and  people  can  “have”   it,  however,  it  exists  objecOvely,  independently   of  people   •  There  are  different  branches  of  knowledge   called  disciplines  or  subjects  Ref: Jane Gilbert (2005)Catching the Knowledge •  Each  discipline  has  its  own  way  of  doing  things  Wave - NZCER
    • How  we  understand  minds   •  Minds  are  like  containers  (filing   cabinets  or  databases),  they  store   knowledge   •  Minds  also  process  knowledge;  they   take  it  in,  organise  it  and  represent  it   •  Minds  are  the  places  where  thinking   and  learning  happen   •  Some  minds  have  more  capacity  than   other  minds  for  storing  and   processing  knowledge   •  The  mind  is  located  in  the  brain,  but  Ref: Jane Gilbert (2005) its  acOviOes  are  disOnct  from  the  Catching the KnowledgeWave - NZCER brain’s  other  funcOons  
    • How  we  understand  learning   •  Learning  is  the  process  by  which   knowledge  gets  stored  in  minds   •  Learning  is  an  individual  acOvity:  it   takes  place  in  individual  minds   •  Learning  is  an  acOvity  that  happens  in   more  or  less  the  same  way  in  all   individuals   •  Learners  of  the  same  age  (or  stage  of   development)  will  be  ready  for  the   same  kinds  of  knowledge  at  the  same   Ome   •  Learning  is  easier  if  the  knowledge  to  Ref: Jane Gilbert (2005)Catching the Knowledge be  learned  is  broken  down  into  parts  Wave - NZCER and  introduced  as  a  series  of  steps.  
    • What  about  you?  •  How  would  you  summarise  your  thinking   about…   –  Knowledge   –  Minds   –  Learning  •  How  would  you  describe  this  to  a  colleague?  •  How  is  what  you  believe  evidenced  in  your   teaching  context?  
    • Learning  theories  How  do  any  of  the  following  theories  of  learning  inform  the  decisions  you  make  about  your  teaching?  
    • Behaviourism  Concept:    Learning  is  a  change  in  behaviour…mind  is  a  black  box  Key  Figures:    Pavlov,  Thorndike,  Watson,  Skinner  Epistomology/Pedagogy   -­‐  Knowledge  is  objecOve,  but  secondary  to  behavioural  consideraOons   -­‐  Teaching  is  sOmulus/response-­‐based  (condiOoning)  
    • CogniOvism  Concept:    InformaOon  processing,  metacogniOon,  thought  process,  knowledge  is  organized/organizable    Key  Figures:    Ausubel,  Gagne,  Bandura,  Bruner  (both  socially-­‐focused)  Epistomology/Pedagogy   -­‐  Knowledge  is  objecOve,  acquired  through  cogniOon  (objecOvisOc)   -­‐  Knowledge  can  be  seen  as  schema  or  symbolic  mental  construcOons.   Learning  is  defined  as  change  in  a  learner’s  schemata.  
    • ConstrucOvism  Concept:    “Knowledge  constructed  by  learners  as  they  aaempt  to  make   sense  of  their  experiences”    Key  Figures:    Piaget,  Dewey,  Vico,  Rorty,  Bruner  Epistomology/Pedagogy  Learning  as  experience,  acOvity  and  dialogical  process;  Problem  Based  Learning  (PBL);  Anchored  instrucOon;  cogniOve  apprenOceship  (scaffolding);  inquiry  and  discovery  learning.  
    • Social  construcOvism  Concept:    Applies  the  general  philosophical  construcOonism  into  social  sedngs,  wherein  groups  construct  knowledge  for  one  another,  collaboraOvely  creaOng  a  small  culture  of  shared  arOfacts  with  shared  meanings.  Key  Figures:    Lev  Vygotsky  Epistomology/Pedagogy   1.  Learning  and  development  is  a  social,  collaboraOve  acOvity.     2.  The  Zone  of  Proximal  Development  can  serve  as  a  guide  for  curricular  and   lesson  planning.     3.  School  learning  should  occur  in  a  meaningful  context  and  not  be   separated  from  learning  and  knowledge  children  develop  in  the  "real   world.".     4.  Out-­‐of-­‐school  experiences  should  be  related  to  the  childs  school   experience.  
    • ConstrucOonism  Concept:    People  learn  through  making  things  –  “creaOve  experimentaOon”  Learning  vs.  Teaching  “find  ways  in  which  the  technology  enables  children  to  use  knowledge”    Key  Figures:    Seymour  Papert  Epistomology/Pedagogy  “From  construc-vist  theories  of  psychology  we  take  a  view  of  learning  as  a  reconstruc-on  rather  than  as  a  transmission  of  knowledge.  Then  we  extend  the  idea  of  manipula-ve  materials  to  the  idea  that  learning  is  most  effec-ve  when  part  of  an  ac-vity  the  learner  experiences  as  construc-ng  a  meaningful  product.”  
    • AcOvity  Theory  Concept:    AcOvity  Theory  is  a  framework  or  descripOve  tool  for  a  system.  People  are  socio-­‐culturally  embedded  actors  (not  processors  or  system  components).    Key  Figures:    Leont’ev  (based  on  Vygotsky)  Engeström  (in  current  itera-on  –  expansive  learning)  Epistomology/Pedagogy   -­‐  Knowledge  is  personally  constructed,  socially  generated,  contextually   held;   -­‐  Teaching  is  indirect,  supporOve,  learner-­‐driven,  experienOal  
    • References  •  hap://www.nzcer.org.nz/nzcerpress/catching-­‐knowledge-­‐ wave-­‐knowledge-­‐society-­‐and-­‐future-­‐educaOon  •  hap://www.learning-­‐theories.com  •  hap://www.lifecircles-­‐inc.com/Learningtheories/ learningmap.html  •  hap://www.emtech.net/learning_theories.htm