New Thinking “What are the ideas about knowledge, mind, and learning that inform your current thinking about how you teach and how schools should be organised?” Ref: Jane Gilbert (2005) Catching the Knowledge Wave -‐ NZCER
How we understand knowledge • Knowledge is “stuﬀ” • It can be stored -‐ in minds, books or other kinds of databases • Knowledge is true, correct, “the facts” • It is something stable that accumulates slowly over Ome; new knowledge builds on older knowledge • It is built up by people, and people can “have” it, however, it exists objecOvely, independently of people • There are diﬀerent branches of knowledge called disciplines or subjects Ref: Jane Gilbert (2005)Catching the Knowledge • Each discipline has its own way of doing things Wave - NZCER
How we understand minds • Minds are like containers (ﬁling cabinets or databases), they store knowledge • Minds also process knowledge; they take it in, organise it and represent it • Minds are the places where thinking and learning happen • Some minds have more capacity than other minds for storing and processing knowledge • The mind is located in the brain, but Ref: Jane Gilbert (2005) its acOviOes are disOnct from the Catching the KnowledgeWave - NZCER brain’s other funcOons
How we understand learning • Learning is the process by which knowledge gets stored in minds • Learning is an individual acOvity: it takes place in individual minds • Learning is an acOvity that happens in more or less the same way in all individuals • Learners of the same age (or stage of development) will be ready for the same kinds of knowledge at the same Ome • Learning is easier if the knowledge to Ref: Jane Gilbert (2005)Catching the Knowledge be learned is broken down into parts Wave - NZCER and introduced as a series of steps.
What about you? • How would you summarise your thinking about… – Knowledge – Minds – Learning • How would you describe this to a colleague? • How is what you believe evidenced in your teaching context?
Learning theories How do any of the following theories of learning inform the decisions you make about your teaching?
Behaviourism Concept: Learning is a change in behaviour…mind is a black box Key Figures: Pavlov, Thorndike, Watson, Skinner Epistomology/Pedagogy -‐ Knowledge is objecOve, but secondary to behavioural consideraOons -‐ Teaching is sOmulus/response-‐based (condiOoning)
CogniOvism Concept: InformaOon processing, metacogniOon, thought process, knowledge is organized/organizable Key Figures: Ausubel, Gagne, Bandura, Bruner (both socially-‐focused) Epistomology/Pedagogy -‐ Knowledge is objecOve, acquired through cogniOon (objecOvisOc) -‐ Knowledge can be seen as schema or symbolic mental construcOons. Learning is deﬁned as change in a learner’s schemata.
ConstrucOvism Concept: “Knowledge constructed by learners as they aaempt to make sense of their experiences” Key Figures: Piaget, Dewey, Vico, Rorty, Bruner Epistomology/Pedagogy Learning as experience, acOvity and dialogical process; Problem Based Learning (PBL); Anchored instrucOon; cogniOve apprenOceship (scaﬀolding); inquiry and discovery learning.
Social construcOvism Concept: Applies the general philosophical construcOonism into social sedngs, wherein groups construct knowledge for one another, collaboraOvely creaOng a small culture of shared arOfacts with shared meanings. Key Figures: Lev Vygotsky Epistomology/Pedagogy 1. Learning and development is a social, collaboraOve acOvity. 2. The Zone of Proximal Development can serve as a guide for curricular and lesson planning. 3. School learning should occur in a meaningful context and not be separated from learning and knowledge children develop in the "real world.". 4. Out-‐of-‐school experiences should be related to the childs school experience.
ConstrucOonism Concept: People learn through making things – “creaOve experimentaOon” Learning vs. Teaching “ﬁnd ways in which the technology enables children to use knowledge” Key Figures: Seymour Papert Epistomology/Pedagogy “From construc-vist theories of psychology we take a view of learning as a reconstruc-on rather than as a transmission of knowledge. Then we extend the idea of manipula-ve materials to the idea that learning is most eﬀec-ve when part of an ac-vity the learner experiences as construc-ng a meaningful product.”
AcOvity Theory Concept: AcOvity Theory is a framework or descripOve tool for a system. People are socio-‐culturally embedded actors (not processors or system components). Key Figures: Leont’ev (based on Vygotsky) Engeström (in current itera-on – expansive learning) Epistomology/Pedagogy -‐ Knowledge is personally constructed, socially generated, contextually held; -‐ Teaching is indirect, supporOve, learner-‐driven, experienOal