0
Tawa	
  Literacy	
  Pilot	
  
WEBINAR	
  
November	
  10th,	
  2010	
  
Webinar Agenda
1.  Introduction and overview
2. Teaching the comprehension strategy of drawing
inferences using the metaco...
Webinar Agenda
4.  Scaffolding – the research evidence – how we can
accelerate achievement for diverse student groups –
Mā...
Tawa	
  Literacy	
  Pilot	
  
1.	
  IntroducBon	
  and	
  
overview	
  
Introducing
Neale	
  Pitches	
  
ONZM,	
  BA,	
  MEd	
  Admin	
  (Hons),	
  Dip	
  Tchg	
  	
  
Forty	
  years	
  in	
  ed...
The	
  issue:	
  Comprehension	
  
2008 NEMP
The Results for reading and writing show no improvement in
reading comprehension (and some small performance dec...
2005/6 PIRLS
Pacific achievement decreased between 2001 and 2005/6
(Chamberlain, 2007)
In General
The weakest average achievement is for Pasifika and Māori
boys, along with Pasifika girls
(Generalised from NEM...
Tawa	
  Literacy	
  Pilot	
  
2. Teaching the comprehension
strategy of drawing inferences
using the metacognitive model	
...
What is the metacognitive model?
A way of teaching where the students learn
the concepts and content being taught and
how ...
MetacogniBon	
  
It	
  is	
  important	
  that	
  students	
  are	
  ac@vely	
  taught	
  to	
  be	
  aware	
  	
  
of	
  ...
The	
  MetacogniBve	
  Model	
  	
  
Think	
  3x3x3	
  	
  –	
  	
  gradual	
  release	
  
Whole-Group
Instruction
Co-oper...
3-5 different
Classroom
experiences
Known concepts
Knowledge structure
New conceptsWorking memory
Integrating
Elaborating
...
The	
  New	
  Zealand	
  “landscape”	
  
Explicit	
  instruc@on	
  of	
  comprehension	
  strategies	
  include:	
  
	
   ...
How?	
  
For	
  prac@cal	
  purposes	
  when	
  we	
  first	
  teach	
  a	
  strategy	
  	
  we	
  
	
  	
  	
  	
  model	
...
Teaching	
  Comprehension	
  
The	
  purpose	
  of	
  teaching	
  comprehension	
  is	
  	
  
to	
  teach	
  strategies	
 ...
Tawa	
  Literacy	
  Pilot	
  
3. Strategies that ‘go’ with drawing
inferences:
a)  Making connections
b)  Visualising
c)  ...
Making Connections
Effective teachers helped readers make connections between texts
they read and their personal lives and...
Making Connections
Researchers have identified three kinds of connections that
proficient readers make as they read:
Text-...
Making Connections
Also help students to make connections to the type of text
they are reading and how it is constructed.
...
Tawa	
  Literacy	
  Pilot	
  
3. Strategies that ‘go’ with drawing
inferences:
a)  Making connections
b)  Visualising
c)  ...
Visualising
The most well-established effect of visualising is that
students remember more of what they read.
(National Re...
Visualising
Model to, and encourage students to use all of their senses
when ‘visualising’. Readers visualise by using the...
Tawa	
  Literacy	
  Pilot	
  
3. Strategies that ‘go’ with drawing
inferences:
a)  Making connections
b)  Visualising
c)  ...
Asking Questions
Proficient readers ask questions before, during and after
reading. They question the content, the author,...
Asking Questions
Effective teachers ask high level comprehension questions,
requiring students to make inferences and thin...
Tawa	
  Literacy	
  Pilot	
  
4. Scaffolding – how we can
accelerate achievement for
diverse student groups - Māori,
Pasif...
‘Scaffolding’	
  
 Giving	
  all	
  students	
  access	
  to	
  on-­‐year	
  level	
  texts	
  
 	
  MulBple	
  scaffolds	...
Tawa	
  Literacy	
  Pilot	
  
5. Matching students
and text – a ‘content
literacy’ view
Exposure to Print	
  
Exposure to
Content	
  
Oral language	
  
Vocabulary	
  
Reading	
  
Writing	
  
“Oral	
  language	
...
Teachers skilful in content literacy practices can increase
students’ reading capacity, vocabulary, and knowledge
with tex...
Children who acquire good reading skills may not be able
to transfer those abilities to comprehending content text if
they...
Content Literacy
In recent years the term “background knowledge” has
been replaced in some texts by the term “world
knowle...
Tawa	
  Literacy	
  Pilot	
  
6. Grouping, but not as
we know it…
Grouping, but not as we know it…
Whole class / whole group teaching - recall the comments of
Samantha from Roslyn School i...
Grouping, but not as we know it…
Cooperative learning has a strong body of evidence to
support it (Almasi, 1995; Jenkins, ...
Grouping, but not as we know it…
Cooperative learning has a strong body of evidence to
support it (Almasi, 1995; Jenkins, ...
Grouping, but not as we know it…
Cooperative learning needs to be supported by the following
student ‘management’ approach...
Tawa	
  Literacy	
  Pilot	
  
7. Inquiry learning within
comprehension teaching
Inquiry learning – Using students’
authentic questions
We see two practices in “CSI” classrooms:
1. Inquiry learning comin...
Tawa	
  Literacy	
  Pilot	
  
THE	
  END!	
  
WEBINAR	
  
November	
  10th,	
  2010	
  
Summing	
  Up	
  -­‐	
  New	
  Thinking	
  
Digital	
  Shared	
  Reading	
  to	
  teach	
  comprehension	
  
using	
  the	...
CooperaBve	
  learning:	
  A	
  challenge	
  to	
  our	
  thinking	
  about	
  	
  
‘levelled	
  text,	
  levelled	
  kids...
Summing	
  up	
  
•  We	
  can	
  accelerate	
  comprehension	
  achievement	
  	
  
•  We	
  can	
  overcome	
  the	
  co...
Tawa pilot webinar
Tawa pilot webinar
Tawa pilot webinar
Tawa pilot webinar
Tawa pilot webinar
Tawa pilot webinar
Tawa pilot webinar
Tawa pilot webinar
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Tawa pilot webinar

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Powerpoint presentation from the webinar presented as part of the Tawa literacy pilot course.

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Transcript of "Tawa pilot webinar"

  1. 1. Tawa  Literacy  Pilot   WEBINAR   November  10th,  2010  
  2. 2. Webinar Agenda 1.  Introduction and overview 2. Teaching the comprehension strategy of drawing inferences using the metacognitive model 3. Strategies that ‘go’ with drawing inferences: a)  Making connections b)  Visualising c)  Asking questions
  3. 3. Webinar Agenda 4.  Scaffolding – the research evidence – how we can accelerate achievement for diverse student groups – Māori, Pasifika, ESL students, and students with special needs 5. Matching students and text – a ‘content literacy’ view 6. Grouping but not as we know it… 7. Inquiry learning within comprehension teaching
  4. 4. Tawa  Literacy  Pilot   1.  IntroducBon  and   overview  
  5. 5. Introducing Neale  Pitches   ONZM,  BA,  MEd  Admin  (Hons),  Dip  Tchg     Forty  years  in  educa@on:        -­‐  English  and  history  teacher,  Hillmorton  and  Dunstan          -­‐  DP  Wellington  High                      -­‐  Principal  Onslow  College        -­‐  CEO  Learning  Media        -­‐  Co-­‐founder  South  Pacific  Press  and  LiL  Educa@on  
  6. 6. The  issue:  Comprehension  
  7. 7. 2008 NEMP The Results for reading and writing show no improvement in reading comprehension (and some small performance declines) for year 4 and year 8 students in the last 8 years (Crooks, Smith and Flockton, 2009)
  8. 8. 2005/6 PIRLS Pacific achievement decreased between 2001 and 2005/6 (Chamberlain, 2007)
  9. 9. In General The weakest average achievement is for Pasifika and Māori boys, along with Pasifika girls (Generalised from NEMP and PIRLS)
  10. 10. Tawa  Literacy  Pilot   2. Teaching the comprehension strategy of drawing inferences using the metacognitive model  
  11. 11. What is the metacognitive model? A way of teaching where the students learn the concepts and content being taught and how they think and learn as they work through the learning.
  12. 12. MetacogniBon   It  is  important  that  students  are  ac@vely  taught  to  be  aware     of  what  literacy  exper@se  they  are  using  and  how  they  are  using  it  …   this  metacogni@ve  awareness  enables  them  to  become  independent   readers  and  writers.       (Literacy Learning Progressions 2010)
  13. 13. The  MetacogniBve  Model     Think  3x3x3    –    gradual  release   Whole-Group Instruction Co-operative learning Independent Application Model/think-aloud/read-to, student interaction, reflection Before, during, and after reading
  14. 14. 3-5 different Classroom experiences Known concepts Knowledge structure New conceptsWorking memory Integrating Elaborating Evaluating Selecting Sorting Long term memory (Nuthall, 2007, p.71) The  metacogniBve  learning  model   Include  all  students
  15. 15. The  New  Zealand  “landscape”   Explicit  instruc@on  of  comprehension  strategies  include:      •    An  explicit  descrip@on  of  the  strategy      •    Modeling  of  the  strategy      •    Scaffolding  students      •    Students  ar@cula@ng  what  they  do  as  they  use  the              strategy      •    Students  applying  and  reflec@ng  on  the  strategy.   (Effective Literary Practice, Years 5–8)
  16. 16. How?   For  prac@cal  purposes  when  we  first  teach  a  strategy    we          model  the  strategy  on  its  own  so  we  don’t  confuse  kids…but  quickly     move  on  to  introduce    addi@onal  strategies  so  kids  build  a  repertoire  of   strategies    and  use  them  flexibly  to  understand  what  they  read”.   (Harvey  and  Goudvis,  2007,  p  34)  
  17. 17. Teaching  Comprehension   The  purpose  of  teaching  comprehension  is     to  teach  strategies  as  tools  to  expand  and  deepen  understanding.     We  best  do  this  by  …  teaching  kids  a  repertoire  of  strategies  they  can  use  flexibly   in  many  circumstances  and  with  many  texts.   (Harvey and Goudvis) Comprehension  strategies  are  specific,  learned     procedures  that  foster  ac@ve,  competent,  self-­‐regulated     and  inten@onal  reading.   (Trabasso and Bouchard, 2002)
  18. 18. Tawa  Literacy  Pilot   3. Strategies that ‘go’ with drawing inferences: a)  Making connections b)  Visualising c)  Asking questions
  19. 19. Making Connections Effective teachers helped readers make connections between texts they read and their personal lives and experiences (Sweet and Snow, 2002, p44) By modeling, interaction and reflection By analogy
  20. 20. Making Connections Researchers have identified three kinds of connections that proficient readers make as they read: Text-to-self – connections to own experiences and knowledge Text-to-text – connections to other ‘texts’ – books, films, TV, songs Text-to-world – connections to knowledge of the world, their communities, cultures, world views
  21. 21. Making Connections Also help students to make connections to the type of text they are reading and how it is constructed. “…students of all ages, from elementary to high school, have difficulty comprehending the structure of informational text” (McGee, 1882; Meyer, Brand and Bluth, 1980; Taylor, 1880)
  22. 22. Tawa  Literacy  Pilot   3. Strategies that ‘go’ with drawing inferences: a)  Making connections b)  Visualising c)  Asking questions
  23. 23. Visualising The most well-established effect of visualising is that students remember more of what they read. (National Reading Panel, 2000)
  24. 24. Visualising Model to, and encourage students to use all of their senses when ‘visualising’. Readers visualise by using their background knowledge along with text and other visual clues on the page Visualise on non-fiction and fiction texts – visualising is part of active reading
  25. 25. Tawa  Literacy  Pilot   3. Strategies that ‘go’ with drawing inferences: a)  Making connections b)  Visualising c)  Asking questions
  26. 26. Asking Questions Proficient readers ask questions before, during and after reading. They question the content, the author, the events, the issues and the ideas in a text. (Harvey and Goudvis, 2007, p18) Asking questions promotes engagement, invites prediction, creates reasons to read, and fosters comprehension
  27. 27. Asking Questions Effective teachers ask high level comprehension questions, requiring students to make inferences and think beyond the text. (Sweet and Snow, 2002, p44)
  28. 28. Tawa  Literacy  Pilot   4. Scaffolding – how we can accelerate achievement for diverse student groups - Māori, Pasifika, ESL students, and students with special needs?
  29. 29. ‘Scaffolding’    Giving  all  students  access  to  on-­‐year  level  texts      MulBple  scaffolds  in  both  shared  and  cooperaBve   sessions:     Reading-­‐to     Modeling     Digital  scaffolds  (vocab,  video,  pictures)     Peer  collabora@on  and  support     Audio  for  all  40  student  co-­‐opera@ve  texts  at  each  year  level     Collabora@ve  (peer)  learning  built  into  student  co-­‐opera@ve  ac@vi@es     Graphic  organisers  
  30. 30. Tawa  Literacy  Pilot   5. Matching students and text – a ‘content literacy’ view
  31. 31. Exposure to Print   Exposure to Content   Oral language   Vocabulary   Reading   Writing   “Oral  language  and  vocabulary  are  best  developed  in  exposure  to  print”   “Comprehension  ability  and  exposure  to  print  are  in  a  reciprocal  rela:onship”   Stanovich,  2000  
  32. 32. Teachers skilful in content literacy practices can increase students’ reading capacity, vocabulary, and knowledge with texts focused on real content. (Brozo, 2010) What is content literacy? Why does it matter?
  33. 33. Children who acquire good reading skills may not be able to transfer those abilities to comprehending content text if they lack relevant prior knowledge for that content. In other words, reading is domain specific. (Chiesi, Spilich, & Voss, 1979; Duke & Pearson, 2002; Kintsch & Kintsch, 2005, in Brozo, 2010). What is content literacy? Why does it matter?
  34. 34. Content Literacy In recent years the term “background knowledge” has been replaced in some texts by the term “world knowledge”. It is important to put in front of students many texts from many contexts. Don’t shelter kids from reality by only exposing them to texts you think they can read or that ‘relate’ to them– model to them how to deal with ‘foreign’ texts.
  35. 35. Tawa  Literacy  Pilot   6. Grouping, but not as we know it…
  36. 36. Grouping, but not as we know it… Whole class / whole group teaching - recall the comments of Samantha from Roslyn School in Palmerston North. She sees benefits from being in the whole group – the learning community. Whole class / whole group teaching is an efficient way for you to model, by thinking aloud. Anecdotally, boys seem to like the whole group and struggling readers appreciate being out of the bottom group for a change.
  37. 37. Grouping, but not as we know it… Cooperative learning has a strong body of evidence to support it (Almasi, 1995; Jenkins, Antil, Wayne, et al, 2003; Stevens, 2003.) It has positive effects on achievement, motivation and self- esteem, including for students of both genders and all ethnicities
  38. 38. Grouping, but not as we know it… Cooperative learning has a strong body of evidence to support it (Almasi, 1995; Jenkins, Antil, Wayne, et al, 2003; Stevens, 2003.) It has positive effects on achievement, motivation and self- esteem, including for students of both genders and all ethnicities
  39. 39. Grouping, but not as we know it… Cooperative learning needs to be supported by the following student ‘management’ approaches: 1. “positive independence” and social skills (Kane, 2007) – ie students need to be able to work together 2. Individual accountability and specific tasks – each student fills out a graphic organiser ie work towards a goal (Lasley, Matczynski, & Rowney, 2002.)
  40. 40. Tawa  Literacy  Pilot   7. Inquiry learning within comprehension teaching
  41. 41. Inquiry learning – Using students’ authentic questions We see two practices in “CSI” classrooms: 1. Inquiry learning coming out of questions students ask about texts – questions followed up after the comprehension lesson (may be recorded on sticky notes) 2. Inquiry learning coming out of questions students ask about texts – questions followed up during the lesson, via web-based searches or embedded hyper-links
  42. 42. Tawa  Literacy  Pilot   THE  END!   WEBINAR   November  10th,  2010  
  43. 43. Summing  Up  -­‐  New  Thinking   Digital  Shared  Reading  to  teach  comprehension   using  the  metacogniBve  model     •  Diverse,  on-­‐year-­‐level  texts  –  to  give  students  broad  content  /   reading  experience  –  not  all  texts  are  ‘suited’  to  them   •  Explicit  /  deliberate  teaching   •  Digital  and  face-­‐to-­‐face  scaffolds   •  Interac@on  –  learning  community  
  44. 44. CooperaBve  learning:  A  challenge  to  our  thinking  about     ‘levelled  text,  levelled  kids’   •  Scaffolding  –  coopera@ve  learning  –  peers,  learning  community   •  Audio  texts   •  Graphic  organisers  –  help  guided  wriden  responses Summing  Up  -­‐  New  Thinking  
  45. 45. Summing  up   •  We  can  accelerate  comprehension  achievement     •  We  can  overcome  the  concern  that  levelling  has  become   too  prescrip@ve  –  a  deficit  model   •  We  can  serve  ‘digital  na@ves’  with  digital  texts   The  developmental  (metacogni@ve)  model  is  shown  to  have   major  benefits  for  comprehension  achievement  for  all   students.   Summing  Up  -­‐  New  Thinking  
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