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Basic presentation on Education as an institution in an Introduction to Sociology Course.

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Ch11 ppt compressed

  1. 1. Chapter 11 Education : Answering “What?” & “Why?”
  2. 2. SOC 300 ~ Introduction to Sociology <ul><li>Debra L. Welkley, M.A. </li></ul><ul><li>This PowerPoint is regarding the social institution of education for viewing on-line. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>For most education is an informal process </li></ul><ul><li>Schooling refers to learning skills like reading and math in a building via systematic instruction by a trained professional </li></ul><ul><li>The UNESCO standard: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>6 years of primary school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 years of intermediate and secondary school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis on comprehensive rather than specialized training </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Formal education is schooling that takes place in a formal setting with the goal of teaching a predetermined curriculum </li></ul>State of the World ’s Education: An Overview
  4. 4. <ul><li>Measuring educational quality worldwide: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Student-teacher ratio ( range from 13:1 in Western Europe to 15.8 :1 in the US to 72:1 in some countries) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Literacy (range from 76% to 99%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass education , the standardization of national educational curricula is a trend spreading around the world </li></ul></ul>State of the World ’s Education: An Overview
  5. 5. Adult Literacy Rates by Country, 2007
  6. 6. <ul><li>Symbolic Interaction Perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on how people interact based on the meaning they have assigned to objects and belies about school, education, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Young people spend much time in school or school-related activities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student , then, becomes a master status </li></ul></ul>Micro-Level Theories about Individuals within Schools
  7. 7. <ul><li>Rational Choice Theory and Educational Settings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If the benefits associated with a situation outweigh the costs, the individuals is likely to make the decision to act in the specified way to continue receiving benefits; if costs outweigh benefits, the individual will seek other courses of action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dropping out of school </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher retention </li></ul></ul></ul>Education and Individuals: Micro-Level Theories
  8. 8. <ul><li>Students, teachers, staff, and administrators hold major statuses in educational systems </li></ul><ul><li>When the status holders agree on expected behaviors, schools function smoothly; when they do not agree, conflicts can arise </li></ul>Statuses and Roles in the Educational System
  9. 9. <ul><li>Students and the Peer Culture of Schools </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Peer groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student peer culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual harassment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At risk students </li></ul></ul>Statuses and Roles in the Educational System
  10. 10. <ul><li>Teachers: The Front Line </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Serve as gatekeepers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Middle of the educational hierarchy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Role strain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fair status and rewards? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The “accountability movement” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deprofessionalism </li></ul></ul>Statuses and Roles in the Educational System
  11. 11. <ul><li>Administrators: The Managers of the School System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Issue budget reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Engage in staff negotiations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hire, fire and train staff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meet with parents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manage public relations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Preparing reports </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Keep up with new regulations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oversee discipline </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Act as buffers between parents and teachers when conflicts arise </li></ul></ul>Statuses and Roles in the Educational System
  12. 12. <ul><li>The informal system of schooling includes the unspoken, unwritten, implicit demands that we must learn in order to master the system </li></ul><ul><li>The hidden curriculum refers to the implicit demands found in every learning institution that students have to learn and respond to in order to succeed within the educational system </li></ul>The Informal System: What Really Happens Inside Schools?
  13. 13. <ul><li>Formal Education Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Came along in the Western world in 16 th century Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>First compulsory education system was in a Lutheran monastery in Germany in 1619 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After 1900, national school systems were common in Europe and its colonial outposts </li></ul></ul>After the School Bell Rings: Meso-Level Analysis
  14. 14. <ul><li>The Bureaucratic School Structure : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Max Weber ’s Bureaucratic Model applies to schools: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Division of labor </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Administrative hierarchy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Specific rules and procedures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formalized relations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rationality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One problem is that impersonal rules can lock people into rigid behavior patterns, leading to apathy and alienation </li></ul></ul>After the School Bell Rings: Meso-Level Analysis
  15. 15. <ul><li>Local Level Influences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reading material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sex education </li></ul></ul><ul><li>National Level Influences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Funding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NCLB </li></ul></ul>Educational Decision Making at the Meso Level
  16. 16. <ul><li>Functionalist Perspective on the Purposes of Education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Socialization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Selecting and Training individuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promoting Change </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhancing Personal and Social Development </li></ul></ul>Why Societies Have Education Systems: Macro-Level Theories
  17. 17. <ul><li>Conflict Perspective on Education and Stratification </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Schools used by powerful and affluent groups to ensure that their own self interests are met </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schools do not provide equal educational opportunities for all children in a society </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This creates the reproduction of class </li></ul></ul></ul>Why Societies Have Education Systems: Macro-Level Theories
  18. 18. <ul><li>Can schools bring about equality in society? </li></ul><ul><li>The goals of equal educational opportunity , according to James Coleman: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To provide a common curriculum for all children regardless of background </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To provide that children from diverse backgrounds attend the same school </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To provide equality within a given loyalty </li></ul></ul>Education, Society, and the Road to Opportunity: Education at the Macro Level
  19. 19. <ul><li>According to the Coleman Report: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Minority students (except Asian-Americans) scored lower on tests at each level of schooling that did what students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coleman recommended that integrating schools would provide an equal climate for achievement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bussing and magnet schools were two policies enacted to address the problems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Jencks Study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Jencks argued that schools alone cannot create equally opportunity </li></ul></ul>Education, Society, and the Road to Opportunity: Education at the Macro Level
  20. 20. <ul><li>Education is a meritocracy , or a social group or organization where people are allocated to positions according to their ability and credentials </li></ul><ul><li>The fact that many children do not attend school on an equal footing, questions whether or not a meritocracy exists </li></ul>Who Gets Ahead and Why? The Role of Education in Stratification
  21. 21. <ul><li>Sources of Inequality: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assessing Student Achievement: can place students according to achievement and determining progress: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Importance for tracking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IQ tests </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Achievement tests </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bias in tests </li></ul></ul></ul>Who Gets Ahead and Why? The Role of Education in Stratification
  22. 22. <ul><li>Sources of Inequality: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tracking or Streaming </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tracking or streaming refers to placing students in groups based on their ability levels, and is another way in which schools contribute to the stratification process </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Begins in primary school </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tracking correlates directly with the child ’s background and ethnic group, language skills, appearance, and other socioeconomic variables </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The negative effects of tracking can be reduced if the system of placement is flexible </li></ul></ul></ul>Who Gets Ahead and Why? The Role of Education in Stratification
  23. 23. <ul><li>Sources of Inequality: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>School Funding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In the US, unequal school spending results from reliance on local property taxes as well as state and federal funds </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This perpetuates existing inequalities </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Who Gets Ahead and Why? The Role of Education in Stratification
  24. 24. <ul><li>About 10% of U.S. students attend private schools </li></ul><ul><li>Private schools are more academically demanding, more stringent, more disciplined, and more orderly </li></ul><ul><li>Choice and voucher plans would allow parents to choose schools; however, potentially at the expense of public schools </li></ul>Public and Private Schools
  25. 25. <ul><li>Despite numerous U.S. policies and reports, the data on school success shows a worsening picture </li></ul><ul><li>There are 27 million functionally illiterate U.S. citizens </li></ul><ul><li>Many 17 year olds are unable to write well or solve mathematical problems and lack basic skills needed to enter business and the military </li></ul>Educational Social Policy Issues
  26. 26. <ul><li>The No Child Left Behind initiative tied school performance to federal funds and required annual competency testing: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Schools failing to meet guidelines are penalized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The results is that 70% of schools are reducing instructional time in other subjects to teach more reading and math </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The policy makes no provision for differences in family backgrounds; socioeconomic status; preschool education; or community context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rural and small schools are often disadvantaged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>President Obama and education secretary, Arne Duncan are changing NCLB by funding parts that were unfunded and adding new assessment measures </li></ul></ul>Educational Social Policy Issues
  27. 27. <ul><li>Providing Early Childhood Education: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Obama administration is also placing a new emphasis on “zero to five” education and expanding Head Start funding for preschoolers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research in multiple countries demonstrate: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Children from birth to five develop rapidly in linguistic and cognitive gains, emotional development, social regulatory developing, and other capacities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In the child ’s early years, the “growth trajectory” in learning, health, and emotional development should not be interrupted </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Needs of young children are not always being adequately addressed </li></ul></ul></ul>Educational Social Policy Issues
  28. 28. <ul><li>Providing Early Childhood Education: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Head Start is an early childhood educational opportunity for disadvantaged three- to five-year-olds in the U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children attending Head Start are more likely to stay in school, receive preventive health care, avoid remedial classes later in school, and will not become juvenile delinquents </li></ul></ul>Educational Social Policy Issues
  29. 29. <ul><li>Social economic values of the society are reflected in approaches to learning and in motivation of students </li></ul><ul><li>Educational systems also reflect the economic and political institutions of a given society and its place in the world system </li></ul><ul><li>Governments compare their academic test scores to other students worldwide </li></ul>Global Issues in Education
  30. 30. <ul><li>A silent killer in developing countries is the lack of quality basic education </li></ul><ul><li>In 2005, over 110 million children – 60% of them girls from ages 6 to 11 – received no schooling at all </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Another 150 million dropped out of primary school </li></ul></ul>Global Issues in Education
  31. 31. <ul><li>The “Digital Divide” </li></ul><ul><li>The “Virtual University” </li></ul><ul><li>The “school-to-work” transition </li></ul><ul><li>The ultimate objective of schools is to prepare individuals to meet the needs of the community, the state, the nation, and the world </li></ul>The Future of Education in the Global System