Transformational Leadership

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Learn what transformational leadership is, the qualities of a transformational leader, how they transform themselves, others, organizations, the world! Discover the impact that your being a …

Learn what transformational leadership is, the qualities of a transformational leader, how they transform themselves, others, organizations, the world! Discover the impact that your being a transformational leader can have on bringing about a change in the world that we need to see that is in the best interest of everyone, a moral change.

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  • 1. Transformational LeadershipLeadership with values, meaning and a higher purpose Douglas W. Bush, M.A. http://www.douglaswbush.com 2007 © All Rights Reserved
  • 2. Objectives1 Definition2 History3 Transformational vs. transactional leadership4 Characteristics of a transformational leader5 Support of transformational leadership6 Applications for managers Douglas W. Bush, M.A. http://www.douglaswbush.com 2007 © All Rights Reserved
  • 3. Think about leadership experiences you have had –either as a leader or as a follower - What leadership qualities did you prefer the most? Least? - How did your leadership style or the style of your boss affect the outcomes of your work? Douglas W. Bush, M.A. http://www.douglaswbush.com 2007 © All Rights Reserved
  • 4. A Transformational LeaderStyle of charismatic leadership inwhich the leader identifies theneeded change, creates a vision toguide and transform the organization;inspires and challenges followers;engages followers in driving thechange; develops them into leaders;achieves levels of performance beyondexpectations. Douglas W. Bush, M.A. http://www.douglaswbush.com 2007 © All Rights Reserved
  • 5. DefinitionTransformational leadership occurs when one ormore persons engage with others in such a waythat leaders and followers raise one another tohigher levels of motivation and morality. - James MacGregor Burns Douglas W. Bush, M.A. http://www.douglaswbush.com 2007 © All Rights Reserved
  • 6. History of Transformational Leadership• James Burns introduced the concept of transforming and transactional leadership (1978)• A process in which leaders and followers help each other advance to a higher level of motivation and morale.• Differentiated between management and leadership claiming the differences are in characteristics and behaviors, and established two concepts: - transforming leadership - transactional leadership• Transformational leadership creates significant change in the lives of people and organizations. Douglas W. Bush, M.A. http://www.douglaswbush.com 2007 © All Rights Reserved
  • 7. History of Transformational Leadership• It redesigns perceptions and values, and changes expectations and aspirations of followers.• Dependent on the leader’s personality, traits and ability to change through example, articulation of an energizing vision and challenging goals.• Provides a moral example of working towards the benefit of the individual, team and organization.• Transforming and transactional leadership are mutually exclusive styles. Douglas W. Bush, M.A. http://www.douglaswbush.com 2007 © All Rights Reserved
  • 8. Qualities of a Transformational Leader • Inspires • Challenges • Engages • Develops • Aligns Douglas W. Bush, M.A. http://www.douglaswbush.com 2007 © All Rights Reserved
  • 9. Impact of Transformational Leadership • Trust • Admiration • Loyalty • Respect Douglas W. Bush, M.A. http://www.douglaswbush.com 2007 © All Rights Reserved
  • 10. Transformational LeadersWho are they? Douglas W. Bush, M.A. http://www.douglaswbush.com 2007 © All Rights Reserved
  • 11. Impact of Transformational Leadership What will people say about you? Douglas W. Bush, M.A. http://www.douglaswbush.com 2007 © All Rights Reserved
  • 12. Transformational vs. Transactional Leadership What’s The Difference? Douglas W. Bush, M.A. http://www.douglaswbush.com 2007 © All Rights Reserved
  • 13. Transformational vs. Transactional Leadership They lead to different results Douglas W. Bush, M.A. http://www.douglaswbush.com 2007 © All Rights Reserved
  • 14. Theory X vs. Theory Y Manager• A Theory X manager assumes • A Theory Y managers believes employees are inherently that employees are motivated by lazy, dislike work and will avoid the satisfaction of doing a good work if they can. job. Theory X and Theory Y Management is from The Human Side of Enterprise by Douglas McGregor Douglas W. Bush, M.A. http://www.douglaswbush.com 2007 © All Rights Reserved
  • 15. Attitudes of The Theory X Manager• A Theory X manager assumes employees are inherently lazy, dislike work and will avoid work if they can: – Workers need to be closely supervised with comprehensive systems of control. – Employees will show little ambition without an enticing incentive program and will avoid responsibility whenever they can. – Threat and coercion are needed to gain the employees compliance. – The workplace is characterized by mistrust, highly restrictive supervision, and discipline. – Managers will blame the person first in most situations, without questioning whether it may be the system, policy, or lack of training that deserves the blame. Theory X and Theory Y Management is from The Human Side of Enterprise by Douglas McGregor Douglas W. Bush, M.A. http://www.douglaswbush.com 2007 © All Rights Reserved
  • 16. Qualities of The Theory X Manager Douglas W. Bush, M.A. http://www.douglaswbush.com 2007 © All Rights Reserved
  • 17. Qualities of The Theory Y Manager Theory X and Theory Y Management is from The Human Side of Enterprise by Douglas McGregor Douglas W. Bush, M.A. http://www.douglaswbush.com17 2007 © All Rights Reserved
  • 18. Attitudes of The Theory Y Manager• In Theory Y, managers believe that employees are motivated by the satisfaction of doing a good job: – They enjoy their mental and physical work duties. – They possess the ability for creative problem solving, but their talents are underused in most organizations. – Given the right conditions, employees will seek out and accept responsibility and exercise self-control and self-direction in accomplishing objectives to which they are committed. – Given the right conditions, most people want to do well at work. Douglas W. Bush, M.A. http://www.douglaswbush.com 2007 © All Rights Reserved
  • 19. Theory X vs. Theory Y• What is the predominant leadership style here? – At the manager team level? – At the supervisor level?• Can you give some clear examples of either X or Y behavior? – In this work group? – In other parts of the organization?• Is consistent Theory Y leadership possible here? Douglas W. Bush, M.A. http://www.douglaswbush.com 2007 © All Rights Reserved
  • 20. The Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire Online Assessment Individual or 360 Douglas W. Bush, M.A. http://www.douglaswbush.com 2007 © All Rights Reserved
  • 21. The Full Range Leadership Model Douglas W. Bush, M.A. http://www.douglaswbush.com 2007 © All Rights Reserved
  • 22. The Full Range Leadership Model• Transformational – Idealized Influence • Idealized Attributes IA • Idealized Behaviors IB – Inspirational Motivation IM – Intellectual Stimulation IS – Individualized Consideration IC• Transactional – Contingent Rewards CR – Management by Exception (Active) MBEA• Avoidant – Management by Exception (Passive) MBEP – Laissez-Faire LF 22 Douglas W. Bush, M.A. http://www.douglaswbush.com 2007 © All Rights Reserved
  • 23. Transformational Leadership Image from: Transformational Leadership Coaching and Consulting, LLC Douglas W. Bush, M.A. http://www.douglaswbush.com 2007 © All Rights Reserved
  • 24. Transformational Leadership• Guides the development of a positive, productive change: – Inspires people by being a role model – Motivates people to achieve high standards – Challenges people to develop creative solutions – Develops people on an individual basis – Aligns company interests with employees needs• Makes change happen at the level of behavior and basic assumptions Douglas W. Bush, M.A. http://www.douglaswbush.com 2007 © All Rights Reserved
  • 25. Idealized Influence – “Inspire”• These leaders are admired, respected and trusted. Followers want to emulate them. They consider followers’ needs over their own. Their conduct is consistent with underlying ethics, principles and values• Idealized Attributes (IA) – Instill pride in others for being associated with me – Go beyond self-interest for the good of the group – Act in ways that build others’ respect for me – Display a sense of power and confidence• Idealized Behaviors (IB) – Talk about my most important values and beliefs – Specify the importance of having a strong sense of purpose – Consider the moral and ethical consequences of decisions – Emphasize the importance of having a collective sense of mission Role Model Douglas W. Bush, M.A. http://www.douglaswbush.com 2007 © All Rights Reserved
  • 26. Inspirational Motivation – “Motivate”• These leaders provide meaning and challenge to their followers’ work. Individual and team spirit is increased. Enthusiasm and optimism are displayed. The leader encourages followers to envision attractive future states – Talk optimistically about the future – Talk enthusiastically about what needs to be accomplished – Articulate a compelling vision of the future – Express confidence that goals will be achieved Vision Douglas W. Bush, M.A. http://www.douglaswbush.com 2007 © All Rights Reserved
  • 27. Intellectual Stimulation – “Challenge”• These leaders stimulate their followers’ efforts to be innovative and creative by questioning assumptions, reframing problems and approaching old situations in new ways. There is no ridicule or public criticism of mistakes. New ideas and creative solutions to problems are solicited from followers, who are included in the process of addressing and finding solutions – Re-examine critical assumptions to question whether they are appropriate – Seek differing perspectives when solving problems – Get others to look at problems from many different angles – Suggest new ways of looking at how to complete assignments Challenge Douglas W. Bush, M.A. http://www.douglaswbush.com 2007 © All Rights Reserved
  • 28. Individual Consideration – “Development”• These leaders pay attention to each individual’s need for achievement and growth by acting as a coach or mentor. New learning opportunities are created along with a supportive climate in which to grow. Individual differences in terms of needs and desires are recognized – Spend time teaching and coaching – Treat others as individuals rather than just as a member of the group – Consider each individual as having different needs, abilities and aspirations from others – Help others to develop their strengths Coach Douglas W. Bush, M.A. http://www.douglaswbush.com 2007 © All Rights Reserved
  • 29. Transactional Leadership• These leaders display behaviors associated with constructive and corrective transactions. They define expectations and promote performance to achieve these levels• Contingent Reward: Establishes goals and agrees on what followers will do to achieve the stated objectives. Exchanges rewards for effort and recognizes accomplishments – Provide others with assistance in exchange for their efforts – Discuss in specific terms who is responsible for achieving performance targets – Make clear what one can expect to receive when performance goals are met• Management by Exception (active): Monitors deviations from rules and mistakes and takes corrective action – Focus attention on irregularities, mistakes, exceptions and deviations from standards – Concentrate full attention on dealing with mistakes, complaints and failures – Keep track of all mistakes Douglas W. Bush, M.A. http://www.douglaswbush.com 2007 © All Rights Reserved
  • 30. Passive/Avoidant Behavior• These leaders do not respond to situations and problems systematically. They avoid specifying agreements, clarifying expectations and providing goals and standards to be achieved.• Management by Exception (passive): Takes action only if mistakes are made, standards are not met – Fail to intervene until problems become serious – Wait for things to go wrong before taking action – Show a firm belief in, “If it ain’t broke, don’t fix it”• Laissez-Faire: lack of leadership – Avoid getting involved when important issues arise – Am absent when needed – Delay responding to urgent questions Douglas W. Bush, M.A. http://www.douglaswbush.com 2007 © All Rights Reserved
  • 31. The Transactional Leadership• Dependent on the promise of rewards or the avoidance of penalties as motivation. Can work when: – The rewards are big enough – The leader actually has significant control over the rewards• Concentrates on accomplishing the tasks at hand• Satisfies the self-interest of high performers• Focuses on the penalizing poor performers• It’s about compliance Douglas W. Bush, M.A. http://www.douglaswbush.com 2007 © All Rights Reserved
  • 32. Does Transformational Leadership Matter?• Transformational leaders clearly have more satisfied followers• Transformational leaders lead more effective work groups• Followers of transformational leaders experience less stress and burnout Douglas W. Bush, M.A. http://www.douglaswbush.com 2007 © All Rights Reserved
  • 33. The Transformational Leader and Change • Start with an espoused value (i.e., transparency) • Identify the real-time moments when basic assumptions drive norms (i.e., lack of openness, dishonest behavior, etc.) • Through discussion, bring the basic underlying assumptions to light that support the behavior or norms • Question, challenge, or dispute the underlying assumptions and beliefs that support the behavior or norms • Reinforce the new value, which leads to new behavior (norm) • Chooses the coaching role instead of criticism and discipline • Recognize and reward the new positive behavior (norm) Douglas W. Bush, M.A. http://www.douglaswbush.com 2007 © All Rights Reserved
  • 34. Champion• Does transformational leadership seem worthwhile?• Would you consider becoming a transformational leader?• What difference would it make? - to others? - to the organization? - to yourself?• What will you do to champion transformational leadership? - List three things you’ll:  Stop doing  Start doing  Continue doing• What would be a big success in the next six months? – What will you expect to improve or be better? – What will you see or hear that you would like? Douglas W. Bush, M.A. http://www.douglaswbush.com 2007 © All Rights Reserved
  • 35. Summary• Mission, Vision, or Cause• Espoused Values• Behavioral Expectations• Strategy • Gain followers • Support a shared vision • Know and understand the challenge ahead • Committed to achieving the dream • Individual interests are aligned with the goals • “Life’s work” that provides purpose, direction and personal meaning Douglas W. Bush, M.A. http://www.douglaswbush.com 2007 © All Rights Reserved
  • 36. Douglas W. Bush, M.A. http://www.douglaswbush.com 2007 © All Rights Reserved