one of the most prominent examples of free software and open source development: typically all underlying source code can be freely modified, used, and redistributed by anyone
The name " Linux " comes from the Linux kernel, started in 1991 by Linus Torvalds
Predominantly known for its use in servers
supported by corporations such as Dell , Hewlett-Packard , IBM , Novell , Oracle Corporation , Red Hat , and Sun Microsystems
used as an operating system for a wide variety of computer hardware, including desktop computers, supercomputers, video game systems, such as the PlayStation 2 and PlayStation 3, several arcade games, and embedded devices such as mobile phones, routers, wristwatches, and stage lighting systems
Unix operating system was conceived and implemented in the 1960s and first released in 1970
Its wide availability and portability meant that it was widely adopted, copied and modified by academic institutions and businesses
The GNU Project, started in 1984, had the goal of creating a " complete Unix-compatible software system " made entirely of free software
MINIX , a Unix-like system intended for academic use, was released by Andrew S. Tanenbaum in 1987
In 1991, Linus Torvalds began to work on a non-commercial replacement for MINIX while he was attending the University of Helsinki
This eventually became the Linux kernel
Linux vendors and communities combine and distribute the kernel, GNU components, and non-GNU components, with additional package management software in the form of Linux distributions
Developed the linux kernel in 1991
Today Linux is used in numerous domains, from embedded systems to supercomputers, and has secured a place in server installations with the popular LAMP application stack
( L inux, A pache, M ySQL, P erl/ P HP/ P ython)
Linux is a modular Unix-like operating system
uses a monolithic kernel, the Linux kernel, which handles process control, networking, and peripheral and file system access
Linux can be controlled by
text-based command line interface (CLI)
graphical user interface (GUI) (usually the default for desktop)
through controls on the device itself (common on embedded machines)
On desktop machines, KDE , GNOME and Xfce are the most popular user interfaces
The Linux market is growing rapidly, and the revenue of servers, desktops, and packaged software running Linux is expected to exceed $35.7 billion by 2008
IDC's report for Q1 2007 says that Linux now holds 12.7% of the overall server market
Proponents and analysts attribute the relative success of Linux to its:
and freedom from vendor lock-in
Frictional cost of switching operating systems
Lack of support for certain hardware and application programs designed for Microsoft Windows
recently Google has begun to fund Wine , which acts as a compatibility layer, allowing users to run some Windows programs directly under Linux
A 2001 study of Red Hat Linux 7.1 found that this distribution contained 30 million source lines of code.
Using the Constructive Cost Model , the study estimated that this distribution required about eight thousand man-years of development time.
If all this software had been developed by conventional proprietary means, it would have cost about 1.08 billion dollars (year 2000 U.S. dollars) to develop in the United States.
community developed operating system that is perfect for laptops, desktops and servers most popular of the many Linux distributions
free of charge
Everything you need on one CD
Ubuntu's goals include providing an up-to-date yet stable operating system for the average user and having a strong focus on usability and ease of installation
sponsored by Canonical Ltd , owned by South African entrepreneur Mark Shuttleworth
The name of the distribution comes from the African concept of ubuntu which may be rendered roughly as " humanity toward others ", " we are people because of other people ", or " I am who I am because of who we all are “
is free software and can be shared by any number of users
releases new versions every six months, and supports those releases for 18 months with daily security fixes and patches to critical bugs
LTS (Long Term Support) releases are supported for 3 years for desktops and 5 years for servers
The most recent version, Ubuntu 8.04 ( Hardy Heron ) , was released on 24 April 2008
The next major version will be 8.10 ( Intrepid Ibex ) , scheduled for release in October 2008.
Music and video
Pidgin IM is the extremely popular open source messaging tool
Rhythmbox Music and Totem video players
Stream live radio
Access (truly) free music stores
Plug in your devices
Share your music across a network
Photos with F-Spot manager
Organise your photos (but in a fun way)
Export to your favourite online photo gallery
Edit Your Photos
Firefox 3 (Beta 5)
Enhanced bookmarking, tagging and history
Safer than ever
Wonderful world of add-ons
Improved address prompting in location bar
No more pop-ups, forced add-ons and other irritations
Office tools with OpenOffice.org and more!
Writer is for anything from writing a quick letter to producing an entire book.
a tool to calculate, analyze, and present your data in numerical reports or charts.
Impress is an easy, and powerful tool for creating effective multimedia presentations.
Orca Assistive Technologies For sight impaired users