there are torn vessels, bruised muscles, lacerated periosteum, contused nerves. Sometimes there are injured internal organs and lacerated skin. The trauma to soft tissue must always be taken into consideration and is often vitally more important than the fracture itself.
Muscular contraction – sometimes skeleton muscles contract so violently that they chip off the bone from the point of their attachment. Such fracture are called avulsion fracture & are more common in immature animals. i.e. most prone sites are acromion, greater humoraltubercal, olecrenon, ischialtuberosity, trocentor major, cranial tibialtuberosity, & the calcaneus of the fibular tarsal bone.Pathological fracture – diseased condition may render the bone(s) abnormal & weak with higher susceptibility to fracture. In such condition weight of animal itself may cause fracture. i.e. osteoporosis, localized bone infection, rickets.
Incompletefracvture - bone has not completely loss continuityComplete fracture -indicated by the complete loss of bony continuity, allowing overriding and deformation.Avulsion fracture -
Partial / splintered fracture – when splinters of bone are separated from the main bone as a result of direct violence as may be caused firearms.
Transverse fracture - Most are caused by bending forces.Oblique fracture - mostly bybanding with axial compression.Spiral fracture - caused by torsional & twisting forces.
Comminuted fracture - Comminuted fractures are generally caused by high-energy trauma, as typified by automobile accidents, and are a common type of animal fractureMultiple fracture - Reduction and fixation of a multiple fracture requires two separate reductions and fixationsCompression fracture - Compression fractures are rarely reduced, since the bone within the fracture area has been destroyed by the crushing.shortening occurs as a result of compression i.e. maxilla, frontal bone
Impacted fracture - seen at the junction of diaphysis and metaphysis of a long boneAvulsion fracture - when a part of a bone is torn away i.e. due to extensive pull of a tenson at the point of intertionorf attachment at the bone.
Fractures may be classified by their anatomical location in relation to a specific bone. Identifying a fracture by location does not indicate whether the fracture is open or closed, nor does it indicate the type of fracture: transverse, oblique, spiral, or the like. The systems of classifying by type and classifying by location are compatible and should be used together.
While describing articular fractures, the bone and joint involved are mentionedArticular fracture requires perfect anatomical reduction and fixation to prevent secondary degenerative joint disease
FractureSubmitted To Dr. S. K. Jhala Assistant professor Dept. of Veterinary Surgery & Radiology Vanbandhu College of Vet. Sci. & A.H. Submitted By Pansuria Dhaval V. M.V.Sc. (Scholar) 1st year Dept. of Vet. Surgery & Radiology
Definition Etiology Classification of fracture Diagnosis Pathology Associated with fracture Treatment Complication
Definition A fracture is a dissolution of bony continuity withor without displacement of the fragments. Or Fracture is a break in the continuity of hardtissues like bone, cartilage, etc Always accompanied by soft tissue damage ofvarying degrees.
Classification of fracture by TYPE1. Incomplete fracture 2. Complete fracture
Incomplete fracture1. Greenstick fracture Fracture in which the bone is partly brokenlike a bent green stick.2. Fissured fracture Cracks or fissure lines will occur whendirect trauma is applied to any long or flat bone3. Deferred fracture Depression fractures represent areas inwhich multiple fissure fracture lines intersect
Complete fracture1. Transverse fracture Fracture line runs transverse to the long axisof the bone.2. Oblique fracture Fracture line runs oblique to the long axis ofthe bone.3. Spiral fracture Fracture line spirals along the long axis ofthe bone.
4. Comminuted fracture two or more fracture lines interconnect eachother at one point5. Multiple fracture two or more fracture line but don’tinterconnect each other but divide a bone into 3 ormore fracture fragments6. Compression fracture fractures where cancellous bone collapsesand compresses upon itself
7. Impacted fracture A fracture in which a bony fragment, isforced or impacted into cancellous bone8. Avulsion fracture Term is used when a part of a bone is tornaway
1. Diaphyseal fracture Occur in the diaphysis of a long bone Further be described as proximal third, middle third, or distal third2. Metaphyseal fracture fracture within the metaphysis of a long bone Further described as distal or proximal metaphyseal fracture3. Epiphyseal fracture Fracture of the epiphyses
4. Fracture of the Epiphyseal plate Fracture occurs in immature animals during that time the epiphyseal plate remains open and cartilaginous. In mature animals, such fractures are called physeal fractures. Standard method for further classification is method of Salter- Harris
Type I Epiphyseal separationType II A small corner of metaphyseal bone with the epiphysisType III Epiphysis and part of the growth plate, metaphysis unaffectedType IV Epiphysis, growth plate, and metaphysis, several fracturesType V Impaction of the epiphyseal plate, metaphysis driven into the epiphysis
5. Condylar fracture Condylar fractures affect the distal ends of the humerus or femur, or the proximal tibia Further classified as medial or lateral condylar fracture Supracondylar fracture Both condyles fracture off the shaft as a unit Supracondylar-intercondylar fracture Further described as ‘V’, ‘T‘, or ‘Y‘ fractures
A – Lateral condylar fractureB – T fractureC – Y fracture
6. Articular fracture Fracture indicates that the subchondral bone and articular cartilage are involved in a fracture7. Periarticular fracture The term is used to describe the fractures close to joints However, such fractures don’t involve the joint
8. Fracture dislocation Joint fractures that produce joint instability sufficient to result in simultaneous subluxation or luxation of the affected joint
DiagnosisDYSFUNCTION It is most commonly exemplified by lameness