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    Carlsbad report v2 Carlsbad report v2 Document Transcript

    • Re p oRt s p eC iA l Carlsbad Unified School District Educational opportunity audit rEport MARCH 2010
    • contents ExEcutivE Summary......................................................................................................................................v thE carlSBad Educational opportunity audit (Eoa).............................................................................................. 1 i. College.and.Career-Ready.Curriculum:.Rationale.and.Relevance..............................................................1 ii. Carlsbad.Unified.School.District’s.Commitment.to.Reform:.The.Road.to.Rigor.........................................2 iii. Audit.Component.#1:.Examining.Student.Performance.Trends................................................................4 iv. Audit.Component.#2:.Examining.Students’.Journeys.Through.High.School.........................................10 v. Audit.Component.#3:.Examining.School.Organization.of.Teaching.and.Learning...............................18 vi. Audit.Component.#4:.Examining.Attitudes.and.Beliefs.of.Key.Stakeholders.........................................24 vii: Audit.Component.#5:.Examining.Institutional.Practice..........................................................................30 viii. Next.Steps....................................................................................................................................................33 ix. Implications.for.Blueprint..........................................................................................................................34 appEndicES.......................................................................................................................................................36 notes.......................................................................................................................................................................38 The educaTion TrusT–wesT | carlSBad | March 2010 iii
    • iv The educaTion TrusT–wesT | carlSBad | March 2010
    • Executive Summary the road to rigor: cuSd’s commitment to reform only.34.percent.of.students.statewide.successfully.completed. The.board.of.the.Carlsbad.Unified.School.District.(CUSD). in.2008—must.become.the.default.curriculum.and.mini- has.made.it.a.clear.priority.to.bring.high-impact.reform.to.all. mum.graduation.requirement.for.all.high.school.students.. students..This.reform.would.continue.to.focus.on.improving. Across.the.state,.forward-looking.districts.such.as.CUSD.have. educational.outcomes.for.all.students,.including.those.who. begun.to.take.the.steps.necessary.to.align.their.graduation. historically.have.been.underserved.and.underprepared..Led. requirements.with.the.UC/CSU.A-G.course.sequence.and. by.the.superintendent’s.and.school.board’s.vision.that.CUSD. make.these.courses.available.to.all.students. should.be.a.world-class.district.to.which.others.look.for. California.faces.a.daunting.array.of.challenges.in.the.years. guidance.and.example,.school.and.district.leaders.recognize. ahead..Clearly,.a.highly.educated,.highly.skilled.workforce. that.the.central.goal.must.be.to.implement.a.college.and. remains.central.to.our.ability.to.meet.these.challenges.and. career-ready.high.school.curriculum.for.all.students.in.the. continue.to.grow.our.economy.and.maintain.our.standing. Carlsbad.community. on.the.world.stage..Translating.these.principles.into.stan- As.a.key.step.in.bringing.this.ambitious.goal.to.fruition,. dards.and.a.tangible.academic.program.may.be.a.demanding. CUSD’s.superintendent.and.senior.staff.have.partnered. process,.but.it.is.far.from.impossible. with.The.Education.Trust–West.(ETW).to.analyze.students’. The.good.news.is.that.all.major.stakeholders.in.CUSD. educational.experiences..By.working.to.improve.the.educa- understand.the.importance.of.this.work..In.focus.groups. tional.outcomes.of.all.students—approximately.25.percent. ETW.convened.for.this.audit,.teachers,.counselors,.parents,. of.whom.are.students.of.color—CUSD.joins.other.districts. and.students.repeatedly.cited.the.importance.of.high.aca- leading.the.charge.for.equitable.access.and.achievement. demic.standards..Parents.said.they.expected.their.children. The.movement.to.prepare.all.students.for.college.and.a. to.attend.college;.students.echoed.these.aspirations..Some. career.is.timely.and.important..Increasingly,.jobs.that.pay.a. participants,.including.all.parents.and.students,.affirmed. living.wage.require.some.type.of.postsecondary.education.. their.belief.that.all.young.people.could.successfully.com- Jobs.that.do.not.are.disappearing..As.young.workers.enter. plete.the.UC/CSU.A-G.course.requirements..Parents.in.focus. the.workforce.and.progress.in.their.careers,.they.will.need. groups.said.they.expected.their.children.to.attend.college;. to.know.more.and.do.more.than.workers.from.past.genera- students.echoed.these.aspirations..Indeed,.while.students. tions..Every.young.person.will.need.to.possess.the.knowledge. voiced.concern.over.the.lack.of.access.to.rigorous.coursework. and.problem-solving.capabilities.that.once.were.reserved.for. for.some.students.at.Carlsbad.High.School,.they.asserted.that. a.select.few. with.improved.support.they.could.successfully.complete.a. What.this.means,.simply,.is.that.it.no.longer.is.acceptable. college-prep.curriculum.and.wanted.the.opportunity.to.do. to.prepare.some.young.people.for.college.and.others.for. so..Parents.acknowledged.that.for.all.students.to.succeed,. careers..The.divisions.between.“college.ready”.and.“career. families.needed.to.become.more.involved,.but.they.said.they. ready”.are.increasingly.irrelevant.and.immaterial.. wanted.to.receive.more.and.better.information.from.district. Schools.must.change.accordingly..The.rigorous.high. leaders. school.curriculum.students.need.to.be.ready.for.college. Teachers.and.counselors.likewise.voiced.a.belief.both.in. and.a.career.begins.with.the.University.of.California.(UC). the.importance.of.a.college-prep.curricula.and.the.potential. and.California.State.University.(CSU).A-G.requirements,.a. of.students.to.complete.more.rigorous.coursework..Through- 15-course.sequence.in.seven.academic.areas;.students.must. out.the.discussions,.both.groups.suggested.program.reforms. earn.a.C.or.higher.in.each.course..These.UC/CSU.A-G.course. that.would.foster.greater.student.access.and.success..Teachers. requirements.represent.an.ambitious.target.and.a.navigable. in.particular.spoke.of.the.importance.of.upholding.consis- path.toward.raising.expectations.and.outcomes.for.all.stu- tent.standards.for.rigorous.coursework,.and.said.they.already. dents..For.California.to.remain.economically.competitive,. had.seen.increased.achievement.as.a.result.of.higher.expecta- completion.of.this.college-prep.course.sequence—which. tions..They.also.recommended.ways.district.leaders.could. The educaTion TrusT–wesT | carlSBad | March 2010 v
    • support.them.in.this.work,.including.offering.better.profes- Figure 1: college-ready Graduates at carlsbad high School – more sional.development. than half of students graduate having completed the a-G course In.CUSD,.courageous.leaders.have.charted.a.course.for. sequence. reform,.and.they.are.prepared.to.harness.the.collective.will.of. 100 teachers,.counselors,.students,.and.families..These.ambitious. 80 goals.and.policies.will.end.practices.that.have.underesti- 59 58 mated.and.underserved.students. 60 55 56 Percent 40 Where are We now: 26 current Student achievement in cuSd 20 Before.CUSD.leaders.can.develop.an.action.plan.to.ensure. 0 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08* all.students.complete.the.UC/CSU.A-G.course.sequence.as. a.condition.of.graduation,.stakeholders.need.a.clear.sense. *2007-08 Data adjusted - see Appendix C of.how.students.currently.are.performing..The.Education. Source: California Department of Education. Trust–West,.with.the.CUSD.data.team,.studied.transcripts.of. Carlsbad.High.School.(CHS).seniors.as.well.as.publicly.avail- able.data.to.gain.an.accurate.picture.of.how.students.fare. Figure 2: a-G Graduation rates by student subgroup: Significant gaps Along.with.boasting.graduation.rates.significantly.higher. exist between latino students their white peers. than.the.state.average,.CUSD.also.has.more.students.gradu- 100 ating.ready.for.college.and.a.career..Across.California,.80. 80 percent.of.the.Class.of.2008.graduated.within.four.years;.in. 63 63 61 60 60 CUSD,.90.percent.did.so..According.to.self-reported.data. Percent 41 from.districts.across.California,.34.percent.of.all.students. 40 39 35 41 29 graduated.having.met.the.full.A-G.requirements.for.UC/CSU. 20 14 admission..In.CUSD,.more.than.half.(52.percent).did.so.in. 2008;.these.rates.have.remained.fairly.steady.over.the.past. 0 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 five.years.(see Figure 1).. Latino White Although.this.is.an.impressive.track.record,.there.are.still. areas.where.the.district.can.improve..For.example,.when.A-G. Source: Califnornia Department of Education. graduation.rates.are.disaggregated.by.ethnicity,.it.is.clear.that. significant.gaps.remain.(see Figure 2).. These.rates.of.A-G.completion.represent.lower.success. rates.for.some.CHS.students,.especially.Latino.students.. Consequently,.additional.work.remains.to.improve.access.to. and.achievement.in.a.rigorous.high.school.curriculum.for. all.students..The.good.news.is.that.CUSD.has.built.a.strong. foundation.for.its.continuing.efforts..Becoming.a.world-class. district.is.possible,.provided.all.stakeholders.are.willing.to. sustain.these.reform.efforts.. Many.stakeholders.pointed.to.the.success.of.the.AvID. program..Carlsbad.High.School.is.a.demonstration.site.for. the.Advancement.via.Individual.Determination.(AvID). program..Students.are.typically.selected.in.middle.school,. provided.they.meet.the.AvID.program.criteria.(middle.grade. point.average.along.with.free/reduced.price.lunch.eligibility,. first-generation.college-going.status,.and/or.ethnicity)..The. vi The educaTion TrusT–wesT | carlSBad | March 2010
    • program.consists.of.up.to.four.years.of.a.year-long.course,. culminating.in.a.senior.seminar..All.ninth-grade.AvID.stu- dents.are.enrolled.in.English.9.Honors,.and.all.are.encour- aged.to.enroll.in.Advanced.Placement.U.S..History.during. eleventh.grade..The.AvID.program’s.focus.on.preparing.stu- dents.for.postsecondary.success.is.producing.positive.results. for.its.participants..More.than.two-thirds.of.these.students. achieved.success.in.the.UC/CSU.A-G.course.sequence,.a. higher.rate.than.the.overall.student.population..This.success. rate.suggests.the.program.should.be.developed.more.fully.at. CHS,.either.by.enrolling.more.students.or.expanding.AvID’s. principles.to.schoolwide.instructional.and.study.strategies. coming up Short: chokepoints and Barriers to college and career readiness The.comprehensive.transcript.and.master-schedule.analy- sis.revealed.several.conditions.and.institutional.practices.that. impede.student.access.to.a.rigorous.college-prep.high.school. curriculum,.the.UC/CSU.A-G.course.sequence.. Graduation requirements:.The.greatest.barrier.to. increasing.the.proportion.of.students.who.graduate.ready.for. college.is.the.gap.between.the.UC/CSU.A-G.course.sequence. and.current.CUSD.graduation.requirements.. In.English,.the.A-G.requirements.stipulate.that.students. must.complete.four.years.of.college-preparatory.English. courses..CUSD.students.currently.must.complete.four.years. of.English.but.can.meet.the.CHS.graduation.requirement.by. passing.courses.with.a.D.grade,.or.by.enrolling.in.courses. that.are.not.considered.college.preparatory.by.UC/CSU..In. mathematics,.the.A-G.requirements.call.for.three.years.of. coursework.through.Algebra.2;.CUSD.requires.three.years.of. math,.through.geometry..In.science,.the.A-G.requirements. are.two.years.of.laboratory.science,.including.biology.and. either.chemistry.or.physics;.CUSD.also.requires.two.years,. but.students.may.satisfy.the.graduation.requirements.with. courses.that.are.not.lab-based.or.college-prep..For.world. language,.the.A-G.course.sequence.requires.two.years.of. study;.CUSD.requires.either.one.year.of.a.world.language.or. a.visual.or.performing-arts.course. Because.students.can.satisfy.the.district’s.graduation. requirements.without.completing.the.UC/CSU.A-G.course. sequence,.many.students.attend.high.school.without.under- taking.a.rigorous.college.and.career.prep.sequence.in.which. they.may.otherwise.succeed. The educaTion TrusT–wesT | carlSBad | March 2010 vii
    • Course-takinG patterns:.The.master.schedule.is.the. Figure 3: access to college and career-readiness curriculum by foundation.for.teaching.and.learning..Although.CUSD.offers. ethnicity. african american and latino students access the full a.wide.variety.of.courses.that.qualify.as.college.preparatory,. sequence of courses necessary for college admission at significantly lower rates than their white and asian peers. as.determined.by.the.University.of.California.Office.of.the. 100 President.(UCOP),.not.all.CHS.students.are.able.to.access. these.courses..Students.lack.access.for.a.variety.of.reasons,. 80 45 50 including.scheduling.conflicts.and.course-enrollment.poli- 73 72 60 cies.that.require.a.certain.GPA.or.other.prerequisites..The. Percent ETW.transcript.analysis.found.that.approximately.two-thirds. 40 55 of.CHS.students.from.the.Class.of.2009.had.full.access.to.the. 50 20 28 15-course.A-G.sequence.within.the.regular.six-period.school. 27 day.and.summer.school.. 0 African American Latino Asian White Although.it.is.positive.that.a.significant.portion.of.CHS. Access No Access students.have.access.to.the.full.A-G.course.sequence,.a. troubling.gap.between.student.subgroups.lies.beneath.that. Source: Ed Trust–West analysis of Carlsbad High School transcript data. average..African-American.and.Latino.students.are.provided. access.to.the.full.A-G.sequence.at.much.lower.rates.than.their. Asian.and.white.counterparts..In.fact,.fewer.than.half.of.all. Figure 4: percentage of courses at carlsbad high School meeting the uc/cSu a-G requirements – three-quarters of all regular education Latino.students.enroll.in.the.courses.necessary.for.UC/CSU. courses are college-preparatory. eligibility,.compared.with.almost.three-quarters.of.white. 100 100 94 94 students.(see Figure 3)..For.CHS.to.provide.an.equitable. 88 90 84 education.to.all.students,.this.disparity.must.be.addressed. 80 76 immediately.. 60 Carlsbad.High.School.offers.an.impressive.array.of.courses. Percent that.provide.students.with.exposure.to.a.college.and.career- 40 35 readiness.curriculum..Indeed,.three-quarters.of.all.regular. 20 education.courses.meet.the.UC/CSU.admission.standards. (see Figure 4). 0 A B C D E F G Total Along.with.enrolling.in.and.completing.the.necessary. Social English Math Science World VAPA Electives (w/ Spec Studies Language Ed, no PE) coursework.for.UC/CSU.admission,.students.also.increase. their.chances.of.graduating.ready.for.college.and.a.career. Source: Ed Trust-West analysis of Carlsbad High School 2009-10 Master Schedule. by.enrolling.in.the.most.rigorous.courses.possible..Typi- cally,.these.courses.come.in.the.form.of.honors.or.Advanced. Placement.(AP).courses..Carlsbad.High.School.offers.18.AP. Figure 5: average number of ap and honors courses taken by class of 2009. african american and latino students enroll in far fewer courses.and.11.honors.courses.to.provide.additional.oppor- courses than the school average and compared with their white and tunities.for.CHS.students.to.challenge.themselves.academi- asian counterparts. 100 cally.. 80 8 7.35 Unfortunately,.gaps.similar.to.those.within.A-G.access. 7 and.success.rates.and.their.enrollment.in.AP.and.honors. 60 6 Percent 5 courses.exist.among.student.groups..Specifically,.Latino.and. 40 4 3.61 4.02 3.58 African-American.students.enroll.at.much.lower.rates.than. 3 20 2 1.80 1.84 the.school.average.and.compared.with.their.white.and.Asian. 1 peers.In.fact,.African.American.and.Latino.students.complete. 0 All African Latino Asian White Other only.half.as.many.AP/Honors.courses.as.the.school.average,. American and.even.less.than.half.as.compared.to.their.white.peers.(see Figure 5). Source: Ed Trust–West analysis of Carlsbad High School transcript data. viii The educaTion TrusT–wesT | carlSBad | March 2010
    • In.addition.to.examining.college-ready.graduation.rates,. Figure 6: 2009 Early assessment program Ela results. Fewer than understanding.how.prepared.students.are.to.enter.into. three in ten chS eleventh-graders are ready for college-level work credit-bearing.coursework.in.college.helps.to.assess.the.cur- in English. rent.levels.of.preparation.students.are.receiving.at.CHS..The. 100 17 Early.Assessment.Program.(EAP).provides.eleventh-graders. 28 29 80 with.an.opportunity.to.pinpoint.their.level.of.preparation.for. college-level.coursework.and.to.take.steps.to.improve.their. 60 Percent skills.before.enrolling.in.college. 40 83 71 69 EAP.results.show.that.too.few.CHS.students.are.prepared. 20 for.college-level.English..In.2008-09,.only.one.quarter.of.all. eleventh-graders.were.deemed.ready.for.college-level.work.. 0 Total Latino White Further,.a.significant.gap.in.performance.emerges.between. Ready Not Ready the.results.of.white.students.and.Latino.students,.the.two. largest.student.groups..While.only.29.percent.of.white.stu- Source: California State University Early Assessment Program dents.achieved.readiness,.Latino.students.are.meeting.this. benchmark.at.even.lower.rates,.with.only.17.percent.deemed. Figure 7: 2009 Eap total math results. only one in five chS ready.(see Figure 6). students is ready for college-level work in the eleventh grade, with The.results.of.the.EAP.Math.tests.for.Algebra.2.and.Sum- significant differences in readiness between student groups. mative.Math.(for.students.enrolled.in.a.math.course.higher. 100 13 than.Algebra.2.during.eleventh.grade).show.that.few.CHS. 20 80 43 students.are.prepared.for.college-level.mathematics..Overall,. 59 45 less.than.half.(43.percent).of.the.students.tested.achieved. 60 41 Percent readiness.(see Figure 7). 18 40 . Examination.of.the.participation.rates.for.the.two. 28 math.tests.demonstrates.that.not.all.students.are.eligible.to. 20 38 40 39 complete.the.EAP,.based.upon.their.eleventh.grade.math. 13 0 enrollment..As.Figure 8.demonstrates,.African.American.and. Total Latino Asian White Latino.students.are.underrepresented.in.both.exams,.with.a. Ready Ready-Conditional Not Ready particularly.low.rate.for.Latino.students.on.the.Summative. Source: California State University Early Assessment Program. Math.exam.. additional Barriers Low Grades:.Across.subject.areas,.low.grades.limit. Figure 8: 2009 Eap math exam participation. african american and students’.ability.to.complete.a.college-preparatory.course.of. latino students are less likely to be eligible to complete the exam in study..The.UC/CSU.A-G.requirements.mandate.a.minimum. eleventh grade. 1 1 grade.of.C.in.all.A-G.courses,.but.district.policies.consider. 100 13 17 D.a.passing.grade.for.credit..A.student.earning.a.D.therefore. 3 80 12 may.satisfy.CUSD.requirements.and.move.on.to.a.higher. level.course.but.fail.to.fulfill.the.UC/CSU.requirements.for. 60 Percent 72 that.course.. 40 70 enGLish-LanGuaGe Learners:.A.disheartening.fact.is. 20 that.English-language.learners.(ELLs).have.the.lowest.rate.of. A-G.completion.of.all.CHS.students;.in.fact,.no.ELL.student. 0 7 4 Algebra 2 (227 students) Summative Math (243 students) was.able.to.complete.the.A-G.requirements..Although.the. percentage.of.ELL.students.in.the.Class.of.2009.is.small,.this. African American Latino Asian White Other is.an.important.group.of.students.with.unique.needs,.and. Source: California State University Early Assessment Program. The educaTion TrusT–wesT | carlSBad | March 2010 ix
    • they.require.additional.support.to.succeed.in.college-prepa- areas.for.students,.and.guide.targeted.and.timely.inter- ratory.courses..To.provide.equitable.opportunities,.school. ventions..Given.the.relatively.small.size.of.the.district,. officials.will.need.to.examine.their.course-taking.patterns.. such.coordinated.efforts.should.be.possible. What’s next: 3.. impLement effeCtive student supports..Some. removing Barriers and improving access students.will.require.more.support.to.succeed.in.the.UC/ The.findings.of.the.Educational.Opportunity.Audit.(EOA). CSU.A-G.course.sequence..These.supports.may.include. serve.as.a.baseline.for.developing.the.“Blueprint.for.Imple- shadow.classes,.targeted.use.of.zero.and.seventh-period. mentation.of.the.College-Ready.and.Career-Ready.Curricu- courses,.and.formal.tutoring.led.by.credentialed.teach- lum”.for.all.students..The.blueprint.is.the.action.plan.that. ers..Current.tutoring.is.anecdotally.successful,.and.could. will.detail.the.steps.necessary.to.transform.current.course- be.more.effective.with.strategically.selected.teachers.with. taking.patterns.so.that.all.students.can.enroll.in.the.full. track.records.of.improving.student.achievement..Equally. complement.of.A-G.courses. important.to.offering.such.supports.is.the.need.to.moni- As.CUSD.enters.this.next.critical.phase,.district.leaders. tor.and.evaluate.such.programs.for.their.effectiveness. will.need.to.undertake.and.address.eight.key.priorities. and.impact.on.student.achievement. 1.. ChanGe Cusd Graduation rates to aLiGn 4.. provide teaChers and CounseLors with sus- with the uC/Csu a-G Course sequenCe..Of.all. tained and meaninGfuL professionaL deveL- the.chokepoints.and.barriers.to.college.and.career.readi- opment..Teachers.agree.that.instructional.rigor.must. ness,.the.most.salient.is.the.gap.between.the.courses. remain.a.districtwide.commitment.at.the.elementary. CUSD.requires.for.graduation.and.the.courses.required. and.secondary.levels..Indeed,.as.CUSD.institutes.a.more. for.admission.to.California’s.two.public.university. rigorous.high.school.curriculum,.teacher.support.will.be. systems..Research.and.the.experience.of.high-performing. essential..Teachers.should.have.input.in.selecting.high- schools.across.the.state.confirm.that.student.perfor- quality.professional.development..In.addition,.coun- mance.will.conform.to.the.level.of.adult.expectations.. selors.must.be.included.in.high.school.reform.efforts. To.prepare.all.students.for.college.and.a.career,.CUSD. and.provided.with.relevant,.differentiated.professional. leaders.must.require.rigorous.coursework.for.all.students. development.that.allows.them.to.offer.students.high- and.improve.access.to.these.courses.for.all.students..As. quality.counseling.services..The.district’s.professional. part.of.this.alignment,.courses.which.are.not.UCOP- development.plan.must.be.monitored.for.its.effective- approved,.such.as.Oceans.and.Senior.English,.must. ness.in.improving.student.achievement.. either.be.eliminated.or.re-designed.to.be.approved.as. college.preparatory. 5.. improve the eLL instruCtionaL proGram..ELL. students.currently.are.not.completing.the.UC/CSU.A-G. 2.. deveLop earLy warninG systems to identify course.sequence..This.is.due.in.part.to.lack.of.“sheltered”. struGGLinG students as soon as possibLe.. course.offerings,.which.would.provide.students.with. The.initiative.to.prepare.all.students.for.college.and. rigorous.coursework.in.their.native.language..CUSD. a.career.cannot.succeed.as.a.uniquely.high.school. leaders.must.analyze.the.instructional.program.for.ELLs. endeavor..Educators.from.preschool.through.eighth. to.accelerate.their.progress.in.pursuing.a.college.and. grade.must.also.raise.their.expectations.and.the.rigor. career-preparatory.curriculum..While.the.small.popu- of.their.assignments,.and.CUSD.leaders.must.develop. lation.of.ELL.students.at.CHS.may.limit.the.ability.to. systems.to.identify.struggling.students.before.they.reach. offer.sheltered.courses.in.all.subject.areas,.adding.some. high.school..This.may.entail.improved.and.systemic. additional.sheltered.courses.for.these.students.will.still. articulation.between.middle.and.high.school.teachers,. prove.beneficial. increased.communication,.and.additional.opportunities. for.professional.development..Utilizing.results.from.for- 6.. deveLop an effeCtive Community outreaCh mative.assessments.and.CSTs.will.help.identify.problem. strateGy..CUSD.families.want.students.to.leave.high. x The educaTion TrusT–wesT | carlSBad | March 2010
    • school.prepared.for.college.and.a.career..They.also. believe.that.all.students.should.follow.the.UC/CSU.A-G. course.sequence.to.make.this.a.reality..CUSD.lead- ers.must.improve.communication.with.families.and. community.organizations,.particularly.regarding.the. details.and.importance.of.the.A-G.course.sequence..This. outreach.should.involve.the.community.early.in.the.pro- cess.of.developing.any.new.policy.and.provide.critical. information.in.Spanish.and.other.languages. 7.. prioritize resourCes that enabLe reform.. California.is.experiencing.an.unprecedented.fiscal.crisis,. and.the.state.has.asked.schools.and.districts.to.bear.an. especially.large.proportion.of.the.budget.shortfall..Thus,. districts.must.be.particularly.thoughtful.about.resource. allocation,.investing.in.the.reform.efforts.that.maximize. benefits.for.students..Streamlining.processes,.eliminat- ing.ineffective.programs,.and.committing.stimulus.funds. to.the.goal.of.a.college.and.career-ready.curriculum.for. all.students.will.allow.the.district.to.continue.its.reform. efforts.even.in.the.face.of.financial.hardship..Effective. reform.will.cost.plenty,.but.delay.will.prove.even.more. costly. The educaTion TrusT–wesT | carlSBad | March 2010 xi
    • xii The educaTion TrusT–wesT | carlSBad | March 2010
    • the carlsbad Educational opportunity audit (Eoa) i. collEGE and carEEr-rEady curriculum: rationalE and rElEvancE The.tide.of.education.reform.continues.to.gather.strength,. increased.their.proportion.of.college-educated.workers.and. as.President.Barack.Obama.calls.for.higher.achievement. are.projected.to.employ.greater.numbers.of.workers.with. for.all.students.and.closing.persistent.achievement.gaps.. bachelor’s.degrees.3.Even.jobs.once.thought.of.as.“nonaca- Although.these.are.difficult.goals.to.accomplish,.achieving. demic”.demand.a.rigorous.academic.foundation..Automo- them.is.crucial—and.possible..Across.the.educational.land- tive.technicians,.plumbers,.manufacturers,.and.the.building. scape,.the.conditions.are.ripe.for.change. trades.require.“college.track”.levels.of.physics.and.mathemat- The.unparalleled.federal.investment.in.education.reform. ical.ability,.not.to.mention.strong.English.literacy.4. through.the.Race.to.the.Top.grants.has.provided.unprec- The.economy.has.changed,.and.schools.must.change. edented.opportunities.for.major.changes.to.education.policy. accordingly..All.students.must.have.access.to.a.rigorous,. and.the.practice.of.educating.students..The.Department. high-level.curriculum.and.develop.the.knowledge,.critical. of.Education’s.determination.to.harness.the.possibility.of. thinking,.and.problem-solving.skills.that.are.essential.both. such.a.climate.signals.a.federal.commitment.to.providing. to.postsecondary.work.and.to.a.living-wage.career. schools.with.the.resources.necessary.to.improve.both.policy. Translating.these.principles.into.standards.and.tangible. and.practice.in.education..Additionally,.educators.across. academic.programs.may.be.a.demanding.process,.but.it.is.far. the.nation.now.recognize.that.with.the.reauthorization.of. from.impossible..California.is.not.alone,.and.the.state.can. Elementary.and.Secondary.Education.Act.drawing.closer,. look.to.other.states.for.guidance..In.January.2008,.Califor- the.goal.of.raising.student.achievement,.particularly.in.high. nia.joined.35.states.that.have.signed.on.to.the.American. schools.the.distinction.between.a.student.being.“college. Diploma.Project.(ADP),.an.initiative.aligning.high.school. ready”.and.“work.ready”.no.longer.is.irrelevant..Today,.every. standards.with.the.demands.of.college.and.careers..In.so. young.person.must.possess.the.knowledge.and.problem- doing,.California’s.education.community—including.the. solving.capabilities.that.once.were.expected.only.of.a.select. governor’s.office,.the.California.Department.of.Education,. few..Thus,.it.no.longer.is.acceptable.to.prepare.some.young. business.leaders,.the.two.state.university.systems,.and.a.coali- people.for.college.and.others.for.careers..In.today’s.world,.all. tion.of.community.colleges—pledged.to.work.together.to. students.need.the.same.preparation.1 raise.the.value.of.a.high.school.diploma..This.multiyear.pro- Nationally,.President.Obama’s.American.Graduation. cess.entails.increasing.curricular.rigor,.improving.the.quality. Initiative.seeks.to.bring.America.back.to.international. of.assessments,.and.aligning.the.expectations.of.high.school. preeminence.by.2020.in.the.proportion.of.college.gradu- with.expectations.for.college.and.career.readiness. ates..In.introducing.this.initiative,.the.president.said.the. The.UC/CSU.A-G.course.requirements.contain.the.rigor. shifting.labor.market.in.the.United.States.requires.workers. high.school.students.need..These.requirements.represent. to.have.higher.levels.of.analytical.and.collaborative.skills.2. both.an.ambitious.target.and.a.navigable.path.to.raise. These.skills.are.precisely.what.students.must.develop.in.high. expectations.and.outcomes.for.all.California.students..For. school.to.help.move.the.country.toward.this.laudable.goal. California.to.remain.economically.competitive,.this.college- In.California,.the.fastest.growing.sectors.employing.the. prep.course.sequence—which.only.34.percent.of.students. most.workers—health.care,.social.services,.computer.science,. statewide.successfully.completed.in.2008—must.become.the. and.education—hire.substantial.percentages.of.employees. default.curriculum.and.minimum.graduation.requirement. with.college.degrees..Other.sectors,.such.as.business,.arts.and. for.all.high.school.students..Across.the.state,.visionary.district. design,.personal.care,.and.transportation.have.dramatically. leaders.have.begun.to.take.the.steps.necessary.to.make.the. The educaTion TrusT–wesT | carlSBad | March 2010 1
    • UC/CSU.A-G.course.sequence.available.to.all.students. ii. carlSBad uniFiEd School diStrict’S California.faces.a.daunting.array.of.challenges..Clearly,. commitmEnt to rEForm: thE road to a.highly.educated,.highly.skilled.workface.remains.central. riGor to.our.ability.to.grow.our.economy.and.our.standing.on. In.an.effort.to.become.a.truly.world-class.school.district,. the.world.stage..It.is.therefore.inexplicable.that.we.are.still. Carlsbad.Unified.School.District.has.been.working.diligently. debating.whether.to.teach.our.children.to.the.highest.levels. to.improve.educational.outcomes.for.all.students..As.a.key. of.academic.rigor..Now.that.we.have.adopted.exacting.state. step.in.bringing.this.ambitious.goal.to.fruition,.CUSD’s. standards,.we.must.elevate.high.school.graduation.require- superintendent.and.school.board.in.fall.2008.asked.ETW.to. ments.to.ensure.that.all.California.students.graduate.ready. analyze.the.educational.experiences.of.CUSD.students.. for.college.and.a.career. The.school.board.affirmed.its.belief.that.all.students. should.be.prepared.for.college.and.a.career.by.passing. Resolution.#50-0809.on.May.13,.2009.(see.Appendix.A).. This.resolution.aimed.to.create.educational.equity.and.help. prepare.all.Carlsbad.graduates.for.success.in.college.and.a. career..With.this.commitment,.CUSD.is.leading.the.charge. for.equitable.access.and.success.for.California’s.most.histori- cally.underserved.students. progress One.way.to.measure.the.district’s.progress.thus.far.is.to. examine.current.expectations.for.students.to.graduate.from. high.school..How.do.current.CUSD.graduation.requirements. compare.with.college.admissions.requirements?.CUSD. requires.students.to.earn.240.credits.(with.credit.require- ments.in.each.subject.area),.pass.the.California.High.School. Exit.Exam.(CAHSEE),.pass.Algebra.I.and.geometry,.complete. at.least.20.hours.of.community.service,.and.maintain.a. grade-point.average.of.1.50.or.higher.. Currently,.CUSD.graduation.requirements.do.not.align.with. the.UC/CSU.A-G.course.requirements..This.means.that.not.all. Carlsbad.High.School.students.graduate.with.a.diploma.prepar- ing.them.for.college.and.career.success..Table 1.demonstrates. that.students.can.fulfill.CUSD.graduation.requirements.and. meet.many,.but.not.all,.of.the.15.A-G.course.requirements.. The.changes.necessary.to.align.the.CUSD.graduation.require- ments.with.the.UC/CSU.sequence.are.fairly.minimal..Students. graduating.from.CUSD.must.complete.three.years.of.mathemat- ics.through.geometry;.to.meet.UC/CSU.eligibility,.students. must.take.Algebra.II..Carlsbad.currently.requires.two.years.of. science,.one.biological.and.one.physical;.for.UC/CSU.eligibility,. students.would.need.to.complete.these.two.lab-science.credits. through.classes.approved.by.the.UCOP.as.college.preparatory.. Additionally,.CUSD.students.have.the.option.of.completing. either.one.year.of.a.world.language.or.one.year.of.a.fine-arts. course..To.meet.UC/CSU.eligibility,.students.would.need.to. complete.both.one.year.of.a.visual.and.performing-arts.course. 2 The educaTion TrusT–wesT | carlSBad | March 2010
    • table 1: cuSd Graduation requirements, uc/cSu a-G course requirements, and Suggested changes for alignment and.two.years.of.the.same.world.language.course.(see Table 1).. Changes to Align CUsD Gradu- 2009 CUsD Graduation UC/sCU A-G subject Area ation Requirements with A-G Requirements Requirements requirements a. Social Studies World History/ College-Prep World Social Studies 30 credits Geography ......10 credits . History/Cultures/Geo- (no changes) graphy ............10 credits . US History .......10 credits College-Prep U.S. History/ US Government / Government ....10 credits Economics ......10 credits b. English Language Arts English ............40 credits College-Prep English/ English ............40 credits Language Arts 0 credits 4 (no changes) c. Mathematics Mathematics College-Prep Elementary Math ...............30 credits . (including Algebra Algebra ...........10 credits (including Algebra I, Geometry, I & through at least and Algebra II) College-Prep Geometry) ......30 credits Geometry .......10 credits . College-Prep Intermediate Algebra II ........10 credits d. Sciences Science (including College-Prep Biology Science ............20 credits biology and a physical or Chemistry (College-Prep lab sciences) science) ..........20 credits . or Physics .......20 credits e. World Language World language Same World (or American Sign College-Prep World Language .......20 credits . Language) Language .......20 credits . (10 additional credits) OR Visual/Performing Arts .................10 credits . f. Visual Performing Arts Visual/Performing College-Prep Visual/Performing Arts .................. 0 credits . Visual Performing Arts .................10 credits . Arts .................10 credits . (required) g. Electives Electives .........90 credits . College-Prep Electives .........70 credits . Elective ...........10 credits h. Physical Education Physical None Physical Education .......20 credits . Education .......40 credits . (beginning Class of 2011) i. Required Testing Passing the CAHSEE SAT reasoning or ACT Passing the CAHSEE with writing and SAT Subject exam j. Other 20 hours community 20 hours community service service Total 240 credits 150 credits 240 credits Source: Ed Trust–West Analysis of CUSD graduation requirements. The educaTion TrusT–wesT | carlSBad | March 2010 3
    • iii. audit componEnt #1: ExamininG StudEnt Figure 1: carlsbad unified School district & carlsbad high School pErFormancE trEndS 2008-09 enrollment by ethnicity. cuSd serves a diverse student ETW.examined.publicly.available.student-achievement. population. data.to.uncover.trends.within.the.district..The.goal.was.to. 100 determine.whether.students.graduate.in.four.years.with.a. 80 meaningful.high.school.diploma,.prepared.for.college.and. 64 60 career..ETW.analyzed.enrollment.and.student.achievement. 60 Percent data,.focusing.on.the.California.Standards.Tests.(CSTs),.Aca- 40 demic.Performance.Index.(API),.UC/CSU.A-G.requirement. 23 21 20 completion.rates,.Advanced.Placement.(AP).exams.results,. 6 9 5 8 2 2 Early.Assessment.Program.(EAP).results,.and.graduation.and. 0 CUSD CHS dropout.rates..Finally,.ETW.disaggregated.all.data.to.deter- African American Latino Asian White Other mine.the.achievement.levels.of.significant.student.subgroups. The.trends.and.patterns.uncovered.during.the.data.analy- Source: California Department of Education. sis.deepened.ETW’s.understanding.of.students’.educational. experiences..ETW.was.able.to.observe.growth.in.student. Figure 2: on the rise over the past six years, Growth apis for achievement.and.learn.whether.achievement.gaps.narrowed. carlsbad unified and carlsbad high School top statewide averages. or.widened.during.the.period.studied..As.schools.become. 900 100 858 increasingly.accountable.for.the.academic.achievement.of. 828 831 846 810 819 all.students,.school.and.district.leaders.similarly.can.use. 800 80 806 813 770 768 775 775 student-performance.data.to.find.out.which.subgroups.are. 700 60 713 702 Percent doing.well.and.which.need.more.support. 600 40 Findings of Student performance trends 500 20 enrollment 0 400 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 Disaggregating.student-achievement.data.by.ethnicity. Carlsbad High CUSD CA (9-11) provides.insight.into.the.achievement.levels.of.all.significant. Source: California Department of Education. subgroups..Figure 1.shows.the.ethnic.composition.of.both. CUSD.and.CHS.for.the.2008-09.school.year..Two.other. significant.subgroups.for.CUSD.include.special.education. students.(10.percent.of.enrollment).and.English-language. learners.(9.percent)..Enrollment.at.Carlsbad.High.School. Figure 3: Five-year Growth api trends by ethnic group - the gap resembles.that.of.the.district.as.a.whole,.with.slightly.more. between latino and white students remains apparent, in spite of white.students.and.fewer.Asian.students..Special.education. fairly steady growth by both student groups. students.represent.10.percent.of.the.CHS.enrollment,.and. 900 100 830 834 approximately.5.percent.of.the.high.school.students.are. 794 801 801 800 80 English-language.learners. 714 725 700 60 684 678 CUSD’s.dropout.rate.of.less.than.1.percent.compares. 673 Percent favorably.with.California’s.5.percent.rate.. 600 40 student achievement—state accountability 500 20 California.uses.the.Academic.Performance.Index.(API).to. 0 400 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 measure.the.academic.performance.and.growth.of.schools. Latino White on.a.variety.of.measures..The.major.components.of.this. accountability.model.include.the.California.Standards.Tests. Source: California Department of Education. 4 The educaTion TrusT–wesT | carlSBad | March 2010
    • Figure 4: api Growth for student subgroups compared with chS – (CSTs).and.the.California.High.School.Exit.Exam.(CAHSEE).. English- language learners, poor students, and special education CUSD’s.2009.growth.API.is.858..Carlsbad.High.School’s. students continue struggling to achieve at high levels equal to Growth.API.is.813..This.score.is.significantly.higher.than.the. their peers. state.API.for.grades.9.through.11.(see Figure 2). 900 100 While.Carlsbad.High.School’s.overall.Growth.API.is. 806 813 800 80 768 775 775 above.the.state.average,.disaggregating.the.data.by.significant. 712 704 subgroups.shows.large.gaps.in.performance.between.stu- 700 60 Percent 637 653 638 640 627 dent.groups..In.particular,.the.gap.between.Latino.and.white. 644 600 40 620 students.is.cause.for.some.concern..The.Growth.API.for.both. 569 568 groups.has.been.increasing.over.time,.and.though.the.gap. 500 20 538 between.the.two.groups.has.diminished.over.the.past.five. 0 400 years,.it.has.closed.by.a.total.of.12.points.(see Figure 3).. 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 English-language Learners Economically Disadvantaged Another.concern.at.CHS.is.the.recent.drop.in.API.growth. Carlsbad High Special Education for.English-language.learners.and.low-income.students.(see Source: California Department of Education. Figure 4)..While.economically.disadvantaged.students.have. seen.an.improvement.in.their.API.growth.scores.over.the.past. several.years,.existing.gaps.are.troubling.in.any.form,.but. Figure 5: 2009 cSt Ela results - approximately seven out of ten ninth-grade students achieve proficiency in English language arts, growing.or.remaining.gaps.demonstrate.the.school’s.need.to. with slightly smaller rates of tenth and eleventh graders reaching focus.on.providing.high-quality.education.for.all.students,. Ela proficiency. with.particular.focus.on.historically.underserved.groups. 100 72 california standards Tests (csTs) 80 63 The.CSTs.administered.in.spring.of.each.school.year.to. 60 68 Percent students.in.grades.2-11.measure.student.proficiency.on.state. 40 standards..All.students.take.tests.in.English.language.arts. 21 21 (ELA).and.mathematics..In.addition,.schools.administer.tests. 20 18 in.science.and.social.studies..Figures.5-11.survey.the.perfor- 9 12 16 0 mance.of.Carlsbad.High.School.students.on.the.ELA.and.math. 9th 10th 11th portions.of.the.CST..Figure 5.shows.that.in.ninth.grade.almost. Proficient/Advanced Basic Below Basic/Far Below Basic three-quarters.of.CHS.students.scored.proficient.or.higher.in. Source: California Department of Education. ELA..For.tenth.and.eleventh-grade.students,.this.rate.drops. slightly,.by.four.and.nine.percentage.points,.respectively.. The.proficiency.rates.for.CHS.students.are.much.higher. Figure 6: carlsbad high School 2009 cSt Ela proficiency levels by than.those.of.California.overall..Indeed,.only.half.of.the. subgroup – latino students achieve proficiency at lower rates than state’s.ninth-graders.and.only.35.percent.of.eleventh-graders. white students by large margins. reached.that.proficiency.benchmark.. 100 Although.these.comparisons.show.how.well.CHS.is.prepar- 80 80 76 ing.some.students.for.state.assessments,.further.examination. 66 of.the.data.suggests.that.much.work.remains.to.promote.high. 60 Percent 48 51 achievement.for.all.students..Disaggregating.the.ELA.results.by. 40 41 significant.subgroup.demonstrates.a.clear.achievement.gap.at. 20 CHS..The.gap.between.Latino.students,.on.the.one.hand,.and. white.and.Asian.students,.on.the.other,.is.large..Gaps.among. 0 9th 10th 11th ninth-grade.students.are.particularly.troubling,.with.fewer. than.half.of.Latino.students.reaching.proficiency,.compared. Latino White with.80.percent.of.white.students.(see Figure 6). Source: California Department of Education. The educaTion TrusT–wesT | carlSBad | March 2010 5
    • Figure 7: carlsbad high School 2008-09 cSt algebra 1 results – chS Figure 9: cuSd 8th Grade algebra 1 cSt results 2005-09 – ninth graders perform higher than the state average, but still have proficiency rates have remained high, as more students enroll in much progress toward total proficiency. algebra in middle school. 100 6 100 8 36 19 80 21 80 51 64 73 60 60 Percent Percent 84 89 40 75 40 72 40 30 20 20 31 24 25 13 18 19 1 1 3 5 0 0 9th 10th 11th 2005 (287/824) 2006 (276/838) 2007 (323/914) 2008 (455/1,030) 2009 (652/1,188) Proficient/Advanced Basic Below Basic/Far Below Basic Proficient/Advanced Basic Below Basic/Far Below Basic Source: California Department of Education. Source: California Department of Education. CST.results.in.math.demonstrate.again.that.CHS.ninth- graders.are.surpassing.the.state.average,.which.stands.at.21. percent.proficiency..The.data.from.Figure 7.shows.that.profi- ciency.rates.for.tenth.and.eleventh-graders.are.much.lower.. Figure 10: carlsbad high School 2009 cSt algebra 2 results – Importantly,.a.large.percentage.of.students.complete.Alge- virtually all ninth grade students tested demonstrated proficiency. bra.1.in.the.eighth.grade..In.the.past.four.years,.the.percent- 100 13 age.of.eighth-grade.students.completing.the.Algebra.1.CST. 80 test.overall.in.California.has.remained.fairly.steady..At.the. 60 37 same.time,.CUSD.has.increased.eighth-grade.participation.by. 60 Percent 97 22.percentage.points.(see Figure 8).. 40 CHS.students,.particularly.ninth-graders,.demonstrated. 29 62 high.rates.of.proficiency.in.Algebra.2.(see Figure 10)..This.is. 20 impressive,.as.students.who.complete.Algebra.2.are.more. 0 3 12 likely.to.be.eligible.for.college.admission.. 9th 10th 11th However,.a.large.gap.remains.between.the.proficiency. Proficient/Advanced Basic Below Basic/Far Below Basic rates.in.math.of.Latino.students.as.compared.to.white.stu- Source: California Department of Education. dents.(see Figure 11)..Further,.far.fewer.Latino.students.are. enrolling.in.Algebra.2.compared.to.their.white.peers. Figure 8: cSt algebra 1 test-takers: cuSd has significantly increased Figure 11: 2009 cSt algebra 2 proficiency rates by student group. its 8th grade students completing algebra 1. asian and white students are taking higher level math courses 60 earlier than latino students. 55 100 95 94 100 50 44 80 40 80 35 35 60 33 33 33 32 60 56 Percent 30 60 Percent 40 20 40 20 13 10 20 9 0 0 9th 10th 11th 2006 2007 2008 2009 Latino* Asian* White CUSD CA * Some data not available for this student group Source: California Department of Education. Source: California Department of Education. 6 The educaTion TrusT–wesT | carlSBad | March 2010
    • advanced placement (ap) tests Figure 12: ap test passage rates. chS has increased both the total AP.courses.provide.high.school.students.with.an.opportu- number of students taking ap tests and the number passing with a nity.to.pursue.a.more.rigorous.course.of.study..CHS.provides. score of 3 or higher. a.large.number.of.AP.courses.to.students,.to.better.prepare. 1200 1,132 them.for.college-level.work..Over.the.past.four.years,.CHS. 1000 100 50 has.increased.not.only.the.amount.of.students.enrolling.in. 846 880 791 AP.Courses.and.taking.the.corresponding.test.by.over.sixty. 800 40 80 688 630 650 percent,.but.also.the.amount.of.students.passing.the.tests. 600 30 60 565 Percent with.a.score.of.3.or.higher.by.over.fifty.percent.(see Figure 400 20 40 12)..Disaggregated.enrollment.data.is.unavailable.for.AP. tests..ETW.transcript.analysis.did.uncover.some.differences.in. 200 10 20 enrollment.between.student.subgroups.(see.Audit.Compo- 0 nent.#2)..As.CHS.moves.toward.a.college.and.career.prepara- 2005 2006 2007 2008 (367 students) (428 students) (475 students) (587 students) tory.curriculum.for.all.students,.opening.enrollment.to.AP. Tests Taken Tests Passed courses.to.all.students.will.serve.to.increase.these.participa- Source: California Department of Education. tion.rates.at.even.higher.rates. Graduation rates Figure 13: cuSd Graduation rates, 2003-2008: carlsbad students Accurate.graduation.rates.are.unavailable.because.Califor- graduate a rate significantly higher than the state average. nia.currently.lacks.a.statewide.longitudinal.data.system..Until. 100 93 93 97 93 90 this.is.an.option,.the.state.calculates.graduation.rates.using. 80 85 85 83 data.from.the.National.Center.for.Education.Statistics..As.Fig- 81 80 ure 13.shows,.CUSD’s.gradation.rate.is.almost.ten.percentage. 60 Percent points.higher.than.California’s.. 40 In.addition.to.examining.the.district’s.graduation.rates,. ETW.reviewed.the.data.to.determine.how.many.graduates. 20 meet.the.more.rigorous.UC/CSU.A-G.requirements..Students. 0 who.meet.these.requirements.emerge.from.school.prepared. 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 CUSD California for.college.and.a.career..Understanding.these.completion. rates.helps.illuminate.the.level.of.preparation.provided.to. Source: California Department of Education. some.Carlsbad.students.and.flags.areas.for.improvement.. The.A-G.graduation.rates.have.remained.fairly.steady.in. Figure 14: a-G graduation rates for chS and california - college and CUSD.over.the.past.five.years,.with.more.than.half.of.all.high. career readiness for carlsbad high School graduates occurs at a school.graduates.meeting.this.advanced.preparation.bench- much higher rate. mark.(see Figure 14)..This.stands.in.stark.contrast.to.the.state. 100 average.of.37.percent.in.2008..Despite.Carlsbad’s.impressive. 80 A-G.participation,.much.progress.remains.to.achieve.the. goal.of.college.and.career.readiness.for.all.the.district’s.high. 60 55 59 56 58 Percent school.graduates. 39 40 39 40 38 38 26 20 0 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 CHS California Source: California Department of Education. The educaTion TrusT–wesT | carlSBad | March 2010 7
    • ETW.also.examined.college-readiness.graduation.rates. Figure 15: class of 2009 a-G graduation rates by student subgroup. by.ethnicity..Figure 15.demonstrates.that.though.Carlsbad.is. Significant gaps exist between latino students and their white peers. achieving.higher.rates.of.college.readiness.than.many.other. 100 schools.and.districts.in.California,.gaps.still.exist.between. 80 student.groups,.particularly.between.Latinos.and.whites..The. 61 63 63 60 gap.between.these.two.groups.almost.exactly.mirrors.the.gap. 60 Percent between.CHS.as.a.whole.and.California..The.A-G.graduation. 39 41 41 40 35 rate.in.2008-09,.as.reported.to.the.California.Department. 29 of.Education.(CDE),.was.incorrect.because.of.a.data-tagging. 20 14 issue.within.CUSD’s.student.information.system..This. 0 miscalculation.was.discovered.and.investigated..While.the. 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 number.could.not.be.resubmitted.to.CDE,.CUSD.internally. Latino White reports.that.52.9.percent.of.all.CHS.graduates.met.the.full. Source: California Department of Education. A-G.course.sequence.upon.graduation. Early assessment program To.help.high.schools.better.assess.the.current.level.of. preparation.of.eleventh-graders,.the.CSU.system,.the.Califor- nia.Department.of.Education,.and.the.California.State.Board. of.Education.have.created.an.Early.Assessment.Program. (EAP)..The.EAP.provides.eleventh-graders.with.an.opportu- nity.to.pinpoint.their.level.of.preparation.for.college-level. coursework.and.to.take.steps.to.improve.their.skills.before. enrolling.in.college. Based.upon.their.EAP.English.language.arts.and.math. results,.eleventh-graders.considered.ready.for.college-level. work.will.be.exempt.from.taking.any.additional.CSU.place- ment.tests..And.upon.entering.the.CSU.system,.they.will.be. able.to.enroll.in.credit-bearing.college.courses..Students.who. score.“Ready.for.College:.Conditional”.in.the.EAP.Math.sec- tion.are.deemed.provisionally.ready.for.college-level.math. courses,.provided.they.take.another.higher.level.math.course. during.their.senior.year..This.will.ensure.that.they.gain.the. skills.they.will.need.to.succeed.in.credit-bearing.work.in.col- lege,.and.will.still.have.to.take.the.placement.test.upon.enter- ing.a.CSU..Finally,.those.who.are.considered.“Not.Ready”. will.have.their.senior.year.to.improve.their.skills.and.pass.the. placement.tests.. Students.who.are.unable.to.improve.their.skills.suffi- ciently.before.graduation.will.have.to.complete.non-credit- bearing.remedial.courses.upon.entering.the.CSU.system.. Such.coursework.can.pose.a.problem.for.students;.those.who. do.not.enroll.in.credit-bearing.work.upon.matriculation.typi- cally.struggle.to.complete.their.degree.in.a.timely.fashion. Few.CHS.students.are.prepared.for.college-level.English.. In.2008-09,.only.one.quarter.of.all.eleventh-graders.were. 8 The educaTion TrusT–wesT | carlSBad | March 2010
    • deemed.ready.for.college-level.work..Further,.a.significant. Figure 16: 2009 Eap Ela results – less than 3 in 10 of all carlsbad gap.in.performance.emerges.between.the.results.of.white. high School 11th graders are ready for college-level work in English. students.and.Latino.students,.the.two.largest.student.groups.. the chS class of 2009 performed slightly better. While.only.29.percent.of.white.students.achieved.readiness,. 100 17 Latino.students.are.meeting.this.benchmark.at.even.lower. 28 29 32 80 rates,.with.only.17.percent.deemed.ready..The.CHS.Class. of.2009.performed.slightly.better.overall,.with.32.percent. 60 Percent of.students.reaching.readiness.in.English-language.arts.(see 40 83 69 67 71 Figure 16). 20 The.results.of.the.EAP.Algebra.2.test.tell.a.similar.story.. Overall,.only.5.percent.of.the.students.tested.are.ready.for. 0 Total Latino White Class of 2009 college-level.work..As.Algebra.2.is.the.minimum.mathemat- (683 students) (132 students) (461 students) (682 students) ics.requirement.for.admission.to.the.UC/CSU,.such.low.rates. Ready Not Ready of.math.readiness.by.all.students.who.completed.the.test. Source: California State University Early Assessment Program. raises.concerns.about.current.levels.of.preparation. For.those.students.who.have.completed.a.math.course. higher.than.Algebra.2.by.the.eleventh.grade,.the.EAP.offers.a. Figure 17: 2009 Eap math exam participation. african american and Summative.math.test..Students.who.completed.this.assess- latino students are less likely to be eligible to complete the exam in ment.did.meet.the.readiness.standard.at.a.higher.rate.than. eleventh grade. those.who.tested.in.Algebra.2,.with.36.percent.of.students. 100 1 1 13 overall.achieving.readiness..There.is.a.noticeable.gap.between. 17 80 3 12 Latino.and.white.students,.however,.with.23.percent.of. Latino.students.meeting.readiness.compared.to.32.percent.of. 60 Percent white.students..Also.important.to.note,.is.that.participation. 72 70 40 for.the.Summative.test.is.not.representative.of.the.overall. student.population,.with.Latino.students.representing.only. 20 thirteen.percent.of.those.tested,.and.white.and.Asian.stu- 7 4 0 dents.representing.seventy.and.twelve.percent,.respectively.. Algebra 2 (227 students) Summative Math (243 students) Further.examination.of.the.participation.rates.for.the.two. African American Latino Asian White Other math.tests.demonstrates.that.not.all.students.are.eligible.to. Source: California State University Early Assessment Program. complete.the.EAP,.based.upon.their.eleventh.grade.math. enrollment..As.Figure 17.demonstrates,.African.American.and. Latino.students.are.underrepresented.in.both.exams,.with.a. particularly.low.rate.for.Latino.students.on.the.Summative. Figure 18: 2009 Early assessment program total math results– only 1 Math.exam.. in 5 carlsbad high students are ready for college level mathematics. Total.math.results.for.the.EAP.show.that.one.in.five.CHS. 100 13 20 18 16 students.achieved.college.readiness.in.math,.which.is.a.slight. 80 improvement.from.the.Class.of.2009’s.results.the.previous. 45 60 41 43 45 year..A.five.percentage.point.gap.exists.between.Latino.stu- Percent dents.and.their.white.peers.(see Figure 18). 40 20 38 40 39 39 0 Total Latino White Class of 2009 (520 students) (79 students) (370 students) (496 students) Ready Ready-Conditional Not Ready Source: California State University Early Assessment Program. The educaTion TrusT–wesT | carlSBad | March 2010 9
    • iv. audit componEnt #2: ExamininG StudEntS’ JournEyS throuGh hiGh School Student.transcripts.can.provide.insight.into.educational. journeys.through.high.school..What.occurs.during.the.jour- ney.can.determine.opportunities.for.future.success..Often,. students.who.find.neither.rigor.nor.relevance.in.high.school. face.limited.choices.after.they.leave..The.challenge.for.educa- tors.is.to.follow.student.progress.throughout.high.school,. provide.them.with.useful.skills.and.knowledge,.and.steer. them.toward.a.path.that.leaves.all.doors.open. To.determine.the.level.and.extent.of.college.and.career. preparation.of.the.2008-09.CHS.graduating.class,.ETW.exam- ined.every.complete.senior.transcript..The.transcript.study. probed.course-taking.patterns.of.students.from.various.back- grounds,.support.and.remediation.for.struggling.students,. and.chokepoints.that.keep.students.from.gaining.access.to. the.full.UC/CSU.A-G.course.sequence.and.completing.the. sequence.successfully.(with.a.grade.of.C.or.higher). ETW’s.analysis.grouped.the.transcripts.based.on.ethnicity,. special.program.status.(special.education,.English-language. learners,.and.those.eligible.for.free.or.reduced-price.lunch),. and.enrollment.in.the.AvID.program.. data team meeting Following.the.initial.study,.ETW.selected.a.random.sample. of.transcripts.to.review.with.key.district.personnel..A.data. team.of.approximately.30.representatives,.including.district. leaders,.site.administrators,.teachers,.and.counselors,.was. selected.for.the.data.team.meeting.(see.Appendix.B.for.list.of. attendees)..This.team.met.to.review.a.representative.sample. of.transcripts.of.2008-09.seniors.and.to.uncover.barriers.that. prevent.students.from.progressing.through.high.school.so. that.they.are.ready.for.college.and.meaningful.careers. The.team.analyzed.general.course-taking.patterns.as.well. as.specific.gaps.in.subgroup.participation.in.rigorous.course- work..Team.members.also.identified.chokepoints,.unusual. or.illogical.course.sequences,.and.existing.interventions. for.struggling.students..The.knowledge.gleaned.from.the. transcript.study.yielded.thoughtful.conversations.and.a.set.of. recommendations.for.addressing.systemic.barriers.to.success.. The.recommendations.derived.from.this.transcript.analysis. serve.as.the.baseline.for.implementing.a.college.and.career- ready.curriculum.for.all.students. The.Carlsbad.data.team.met.on.December.8,.2009,.to. identify.course-taking.patterns,.chokepoints,.interventions. 10 The educaTion TrusT–wesT | carlSBad | March 2010
    • and.supports,.and.student.access.to.a.rigorous.curriculum..In. Figure 19: carlsbad high School class of 2009 Enrollment by ethnicity – attendance.were.32.district.and.school.staff.members.repre- the diversity of the district is represented within this senting.teachers,.counselors,.administrators,.assorted.district. cohort of students personnel,.and.the.superintendent..ETW.guided.the.discus- 2% sion,.which.resulted.in.recommendations.for.the.district.as.it. 7% moves.toward.a.more.rigorous.education.for.all.high.school. 22% students..The.team’s.findings.were.consistent.with.the.inde- African American Latino pendent.analysis.completed.by.ETW. Asian 4% White Findings of the transcript Study Other In.its.ethnic.diversity,.the.CHS.Class.of.2009.resembles. 66% both.the.entire.school.and.Carlsbad.Unified.School.District. Source: California Department (see Figure 19)..Additionally,.ELL.students.constitute.approxi- of Education. mately.5.percent.of.the.class.and.special.education.students. 10.percent.. college and career readiness curriculum: access and Success access To.determine.students’.success.in.a.full.sequence.of.col- lege.and.career-preparatory.coursework.requires.first.know- ing.the.degree.of.student.access.to.these.courses..The.ETW. transcript.analysis.defines.access.to.a.college.and.career- readiness.curriculum.as.enrollment.in.all.15.courses.needed. for.UC/CSU.eligibility..Overall,.approximately.two-thirds.of. seniors.were.enrolled.in.the.full.15-course.A-G.sequence.. Notably,.ETW.based.its.access.analysis.on.the.coursework. students.completed.on.the.CHS.campus,.either.during.the. regular.year.or.in.summer.school..A.portion.of.students.were. able.to.complete.the.full.UC/CSU.course.sequence.outside. of.the.regular.course.offerings.during.the.school.year.or.sum- mer.school..This.typically.occurred.when.a.student.had.a.full. schedule—perhaps.including.elective.or.Advanced.Placement. courses—that.prevented.him.or.her.from.enrolling.in.a.sec- tion.of.a.world.language.or.arts.class.needed.for.a.complete. A-G.curriculum. Many.students.affected.by.these.scheduling.conflicts.were. able.to.complete.the.necessary.coursework.through.other. means.(typically.by.enrolling.in.one.or.more.courses.at.Palo- mar.or.Mira.Costa.Community.College)..However,.the.need. to.pursue.a.course.through.alternate.means.raises.concern. about.equal.opportunities.for.all.students..Transportation,. extracurricular.commitments.such.as.an.after-school.job,.or. another.factor.beyond.student.control.could.pose.a.barrier.to. A-G.completion.if.a.student.must.take.classes.at.a.commu- The educaTion TrusT–wesT | carlSBad | March 2010 11
    • nity.college.. Figure 20: access to college and career readiness curriculum by Although.a.relatively.small.number.of.students.had.this. ethnicity – Students of color access the full sequence of courses kind.of.scheduling.conflict,.it.sheds.light.on.a.larger.issue. necessary for college admission at significantly lower rates than their white and asian peers. of.access.for.all.students..Taking.a.community.college.class. may.work.well.for.some.students,.but.English-language. 100 learners.or.students.with.other.special.circumstances.may. 80 45 50 require.extra.support.courses.during.the.day..They.also.could. 73 72 60 benefit.from.concurrent.or.summer.enrollment.in.elective.or. Percent other.enrichment.classes.at.the.community.colleges..Yet.such. 40 55 students.may.have.many.reasons.why.they.cannot.satisfy. 50 20 28 college-entrance.requirements.through.concurrent.or.sum- 27 mer.enrollment.at.a.community.college..Indeed,.community. 0 African American Latino Asian White college.can.help.only.students.who.have.the.resources.to. Access No Access enroll,.so.it.is.not.truly.a.safety.net,.but.rather.an.advantage. for.some.students.. Source: Ed Trust–West analysis of Carlsbad High School transcript data. In.addition.to.determining.overall.access.to.the.A-G.cur- riculum,.ETW.disaggregated.access.rates.by.ethnicity..Cur- Figure 21: class of 2009 uc/cSu a-G Eligibility by student subgroup – rently,.not.all.students.have.equal.access.to.the.full.comple- significant gaps in college readiness exist between latino students ment.of.courses.needed.to.meet.UC/CSU.eligibility..Figure and their white peers. 20.shows.white.and.Asian.students.take.the.full.15-course. 100 sequence.at.much.higher.rates.(72.percent.and.73.percent. 80 34 respectively).than.their.Latino.and.African-American.counter- 63 parts.(45.percent.and.50.percent,.respectively. 60 Percent 40 success 66 Along.with.determining.access.to.courses.required.for.college. 20 37 and.a.career,.ETW.calculated.students’.rates.of.success.in.the.full. 0 A-G.course.sequence..Success.means.completing.all.necessary. Latino White coursework.with.a.grade.of.C.or.higher..Overall,.60.percent.of. Success No Success CHS.graduating.seniors.achieved.success.in.the.full.comple- Source: Ed Trust–West analysis of Carlsbad High School transcript data. ment.of.courses.necessary.for.admission.to.the.UC/CSU. The.bad.news.is.that.no.English-language.learners.(ELLs). achieved.UC/CSU.eligibility,.and.only.18.percent.of.special. education.students.did.so..On.the.other.hand,.students. enrolled.in.AvID.achieved.UC/CSU.eligibility.at.a.higher.rate. than.the.overall.student.population,.with.68.percent.success- fully.completing.the.full.A-G.course.sequence. Carlsbad.graduates.complete.the.A-G.sequence.at.sig- nificantly.higher.rates.than.the.state.average..This.is.indeed. something.to.celebrate..However,.it.is.crucial.to.keep.in.mind. the.large.gaps.in.A-G.success.rates.between.groups.of.students.. Tellingly,.Latino.students.fail.to.meet.eligibility.at.virtually.the. same.rate.that.white.students.succeed.(see Figure 21).. chokepoints to Success A.chokepoint.is.any.obstacle.a.student.encounters.in. 12 The educaTion TrusT–wesT | carlSBad | March 2010
    • successfully.completing.the.full.A-G.course.sequence..This. Figure 22: Subject-area chokepoints to college and career readiness could.occur.either.when.a.student.completes.an.A-G.course. for class of 2009 – math, lab Science, English & World language are with.a.grade.lower.than.a.C.or.simply.does.not.enroll.in. the most frequent chokepoints to a-G completion. such.courses.at.all..CHS.students.who.did.not.achieve.full. 100 A-G.success.faced.a.variety.of.chokepoints,.with.some.subject. 80 areas.proving.to.be.more.challenging.than.others..Mathemat- 60 76 71 73 76 ics.was.the.most.frequent.subject.that.became.a.chokepoint,. 83 87 Percent 90 followed.closely.by.laboratory.science,.English,.and.world. 40 language.(see Figure 22)..ELLs.met.similar.chokepoints.and.at. 20 higher.rates,.especially.in.mathematics.(see Figure 23).. 24 29 27 24 17 13 10 Special.education.students.also.met.similar.chokepoints. 0 A B C D E F G at.significantly.higher.rates.than.the.general.student.body.. Social English Mathematics Laboratory World Visual & Elective Science Science Language Performing Arts Notable,.however,.was.the.percentage.of.special.education. Met Not Met students.who.completed.at.least.one.college-prep.level.visual. Source: Ed Trust-West analysis of Carlsbad High School transcript data. and.performing.arts.course.(see Figure 24)..AvID.students. were.slightly.more.likely.to.meet.eligibility.requirements. without.chokepoints. Figure 23: chokepoints to a-G by Subject area for Ell students- core Besides.determining.which.subjects.prevented.students. academic courses present large challenges to college and career from.achieving.success.in.the.A-G.course.sequence,.it.is. readiness. worth.noting.the.percentage.of.students.who.failed.because. 100 15 of.single.or.multiple-subject.chokepoints..Of.the.students. 20 30 80 40 45 who.did.not.succeed,.almost.one-third.faced.difficulty.in. more.than.one.subject..The.remaining.two-thirds.who.were. 60 85 Percent 100 unsuccessful.missed.UC/CSU.eligibility.by.one.subject.and. 85 40 80 sometimes.only.one.course.. 70 60 55 20 Subject chokepoints 0 15 A B C D E F G worLd LanGuaGe:.Transcripts.reveal.that.some.stu- Social English Mathematics Laboratory World Visual & Elective Science Science Language Performing Arts dents.complete.only.one.year.of.a.foreign.language.to.meet. Met Not Met CUSD.graduation.requirements,.but.many.do.not.to.take.a. Source: Ed Trust-West analysis of Carlsbad High School transcript data. second.year.of.the.same.language.to.fulfill.the.UC/CSU.A-G. requirement..In.fact,.some.students.are.unable.to.take.the. second-level.course.during.the.regular.school.day..Based.on. Figure 24: chokepoints to a-G by Subject area for Special education data.from.the.transcripts,.this.was.a.significant.chokepoint. students – Special education students met similar chokepoints to the for.students.who.otherwise.had.met.the.other.A-G.require- overall student population, but at much higher rates. ments..Additionally,.more.than.half.of.the.ELLs.faced.a. 100 21 chokepoint.in.world.language,.despite.having.skills.in.a. 43 30 29 30 80 59 language.other.than.English.. 60 75 Percent Career teChniCaL eduCation:.Career.Technical. 40 79 71 70 70 Education.(CTE).courses.become.a.chokepoint.for.students. 57 41 20 who.need.a.college-prep.elective.course.to.meet.UC/CSU.eli- 25 gibility..Of.the.25.CTE.courses.offered,.only.six.are.approved. 0 A B C D E F G by.the.UCOP..If.additional.courses.were.submitted.for.UCOP. Social English Mathematics Laboratory World Visual & Elective Science Science Language Performing Arts approval,.CHS.students.would.have.more.opportunities.to. Met Not Met prepare.for.college.and.explore.careers. Source: Ed Trust-West analysis of Carlsbad High School transcript data. The educaTion TrusT–wesT | carlSBad | March 2010 13
    • course-taking patterns Figure 25: highest-level math enrollment by ethnicity – latino enGLish:.CUSD.graduation.requirements.include.four. students are significantly less likely to enroll in college and career years.of.English.(as.do.the.UC/CSU.A-G.requirements),. preparatory math courses while attending chS. though.there.is.no.stipulation.that.these.courses.must.be. Latino college.preparatory..All.CHS.students.are.automatically. programmed.into.their.grade-level.English.course;.if.they. earn.an.F.grade,.they.must.make.up.the.course.in.summer. College Prep 43% or Above school..Unfortunately.for.many.students,.D.grades.allow. Below them.to.earn.the.necessary.credits.toward.graduation—but. College Prep 57% not.toward.UC/CSU.eligibility..The.vast.majority.of.students. who.met.a.chokepoint.in.an.English.class.had.low.grades.. For.ELL.students,.however,.chokepoints.were.a.combination. of.low.grades.and.taking.four.years.of.English.that.were.not. all.college.preparatory.. White math:.As.the.most.frequent.chokepoint.for.all.students,. 18% mathematics.bears.additional.analysis,.with.regard.to.place- ment.and.enrollment.patterns,.as.well.as.success.in.higher. College Prep or Above level.math.courses..Most.students.in.the.Class.of.2009.(76. Below College Prep percent).enrolled.in.at.least.Algebra.2.as.their.highest.math. course,.and.most.(55.percent).enrolled.in.at.least.one.course. beyond.Algebra.2.as.their.highest.math.course..Completing. at.least.Algebra.2.meets.the.UC/CSU.math.requirement.and. 82% provides.students.with.the.analytical.and.critical.thinking.for. Source: Ed Trust–West analysis of Carlsbad High School transcript data. future.endeavors.. Beneath.these.figures,.however,.lies.an.alarming.disparity. between.higher.level.math.enrollments.for.white.students. compared.with.Latino.students..In.fact,.though.more.than.80. percent.of.white.students.enroll.in.at.least.Algebra.2.as.their. highest.math.course,.only.slightly.more.than.half.of.Latino. students.do.the.same.(see Figure 25).. Additionally,.students.overall.are.not.pursuing.math.dur- ing.their.senior.year.at.rates.consistent.with.a.goal.of.college. and.career.readiness.for.all.students..For.students.to.remain. academically.competitive.and.enter.college.with.the.skills. to.succeed,.a.fourth.year.of.math.is.crucial..However,.only. slightly.more.than.half.of.CHS.seniors.(53.percent).were. enrolled.in.a.math.course.during.their.senior.year. other patterns non-CoLLeGe preparatory Course enroLL- ment:.Not.all.of.CHS.science.and.math.courses.meet.the. UC/CSU.requirements..Although.CHS.offers.several.lab. sciences,.some.science.courses—such.as.Oceans—do.not. meet.the.UC/CSU.requirements..Additionally,.Foundations. of.Geometry.and.Intermediate.Algebra.do.not.meet.UC/ 14 The educaTion TrusT–wesT | carlSBad | March 2010
    • CSU.requirements.for.mathematics..Enrollment.in.any.or. Figure 26: non-college-prep level course enrollment. latino all.of.these.courses.limits.students’.opportunities.to.become. students are disproportionately enrolled in non-college eligible.for.college.admission.. preparatory science and math courses, preventing them from Many.students.were.placed.into.lower.rigor.(non-college- achieving uc/cSu eligibility. preparatory).courses.after.their.freshman.year,.enrolling.in. 100 11 12 9 15 Oceans.instead.of.chemistry,.for.example..Other.students. 80 completed.Foundations.of.Geometry.or.Intermediate.Algebra. 48 53 60 57 instead.of.the.UCOP-approved.Geometry.and.Algebra.2. Percent 64 after.completing.Algebra.1..Latino.students.were.particularly. 40 affected.by.these.enrollment.patterns,.as.their.share.in.such. 39 20 38 courses.is.higher.than.their.overall.share.(21.percent).in. 33 21 the.student.population.at.CHS..As.Figure 26.demonstrates,. 0 Oceans Foundations of Geometry Non-CP CHS Almost.4.out.of.10.students.enrolled.in.both.a.non-college. or Intermediate Algebra Science and Math Enrollment preparatory.science.and.math.course.was.Latino. Other White Latino Source: Ed Trust–West analysis of CHS transcript data. advanCed pLaCement enroLLment:.Students. increase.their.chances.of.graduating.ready.for.college.and. career.by.enrolling.in.the.most.rigorous.courses.possible.. Typically,.these.courses.come.in.the.form.of.honors.or.AP. Figure 27: average number of ap & honors courses taken by class of courses..CHS.offers.17.AP.courses.and.11.honors.courses,. 2009 – Students of color enroll in far fewer courses than the school in.all.subject.areas,.to.provide.additional.opportunities.for. 100 average, and as compared to their white and asian counterparts. students.to.challenge.themselves.academically... 80 8 7.35 For.the.Class.of.2009,.students.enrolled.in.an.average.of.3.61. 7 60 6 AP/honors.courses..Again,.enrollment.gaps.exist.in.these. Percent 5 4.02 classes..Specifically,.African-American.and.Latino.students. 40 4 3.61 3.58 are.taking.the.most.demanding.courses.at.much.lower.rates. 3 20 2 1.80 1.84 than.the.school.average.—or.than.their.white.or.Asian.peers.. 1 In.fact,.these.students.complete.only.half.as.many.AP/honors. 0 All African Latino Asian White Other courses.as.the.school.average.and.fewer.than.half.of.those. American taken.by.their.white.peers.(see Figure 27).. Source: Ed Trust–West analysis of Carlsbad High School transcript data. Grades:.In.all.subject.areas,.low.grades.limited.students’. opportunities.to.take.college-prep.courses..Students.who. earned.a.D.passed.the.course,.yet.many.of.these.students.do. not.achieve.proficiency.and.may.not.move.on.to.the.next. Figure 28: a-G Success rates & Gpa – Students who achieved uc/ higher.level.course..In.addition,.the.A-G.requirements.man- 100 cSu Eligibility earned significantly higher Gpas while in high school. date.a.minimum.grade.of.C.in.all.coursework..The.interven- 80 4 3.51 tion.of.choice.for.an.F.typically.is.to.repeat.the.course,.often. through.summer.school.classes.of.questionable.rigor.. 60 3 2.64 Percent Students.who.achieved.success.in.the.full.A-G.course. 40 2 sequence.earned.an.average.GPA.of.3.51.(on.a.cumulative. 20 1 weighted.scale);.students.who.did.not.earned.an.average.GPA. of.2.64.(see Figure 28). 0 A-G Success No A-G Success Source: Ed Trust–West analysis of Carlsbad High School transcript data. The educaTion TrusT–wesT | carlSBad | March 2010 15
    • interventions additional transcript analysis Findings The.audit.revealed.that.several.interventions.exist.for. The.transcript.analysis.of.both.ETW.and.the.data.team. students.who.require.additional.support.to.succeed.in.their. identified.additional.problems.that.CUSD.must.address. classes..Placement.in.interventions.is.not.always.mandatory;. typically.students.who.participate.in.tutoring.do.so.volun- oo Current.graduation.requirements.do.not.prepare.all.Carls- tarily..The.audit.found.that.evaluation.processes.exist.for. bad.students.for.success.in.college.and.a.career;.adjust- some,.but.not.all,.interventions.available.to.students..CAH- ments.to.these.requirements.would.ensure.all.students. SEE.interventions.are.evaluated.predominantly.by.CAHSEE- gain.the.skills.necessary.for.success.in.all.postsecondary. passage.rates;.teachers.and.counselors.collect.anecdotal. options. evaluations.from.students.who.participate. . oo Students.can.pass.a.course.with.a.grade.of.D;.simply.earn- oo Although.the.district.offers.summer.school.for.students. ing.the.credits.for.a.course,.however,.does.not.guarantee. who.must.repeat.a.failed.course,.questions.raised.by. college.eligibility..Nor.does.a.D.grade.demonstrate.that. teachers.about.the.rigor.of.such.courses.persist,.and.call. the.student.has.developed.the.proficiency.needed.to.prog- for.evaluation.. ress.in.a.subject. oo Students.who.struggle.with.CAHSEE.skills.are.enrolled. oo CTE.pathways.are.unclear.and.undefined.on.student. in.a.CAHSEE-support.course.for.English.or.mathematics;. transcripts..Some.students.do.not.complete.a.coherent. typically.this.occurs.in.their.senior.year.if.they.still.have. sequence.of.courses,.while.others.who.do.complete.CTE. not.passed.the.exit.exam..Additionally,.beginning.with. in.a.coordinated.fashion.typically.do.not.complete.the. the.2009-10.school.year,.a.formal.CAHSEE.intervention. A-G.sequence.to.be.ready.for.college.and.career. has.begun.for.students.during.their.lunch.period.. oo Participation.in.the.peer.tutoring.program.is.not.cur- oo ELL.students.lack.systemic.avenues.to.earn.credit.for.a. rently.noted.on.transcripts.of.students.who.are.tutored.in. foreign.language,.even.one.in.which.they.are.fluent.or. subject.areas.in.which.they.struggle..Tracking.this.partici- proficient..If.this.option.were.available.for.students,.there. pation.could.allow.for.better.assessment.of.the.efficacy.of. would.be.space.in.their.schedule.to.enroll.in.additional. such.support. English.courses.to.help.them.achieve.proficiency.and. be.reclassified.as.Reclassified-Fluent.English.Proficient. oo More.data.are.needed.on.student.transcripts—the.addi- (RFEP).. tion.of.a.UC/CSU.A-G.course-sequence.summary.to.the. transcript.would.give.students,.counselors,.and.families. oo Students.who.require.additional.assistance.have.tutoring. easy.reference.to.progress.toward.college.and.career.readi- available.to.them.during.lunch.and.after.school..Although. ness.. it.is.overseen.by.a.teacher,.the.tutoring.is.provided.by. CHS.peer.leaders—.eleventh.and.twelfth-grade.students. who.are.selected.based.upon.their.GPA.and.an.applica- tion. 16 The educaTion TrusT–wesT | carlSBad | March 2010
    • carlsbad village academy transcript Findings Figure 29: cuSd, chS, and cva Enrollment by ethnicity – latino In.addition.to.studying.the.CHS.Class.of.2009,.ETW.ana- students are overrepresented in the continuation high school lyzed.transcripts.for.the.small.group.of.students.(10.students). program. who.earned.their.high.school.diplomas.at.Carlsbad.village. 100 Academy,.CUSD’s.continuation.high.school,.in.2009.. 80 Enrollment.comparisons.of.student.ethnic.groups.yielded. 64 60 a.disproportionate.number.of.Latino.students.enrolled.at. 60 Percent 46 43 CvA..Latino.students.make.up.slightly.more.than.one-fifth. 40 of.the.CHS.student.body;.at.CvA,.they.represent.almost.one- 12 21 20 half.(see Figure 29).. 9 8 8 3 6 5 2 2 Overall,.CvA.student.academic.records.demonstrated. 0 0 African American Latino Asian White Other lower.levels.of.achievement,.with.higher.rates.of.failure.in. academic.courses.than.students.attending.CHS..Additionally,. CUSD CHS CVA no.CvA.graduates.took.the.full.A-G.course.sequence,.result- Source: California Department of Education. ing.in.no.students.eligible.for.admission.to.UC.or.CSU..This. data.resulted.from.several.factors,.including.transferring.from. another.school,.earning.grades.of.D.or.F.in.A-G.approved. Figure 30: carlsbad village academy class of 2009 students’ coursework,.and.enrolling.in.non-college-prep.coursework.at. chokepoints to uc/cSu Success- core academics provided the the.schools.they.attended.(including.CHS.and.CvA).. largest obstacles to achieving college and career readiness. CvA.students.experienced.chokepoints.in.all.subject.areas,. 100 and.at.much.higher.rates.than.CHS.graduates..As.Figure 30. 30 80 demonstrates,.English,.math,.science,.and.world.language. 60 60 were.the.most.frequent.chokepoints. 60 Percent 100 100 100 100 40 70 20 40 40 0 A B C D E F G Social English Mathematics Laboratory World Visual & Elective Science Science Language Performing Arts Met Not Met Source: Ed Trust-West analysis of Carlsbad High School transcript data. The educaTion TrusT–wesT | carlSBad | March 2010 17
    • v. audit componEnt #3: ExamininG School Findings of School organization orGanization oF tEachinG and lEarninG of teaching and learning Understanding.a.school.requires.reviewing.the.structures. it.has.in.place.for.teaching.and.learning..Decisions.about. Master schedule how.the.school.is.organized.depend.predominantly.on. It.is.important.to.examine.the.master.schedule.from.mul- choices.by.administrators.and.staff.members,.though.the. tiple.angles.to.determine.whether.it.places.the.instructional. district.may.limit.their.options,.especially.if.these.depend. priorities.of.students.ahead.of.all.other.considerations.. on.budget.considerations..To.determine.the.organization.of. An.analysis.of.a.school’s.master.schedule.includes.an. Carlsbad.High.School,.ETW.examined.such.materials.as.the. examination.of.the.bell.schedule,.the.student-registration. master.schedule,.class.loads,.bell.schedules,.the.master.calen- process,.and.course.offerings..This.includes.understanding. dar,.student.handbooks,.and.other.pertinent.documents.. which.classes.are.offered.each.period,.which.teachers.are. The.master.schedule.is.the.foundation.for.teaching.and. assigned.to.certain.courses,.the.number.of.AP.and.honors. learning..As.ETW.examined.the.master.schedule,.the.school’s. courses,.class.sizes,.A-G.approved.classes,.the.various.levels. story.unfolded..Do.all.Carlsbad.students.have.access.to. of.math.classes,.and.the.types.of.support.classes.intended. courses.that.will.prepare.them.for.college.and.career?.Are. to.meet.the.needs.of.special.populations.(ELLs.and.special. appropriate.supports.and.interventions.in.place.during. education.students,.for.example).. the.school.day.for.students.who.need.them?.Do.English- Analyzing.these.elements.provided.ETW.with.insight. language.learners.have.core.courses.with.teachers.who.are. about.the.organizational.structure.of.Carlsbad.High.School. trained.in.instructional.strategies.to.meet.their.needs?.Do. and.its.educational.goals..ETW.explored.the.process.for.stu- ELL.and.special.education.students.have.access.to.core. dent.placement.into.courses.through.focus-group.discussions. academic.courses.and.graduate.ready.for.college.and.careers?. with.teachers,.counselors,.and.students..Full.schedules.for. The.answers.to.these.questions.and.others.help.identify.the. students.who.pursue.one.or.more.elective.courses.often.force. school’s.priorities. them.to.complete.courses.required.for.college.admission.at. The.process.of.course.registration.may.inhibit.students. one.of.two.nearby.community.colleges.. from.enrolling.in.classes.that.will.prepare.them.for.suc- The.large.caseloads.of.counselors.jeopardize.their.critical. cess.after.high.school..Some.policies.prevent.students.from. role.in.registration,.as.does.their.lack.of.involvement.in.ini- pursuing.higher.level.coursework,.such.a.grade-point.average. tial.creation.of.the.master.schedule..Currently,.counselors.do. or.course.prerequisite.requirements..In.addition,.counsel- not.have.time.for.individual.discussions.with.every.student,. ors.and.teachers.may.steer.a.particular.student.away.from. which.is.the.ideal.situation.to.provide.students.(and.parents). more.difficult.courses,.if.the.adults.believe.a.student.cannot. with.resources.they.need.to.make.informed.decisions.about. succeed.academically.or.is.unlikely.to.attend.college..Such. their.future. choices.compromise.students’.opportunities.and.limit.their. After.analyzing.the.CHS.2009-10.master.schedule,.ETW. chances.for.success.in.high.school.and.beyond.. determined.the.following:. The.process.of.creating.the.master.schedule.must.put. student.needs.first.and.foremost..This.includes.determining. which.courses.to.offer,.enrolling.and.counseling.students.to. take.challenging.courses,.the.duration.of.class.periods,.and. all.other.elements.of.the.master.schedule..The.answers.may. inform.whether.the.schedule.should.be.a.traditional.six,. seven,.and.eight-period.day;.a.block.schedule;.or.another. arrangement..The.ultimate.goal.of.the.master.schedule.and. the.courses.the.school.offers.should.be.the.best.possible. access.for.all.students.to.college.and.career-preparatory. courses. 18 The educaTion TrusT–wesT | carlSBad | March 2010
    • Bell schedule Figure 31: chS class size average by department: class sizes are oo School.starts.at.7:30.a.m..and.ends.at.2:30.p.m..during. large but fairly similar among academic subjects. regular.school.days 50 47 oo .The.school.uses.an.A/B.block.schedule,.with.six.periods.. 40 35 34 The.periods.are.organized.in.an.alternating.odd/even. 32 30 32 32 30 27 schedule,.with.odd.periods.(1-3-5).meeting.one.day.and. even.periods.(2-4-6).meeting.the.next:. 20 . kooPeriods.1.and.2—120.minutes 10 . kooPeriods.3.and.4—117.minutes 0 . kooPeriods.5.and.6—118.minutes Social English Math Science World Visual & Electives Physical Studies Language Performing Education Arts oo During.the.2009-10.school.year,.13.early.release.days.on. Source: Ed Trust–West analysis of Carlsbad High School 2009-10 Mater Schedule. selected.Thursdays.provide.teachers.with.additional.time. to.collaborate..Students.are.excused.at.12:10.p.m.,.and. each.class.period.is.shortened. Master schedule CHS.appears.to.have.a.well-constructed.master.schedule.. There.are.few.serious.course.conflicts.and.most.courses.that. offer.multiple.sections.are.spread.over.the.six.class.periods.. In.addition,.courses.are.fairly.balanced,.with.no.extremes. in.class.sizes.in.any.one.subject..As.Figure 31.demonstrates,. class.sizes.in.regular.education.courses.are.fairly.comparable. across.all.academic.subjects. advanced Placement course offerings CHS.offers.the.following.17.AP.subjects.in.38.sections: kooArt.History.(1). kooBiology.(2) kooCalculus.AB.(2). kooCalculus.BC.(1) kooChemistry.(1). kooEnglish.Language.(6) kooEnglish.Literature.(5). kooEnvironmental.Science.(2) kooEuropean.History.(2). kooMacroeconomics.(4) kooMusic.Theory.(1). kooPhysics.C.(1) kooSpanish.Language.(3). kooStatistics.(2) kooStudio.Art:.Drawing.(2). kooU.S..Government.(4) kooU.S..History.(3) All.AP.courses.have.been.authorized.by.the.College.Board. and.are.on.the.AP.Course.Ledger. The educaTion TrusT–wesT | carlSBad | March 2010 19
    • college Preparatory course offerings Figure 32: percentage of courses at carlsbad high School meeting More.than.three-quarters.of.CHS.courses.meet.the.UC/ the uc/cSu a-G requirements – three-quarters of all regular CSU.A-G.requirements.(see Figure 32)..This.calculation. education courses meet ucop approval. includes.special.education.courses..However,.if.special.educa- 100 94 94 100 88 90 tion.courses.are.omitted,.then.more.than.80.percent.of.the. 84 80 76 courses.meet.the.requirements..ETW.factors.special.educa- tion.into.the.calculation.because.schools.and.districts.that. 60 Percent require.all.graduating.students.to.meet.the.A-G.requirements. 40 35 have.established.systems.and.supports.to.increase.opportuni- ties.for.special-needs.students.to.take.these.courses..Physical. 20 education.courses.are.not.part.of.the.calculation. 0 Adding.math.and.science.classes.could.increase.the. A B English C Math D Science E World F VAPA G Electives Total (w/ Spec Social number.of.A-G.approved.courses,.thereby.boosting.student. Studies Language Ed, no PE) opportunities.to.meet.these.more.rigorous.requirements.. Source: Ed Trust–West analysis of Carlsbad High School 2009-10 Mater Schedule. It.appears.that.tracking.occurs.in.both.subjects..In.math,. some.students.take.Foundations.of.Geometry.and.Inter- mediate.Algebra,.both.of.which.help.students.earn.math. credit.towards.graduation.but.do.not.meet.college-prep. requirements..A.similar.pattern.emerges.in.science..CHS. offers.Oceans..Again,.Oceans.meets.high.school.graduation. requirements.for.science.but.not.the.UC/CSU.laboratory- science.requirements. CHS.offers.18.different.math.courses,.with.each.earning. students.up.to.ten.math.credits: kooMath.Topics. kooAlgebra.1 kooAlgebra.1A. kooAlgebra.1B kooFoundations.of.Geometry. kooGeometry kooGeometry.H. kooIntermediate.Algebra kooAlgebra.2. kooAlgebra.2H kooCollege.Algebra. kooCollege.Algebra/Trigonometry kooPre-Calculus..H. kooElementary.Calculus. kooCalculus..3. kooAP.Stats kooAP.Calculus.AB. kooAP.Calculus.BC ETW.analyzed.the.2009-2010.UC/CSU.approved.course. list.for.CHS..Almost.all.of.the.courses.CHS.offers.are.on.the. approved.list;.U.S..History–Film.is.not.on.the.approved.list,. though.students.are.able.to.meet.social.studies.graduation. requirements.through.this.course..However,.some.courses.on. the.UC/CSU-approved.list.are.unavailable.at.CHS..It.is.cru- cial.that.the.school.submits.an.accurate.course.listing.every. year.to.ensure.that.students.have.the.greatest.chance.of.being. accepted.to.the.UC.and.CSU.systems..The.courses.include.the. following: 20 The educaTion TrusT–wesT | carlSBad | March 2010
    • kooSH.World.History/Cultures. kooTrans.Eng.1B lo Introduction.to.Computer.Applications. kooSH.Geometry. kooSH.Algebra.1 lo MS.Office.XP kooGenetics. kooSpanish.5.AP lo Web.Page.Construction kooFrench.4.AP. kooFrench.3 lo Business.Marketing.and.Student.Store. kooGerman.1. kooGerman.2 Ko Business.Marketing.and.Student.Store.–Community. kooFilmmaking. kooBiotechnology.Lab.Science.H Classroom Ko Small.Engine.Repair.1,.2,.and.3 CHS.offers.very.few.support.or.intervention.courses..There. Ko Work.Experience is.one.section.of.CAHSEE.Math,.one.section.of.CAHSEE.Lan- guage,.and.one.section.of.Language.Arts.Support. Analysis.of.the.master.schedule.and.a.survey.on.CTE.com- CHS.has.a.small.population.of.ELLs.and.offers.very.few. pleted.by.the.district.provided.additional.information.about. sheltered.or.specially.designed.academic.instruction.in. course.offerings.and.the.existing.pathways.available.to.CHS. English.(SDAIE).courses.to.meet.their.needs..These.courses. students..Responses.offered.details.about.certain.course.offer- are.Algebra.1B,.Biology,.U.S..History,.and.Government/Eco- ings.as.well.as.participation.rates.in.courses.and.pathways..It. nomics..As.mentioned.earlier,.many.other.sheltered.courses. remains.unclear.what.opportunities.exist.for.students.to.earn. are.approved.by.UCOP.but.are.unavailable.at.CHS..Given. formal.certification.or.complete.other.culminating.projects. that.no.ELLs.in.the.Class.of.2009.achieved.UC/CSU.eligibil- to.demonstrate.skill.development.. ity,.offering.college-prep.level.courses.to.these.students.could. lead.to.more.of.them.completing.the.full.A-G.sequence. available courses/Pathways Currently,.CHS.offers.courses.within.eight.different.career. career Technical education clusters:. ETW.identified.six.possible.career.pathways.with.a.definite. lo Arts,.Media,.and.Entertainment course-taking.sequence..Of.the.six,.four.offer.at.least.one. Ko Television.Production.Pathway higher.level.course.that.meets.the.A-G.requirements..The.two. Ko Digital.Photography.Pathway pathways.without.courses.meeting.any.of.these.requirements. Ko Broadcasting.Pathway are.“Cabinetmaking.and.Wood.Products”.and.“Automotive.” lo Building.Trades.and.Construction The.following.is.a.list.of.all.CHS.Career.Technical.Educa- Ko Cabinetmaking.and.Wood.Products.Pathway tion.courses:. lo Education,.Child.Development,.and.Family.Services Ko Child.Development/Child.Care.Occupations.Pathway lo Broadcasting. Graphic.Design lo Engineering.and.Design lo Computerized.Graphic.Design Ko Architectural.and.Structural.Engineering.Pathway lo Digital.Photography.1.and.2 lo Fashion.and.Interior.Design lo Multimedia.for.the.Web Ko Fashion.Merchandising.Pathway lo Wood.1.and.2 lo Information.Technology.. lo ROP.Cabinetmaking (also.available.at.Carlsbad.village.Academy) lo ROP.Careers.with.Children. Ko Information.Technology.Pathway. lo Child.Development lo Marketing,.Sales,.and.Service lo Developmental.Psychology.of.Children lo Transportation.. . lo Developmental.Psychology.of.Children–Community. Ko Automotive.Pathway Classroom lo Responsible.Parenting/Life.Skills enrollment lo Drafting.1,.2,.and.3 The.information.from.the.surveys.also.provided.CTE. lo Architectural.Design course-enrollment.information.for.the.current.(2009-10). lo Fashion.Merchandising. school.year..According.to.enrollment.estimates,.Information. lo Fashion.Merchandising.–.Community.Classroom. Technology.and.Digital.Photography.are.the.most.popular. lo virtual.Enterprise pathways.at.CHS..Students.of.all.ethnic.groups,.as.well.as. The educaTion TrusT–wesT | carlSBad | March 2010 21
    • ELL.and.special.education.students,.are.represented.within. Figure 33: 2009-10 ctE Enrollment – child care occupations pathway the.CTE.program.. has a significantly larger latino population than the overall chS Notable.within.these.enrollment.estimates,.however,.is. student body. that.some.groups.of.students.are.overrepresented.or.under- 8% 6% represented.in.CTE..For.the.Information.Technology,.Digital. Photography,.and.Woodworking.pathways,.all.ethnic.groups. African American are.represented.in.numbers.similar.to.that.to.the.overall. Latino Asian student.population..The.Child.Care.Occupations.pathway,. 32% White however,.has.a.disproportionately.high.percentage.of.Latino. Other students.(see Figure 33).. 52% .All.pathways.show.overrepresentation.of.special.educa- tion.and.English-language.learners..The.IT,.Digital.Photo,. 2% Source: Ed Trust–West Analysis of CUSD CTE Survey Data. and.Woodworking.pathways.combined.enroll.21.percent. of.special.education.students.and.22.percent.of.English- language.learners,.compared.with.10.percent.and.5.percent. of.these.two.groups.at.CHS,.respectively..The.Child.Care. Occupations.pathway.has.even.larger.rates.of.enrollment. from.these.populations..More.than.half.of.all.enrolled.stu- dents.are.either.special.education.students.(54.percent).and/ or.English-language.learners.(52.percent)..These.enrollment. patterns.call.into.question.placement.policies,.particularly. for.special.education.and.ELLs.but.also.for.all.students. recommendations for master Schedule revision oo Examine.use.of.time.and.consider.adding.a.period.to. provide.extra.support.for.students.who.need.it. oo Eliminate.tracking,.particularly.in.math.and.science. courses,.where.students.meet.frequent.chokepoints.to. UC/CSU.eligibility. oo Update.the.UC/CSU.A-G.course.list.to.reflect.all.courses. listed.on.the.UCOP.Doorways.Web.site..Some.discrepan- cies.exist.about.which.courses.currently.are.offered.for. CHS.students. oo Examine.alternative.options.for.ELL.students.to.meet.the. world-language.requirement.by.demonstrating.profi- ciency.in.their.home.language;.this.would.open.up.their. schedule.for.more.English.courses.. course catalogue A.course.catalogue.communicates.a.high.school’s.expec- tations.to.students..Carlsbad.High.School,.as.a.demonstra- tion.of.its.priorities,.provides.this.through.its.publication,. 22 The educaTion TrusT–wesT | carlSBad | March 2010
    • “Course.Descriptions.”.Updated.each.year,.the.document. course Enrollment policy change provides.students.and.families.with.information.to.help. recommendations them.make.informed.decisions.about.which.classes.to.take.. To.achieve.the.goal.of.college.and.career.readiness.for. This.information.includes.a.four-year.plan.for.course.enroll- all.Carlsbad.students,.CUSD.must.reconsider.the.definition. ment,.policies.and.procedures.for.enrolling.in.certain.classes,. of.“college-bound.students”.when.enrolling.students.in. and.ways.to.prepare.for.admission.to.a.community.college.or. higher.level.courses..All.students.can.benefit.from.a.rigor- a.four-year.university.. ous.college-prep.curriculum,.even.those.who.may.not.have. Course.descriptions.for.all.the.classes.include.a.synopsis. performed.well.in.the.past..Differentiating.between.courses. of.the.course.and.its.expectations.as.well.as.any.course.or. for.“college-bound”.and.“non-college-bound”.students. other.prerequisites.necessary.for.enrollment..The.document. in.enrollment.policies.may.discourage.young.people.who. is.fairly.comprehensive.and.provides.students.and.families. otherwise.might.choose.to.pursue.a.more.rigorous.course.of. with.a.broad.base.of.knowledge.to.plan.four.years.of.study.. study. Some.adjustments,.however,.could.help.students.and.fami- oo “Course.Descriptions”.states.that.teachers.have.the.option. lies.with.their.decision.making. of.dropping.from.a.class.those.students.who.“do.not. possess.the.knowledge.or.skills.required.to.succeed.”. recommended revisions Such.practices.pose.a.barrier.to.students.who.could.learn. oo Provide.a.four-year.plan.that.reflects.the.goal.of.college. more.rigorous.material,.given.additional.support..Student. and.career.readiness.for.all.students..The.two.sample. needs.should.drive.creation.of.a.master.schedule.that. plans.within.the.course.catalogue.communicate.that. allows.all.of.them.to.pursue.a.rigorous.course.sequence.of. there.are.essentially.two.tracks.of.course.sequences,.one. their.choosing. for.“college.bound”.students.and.one.for.“non-college- bound”.students..The.latter.includes.course.offerings.that. oo Review.practices.for.enrolling.students.in.CTE.courses. are.not.college-preparatory.yet.satisfy.graduation.require- and.pathways..To.ensure.equitable.opportunities.for.all. ments..This.tiered.system.provides.a.stark.contrast.in. students,.enrollment.for.significant.student.groups.should. access.and.success.opportunities.for.students. be.representative.of.the.overall.student.body. oo Expand.the.CTE.section.of.the.catalogue.to.include. oo Reconsider.the.number.of.nonacademic.school-service. sample.pathways.as.well.as.information.about.careers. courses..Currently,.there.are.five.such.courses:.Library,. related.to.coursework.. Student.Services,.Student.Tutor,.Teacher.Assistant,.and. Athletic.Training..Students.who.excel.should.continue. oo Broaden.the.special.education.section.of.course.descrip- to.challenge.themselves.through.their.senior.year,.rather. tions.to.include.more.information.on.courses.and.on. than.enrolling.in.a.less.rigorous.course.simply.to.fill.a.slot. accommodations.for.parents..Parents.of.students.with. in.their.schedule. special.needs.may.require.more.information.and.support. than.others..With.some.thoughtful.redesign,.this.section. oo Seniors.should.not.be.given.the.option.to.enroll.only.in. could.be.improved. five.courses.during.their.senior.year..All.students.must.be. encouraged.to.maintain.a.rigorous.course.sequence.for. oo Provide.a.section.for.parents.of.English-language.learners. the.entirety.of.their.high.school.career. that.explains.course.offerings.and.ways.ELLs.can.remain. on.track.to.graduate.college.and.career.ready..(This.would. oo For.Carlsbad.to.achieve.its.goal.of.providing.a.college.and. resemble.an.expanded.special.education.section.) career-preparatory.curriculum.for.all.students,.the.school. should.adjust.the.master.schedule.to.remove.any.course. oo Provide.translated.versions.for.families.in.their.native. section.which.could.pose.a.challenge.to.any.student.. languages. The educaTion TrusT–wesT | carlSBad | March 2010 23
    • vi. audit componEnt #4: ExamininG attitudES and BEliEFS oF KEy • Student VoiceS • StaKEholdErS “ Examining.the.attitudes.and.beliefs.of.teachers,.counsel- ors,.students,.parents,.and.community.members.provides. They say that you have to be prepared to insight.into.the.strengths.and.remaining.challenges.facing. be in…AP classes. I think you’ll never be Carlsbad.High.School.and.Carlsbad.Unified.School.District.. ready to do something until you try, and you This.public.engagement.informed.many.of.ETW’s.recommen- will know if you can do it or not. So, they dations..This.work.included.the.following:. don’t give you the opportunity to because they say, “If you sign up, you cannot get Focus Groups out.” So, how can you be in class that you The.EOA.relied.on.focus.groups.of.students,.teachers,. just want to see if you can do it? They don’t counselors,.and.parents.to.shed.light.on.student.preparation. give you, you know, the opportunity to try.” “ for.postsecondary.options..ETW.has.developed.protocols. designed.to.elicit.various.stakeholders’.thoughts.about.the. There are so many people who want to go education.students.receive..The.focus.groups.provided.critical. to college in regular classes, and they should information.regarding.expectation.levels,.rigorous.curricu- have just as much preparation to succeed in lum,.and.college.and.career.readiness. college as people who are in AP classes. Just ETW.conducted.focus.groups.for.each.stakeholder.group.. because...Maybe they’re not as strong in that The.results.helped.define.the.challenges.and.opportunities. subject to take that for an AP class, but they the.school.faces.in.its.efforts.to.increase.expectations.for.all. still deserve to be ready for it, and I don’t students..The.focus.group.recommendations.will.help.lay.the. think they get that.” “ groundwork.for.developing.the.district’s.action.plan. I think teachers kind of get the idea, too, college-Going culture Surveys that because you’re in AP they’re supposed At.the.launch.of.the.focus.groups.for.teachers,.counselors,. to be preparing you for college, whereas, like, and.parents,.ETW.administered.anonymous.surveys.to.mea- if you’re not in an AP class, you’re just in a sure.the.beliefs.of.those.in.the.group,.focusing.particularly. high school class, you know?” “ on.the.college-going.culture.of.the.school..The.survey.results. I’ve taken regular English, and I do mini- provided.a.context.for.the.group’s.discussion,.particularly. mal work, and get a good grade, get a “B”, to.address.any.underlying.beliefs.that.might.not.crop.up. you know, don’t do much, cruise by.” directly.in.conversations. community conversation The.large-scale.community.conversation.with.stakehold- ers.representing.many.different.school,.district,.and.com- attitudes and Beliefs of Key Stakeholders munity.entities.played.a.central.role.in.engaging.the.public.. The.conversation.built.upon.the.focus.groups.and.explored. student Focus Groups the.readiness.of.stakeholders.to.support.continued.reform. ETW.conducted.two.student.focus.groups,.one.with.fresh- efforts.at.CHS..Results.of.this.initial.conversation.phase.will. men.and.sophomore.students.and.another.with.junior.and. provide.guidance.for.the.ongoing.public.engagement.efforts. senior.students..Underclassmen.shared.their.experiences. incorporated.into.this.reform..Following.a.format.developed. transitioning.into.high.school.work..They.said.they.were. by.the.public-affairs.firm.Public.Agenda,.the.community.con- being.adequately.challenged..Older.students.were.aware.of. versation.incorporated.a.structured.process.for.civic.debate. the.discrepancy.in.rigor.between.certain.courses.. around.issues.of.controversy. Juniors.and.seniors.said.there.is.a.noticeable.difference. between.college-prep.courses.and.AP/honors.courses,.beyond. 24 The educaTion TrusT–wesT | carlSBad | March 2010
    • the.increased.academic.requirements..For.the.students.who. like.the.opportunity.to.try.out.more.rigorous.course- had.been.or.currently.are.enrolled.in.college.prep.(non-AP/ work.while.maintaining.the.ability.to.transfer.back.into. honors.courses),.it.was.much.easier.to.“slack.off”.during. college-prep.courses.. class.and.still.earn.a.good.grade..The.difference.in.expecta- tions.came,.they.said,.not.only.from.the.work.assigned.to. Student Supports them.during.the.term.but.also.from.the.expectations.with. oo Tutoring.is.available.from.some.teachers,.when.students. which.the.teachers.approached.the.class.. actively.pursue.it..Opportunities.for.teacher-led.tutoring. All.students.in.the.focus.groups.felt.that.though.CHS.has. differ.from.department.to.department. many.opportunities.for.electives.and.extracurricular.involve- ment,.some.students.have.an.advantage—.particularly.those. oo Students.feel.some.adults.monitor.their.progress.and.are. who.were.enrolled.in.GATE.in.middle.school.and.those.who. available.to.help.when.they.fall.behind. were.granted.access.to.more.rigorous.coursework.beginning. in.ninth.grade..This.advantage.can.come.in.the.form.of.better. oo Students.would.like.more.opportunities.to.interact.with. teachers,.higher.expectations,.and.greater.levels.of.prepara- their.counselors..They.also.would.like.to.see.increased. tion.for.college.and.a.career. consistency.in.counseling.support.offered.to.all.students.. Other.findings.from.the.student.focus.groups.include.the. Currently.there.are.differences.between.counselors’. following: availability.for.students,.as.well.as.the.focus.of.guidance. provided,.with.graduation.the.priority.for.some.students. College and Career Preparation and.college.preparation.for.others. oo Students.planning.to.attend.college.after.graduation.have. been.preparing.to.do.so.since.freshmen.year.or.earlier;. students.who.may.not.decide.whether.to.go.to.college. Teacher Focus Groups until.halfway.through.high.school.(or.those.who.transfer. ETW.conducted.two.teacher.focus.groups.at.Carlsbad. from.another.school).can.be.at.a.disadvantage.in.enroll- High.School,.with.representation.from.every.department,. ing.in.college-prep.coursework. including.special.education.and.career.technical.educa- tion..Teacher.experience.levels.ranged.from.a.few.years.in. oo All.teachers.do.not.challenge.students.in.non-AP/honors. the.district.to.more.than.20.years..Teachers.said.the.school. courses.or.actively.prepare.them.for.college-level.work.. administration’s.recent.shift.toward.higher.expectations.for. all.students.is.beginning.to.take.hold.among.the.entire.cam- Course Rigor pus.community..As.a.result,.students.are.reaching.for.higher. oo Some.teachers.tend.to.use.effective.instructional.strategies. goals..With.increased.expectations.has.come.an.increased. more.than.others..Some.seem.focused.on.“teaching.to.the. focus.on.rigorous.academics.for.students.and.teachers.alike.. test”.and.moving.through.the.material.without.checking. Many.students’.priorities.have.shifted.to.preparing.for.life. for.understanding. after.graduation,.rather.than.simply.earning.a.diploma.. Some.teachers.said.all.CHS.students.would.succeed.if. oo Some.teachers.are.more.invested.than.others.in.creating. the.full.A-G.course.sequence.were.in.line.with.graduation. opportunities.to.make.rigorous.academic.work.interesting. requirements..There.was.no.clear.consensus.about.this,.how- and.relevant.to.students.. ever,.as.other.teachers.believe.that.certain.groups.of.students,. such.as.English-language.learners.and.special.education. oo Students.expressed.frustration.with.some.enrollment. students,.would.require.additional.supports.that.currently. policies.for.AP/honors.courses..CHS.lacks.an.open- are.not.available. enrollment.policy.for.all.classes,.though.parent/guardian. Other.findings.from.the.teacher.focus.groups.include.the. waivers.are.available.for.students.to.enroll.in.AP.courses,. following: even.if.they.do.not.meet.the.necessary.criteria..The.waiv- ers.stipulate,.however,.that.students.must.remain.in.the. course.for.the.entire.school.year..Students.said.they.would. The educaTion TrusT–wesT | carlSBad | March 2010 25
    • Rigorous Coursework oo Teachers.acknowledged.the.need.to.keep.coursework.relevant. • teacher VoiceS • to.students.even.as.they.maintain.high.academic.standards.. oo Teachers.said.that.students.in.AP/honors.courses.feel. challenged.and.were.receiving.the.preparation.they.need. “ I encourage my students to continue their education post high school. I emphasize that high school should never be seen as the end, for.postsecondary.education. but rather a step in the process.” “ oo Teachers.appreciated.the.availability.of.CTE.course.offer- ings;.they.would.like.to.see.them.contain.more.rigorous. We want our courses to be more rigorous, academic.standards.to.help.reinforce.reading.and.math- and not just be a place where kids go, but a ematics.skills. place where kids are going and learning, and supporting the academics… how can we keep Curriculum and Instruction up with what’s going on in industry, and how oo Teachers.want.the.flexibility.to.provide.students.who.lack. can we keep our [CTE] classes relevant and certain.foundational.skills.the.opportunity.to.succeed..As. rigorous so that we’re supporting what else is a.result,.certain.math.courses.have.been.created.as.bridge. going on in school?” courses.between.Algebra.1.and.geometry.and.between. geometry.and.Algebra.2. ers.to.supplement.communication.with.families.about. oo Although.some.data-driven.instruction.is.happening,.it. student.progress;.Data.Director.can.support.assessments. is.not.in.a.systemic.way..Some.departments.do.use.Data. and.target.instruction.to.areas.where.students.need.addi- Director.to.monitor.student.progress,.while.others.do.so. tional.support.. less.formally. Student Supports oo Teachers.expressed.concern.over.the.block.schedule..They. oo Some.informal.tutoring.opportunities,.such.as.peer.tutor- would.appreciate.the.opportunity.to.discuss.alternatives. ing,.are.available,.but.lack.of.funding.has.closed.down. that.may.serve.students.better,.such.as.90-minute.(rather. formal.and.teacher-led.tutoring..Teachers.are.frustrated. than.two-hour).time.blocks.for.classes. this.resource.is.unavailable.to.students.who.need.addi- tional.help. Professional Development oo Teachers.expressed.frustration.over.budget.cuts.for.profes- oo The.only.formalized.supports.during.the.instructional.day. sional.development..They.understand.the.importance.of. exist.for.students.who.have.not.passed.the.CAHSEE.in. quality.PD.in.their.instructional.practices.and.would.like. English.and/or.math.. to.see.the.opportunities.reinstated. oo Teachers.would.like.additional.structured.opportuni- oo Teachers.would.like.assistance.on.ways.to.better.serve. ties,.possibly.through.expanded.course.offerings,.to.help. ELLs.and.students.with.special.needs..They.are.concerned. students.develop.their.talents,.interests,.and.abilities.so. that.their.current.teaching.strategies.may.be.inadequate.to. they.can.be.better.informed.about.what.to.pursue.after. address.these.populations’.unique.needs. high.school. oo Teachers.have.received.some.introductory.training.to.use. oo CHS.has.no.consistent.policy.with.regard.to.helping. School.Loop.and.Data.Director.and.would.like.additional. students.remediate.skills.during.a.course..Some.teachers. support.to.help.them.use.these.tools..Additionally,.teach- require.tutoring.for.struggling.students,.while.others.leave. ers.requested.a.requirement.for.all.staff.to.use.School. it.to.the.student.to.take.the.initiative;.this.may.prevent. Loop.consistently..Using.School.Loop.would.allow.teach- some.students.from.receiving.necessary.supports.. 26 The educaTion TrusT–wesT | carlSBad | March 2010
    • counselor Focus Group Five.of.the.six.counselors.at.CHS.attended.the.focus. • counSelor VoiceS • group..The.counselors.shared.their.experiences.working.with. “ students.and.provided.insights.into.their.role..They.said.they. were.committed.to.maintaining.a.nurturing.environment. This is only the second year that we’ve and.suggested.what.improvements.were.necessary.to.help. placed all freshmen into biology – before some prepare.all.students.for.postsecondary.success.. students were put into a lower science course Most.said.students.would.succeed.if.the.full.A-G.course. – and the students have risen to that higher sequence.was.aligned.with.graduation.requirements,.yet.they. expectation.” “ expressed.concern.that.students.who.are.far.behind.in.either. credits.or.skills.would.require.additional.supports. Students need opportunities to be exposed Other.findings.from.the.counselor.focus.group.include. to rigorous coursework, even it is more chal- the.following: lenging.” Current Opportunities for College and Career Preparation oo The.peer.tutoring.program.offers.sessions.during.lunch. oo Weekly.visits.from.representatives.of.two-year.and.four- and.after.school.for.struggling.students.to.receive.assis- year.colleges.and.universities.are.helpful,.as.are.speakers. tance.from.selected.upperclassmen.with.strong.academic. from.various.fields.who.inform.students.of.career.oppor- credentials. tunities.and.provide.information.about.how.to.prepare. for.these.careers. oo The.AvID.program.provides.additional.skills.and.support. for.students.who.require.individualized.attention. oo Parent.workshops.with.information.about.college.admis- sion.requirements,.financial.aid,.and.scholarships.are. oo Students.who.receive.a.failing.grade.on.progress.reports. offered.periodically.throughout.the.school.year.to.help. meet.with.counselors.individually.to.develop.strategies. families.stay.informed.and.involved.in.their.students’. for.improving.academic.skills.or.performance. postsecondary.pursuits. oo Credit.recovery.options.are.somewhat.limited,.mainly. Course Offerings through.summer.school.or.through.enrollment.at.the. oo Counselors.would.like.to.see.a.seventh-period.option.for. continuation.high.school.or.independent.study.program. students.to.enroll.in.additional.coursework.for.remedia- tion.or.advancement. Counselor Expectations oo Counselors.are.not.directly.involved.in.the.creation.of.the. oo Summer.school.provides.some.opportunities.for.mak- master.schedule;.course.offerings.typically.are.determined. ing.up.failed.courses,.but.course.offerings.are.limited.. by.department.chairs. Expanding.to.including.both.higher.level.courses.as.well. as.other.subject.areas.would.benefit.all.students.. oo Resolving.scheduling.issues.occupies.the.majority.of. counselors’.time.during.the.first.few.weeks.of.each.semes- oo Course.completion.for.A-G.sequence.can.be.affected. ter. by.schedule.conflicts;.students.may.complete.necessary. coursework.at.the.nearby.community.college.instead. oo Counselors’.program.responsibilities,.such.as.workshop. planning,.AP.test.coordination,.and.college.and.career- Student Supports representative.visits,.often.leave.counselors.with.inad- oo Most.teachers.offer.time.outside.of.the.regular.school.day. equate.time.to.meet.with.students.on.an.individual.basis. for.tutoring.in.specific.subject.areas.for.struggling.stu- dents. The educaTion TrusT–wesT | carlSBad | March 2010 27
    • Parent Focus Group Eleven.parents.attended.the.focus.group.on.campus..Their. • Parent VoiceS • students.were.in.college-prep,.AP/honors,.and.ELL.courses;. “ no.parents.with.students.in.special.education.attended..The. parents.shared.their.experiences.regarding.teachers,.counsel- That was the disparity that my son [saw] ors,.and.administrators.and.provided.insight.into.the.educa- when he had two or three APs and decided not tion.their.students.were.receiving.. to take the AP History. It was, you know, it Parents’.comments.were.generally.positive,.and.most. was a cake walk and it wasn’t as interesting, believe.their.students.are.being.served.well..They.said.they. and it was just too easy…It was one of those liked.the.School.Loop.tool.but.suggested.many.students.and. classes that was kind of a throw-away.” families.could.benefit.from.additional.outreach.on.the.part. of.CHS..They.expressed.satisfaction.with.the.strong.course. “As an owner of a business, an engineering offerings.in.visual.and.performing.arts.as.well.as.the.oppor- firm, the more Math you give your students, tunities.for.some.students.to.pursue.a.highly.rigorous.course. the better. And, as an employer, I know [we] sequence.in.high.school.. would like to see people that are...even the Parents.perceived.differences.in.student.experiences.with. ones that are high school graduates and do not regard.to.course.offerings,.curricular.support,.and.opportuni- attend college, [we] would like to see ties.for.all.students.to.feel.connected.to.CHS—in.particular,. more Math.” “ students.who.may.be.the.first.in.their.families.to.pursue.col- lege,.those.whose.primary.language.is.not.English,.or.those. Yeah, maybe everybody, if we pushed them who.have.struggled.academically.through.their.school.career. a little bit more, or offered them [support], Other.findings.from.the.parent.focus.group.include.the. then, you know, they will certainly benefit following: from higher graduation requirements.” College and Career Preparation oo Some.parents.suggested.more.rigorous.graduation.require- “ There seems to be strong support for high achievers and low learners, but there needs to be more support for the student in between.” ments.would.benefit.all.students,.provided.the.additional. support.some.students.need.is.part.of.that.change. oo Parents.who.said.they.believed.all.students.could.succeed. oo Parents.were.generally.aware.that.CHS.offers.career.tech- with.graduation.requirements.that.are.aligned.with.A-G. nical.education.classes,.but.none.had.students.currently. course.requirements.expressed.concern.that.such.a.shift.is. enrolled.in.any.courses..They.expressed.concern.that.CTE. currently.impossible.because.of.scheduling.constraints. courses.are.perceived.more.as.elective.courses.rather.than. vocational.training.for.students.to.develop.tangible.skills.. oo Several.parents.expressed.concern.that.scheduling.difficul- ties.forced.their.students.to.complete.courses.at.the.com- Supports for Students and Families munity.college.to.meet.college.admission.requirements.. oo Parents.said.a.course.should.be.available.to.help.students. These.parents.said.such.courses.should.be.more.available. plan.their.four.years.at.CHS.so.they.are.aware.of.what. to.students.within.the.regular.school.day. they.need.to.succeed.after.high.school. oo Parents.said.the.pressure.on.students.to.achieve.at. oo Parents.said.School.Loop.helps.them.to.stay.up.to.date. extremely.high.levels.has.increased.dramatically.since. with.their.students’.courses.but.that.not.all.teachers.or. their.generation.attended.high.school..Some.expressed. classes.are.housed.on.the.Web.site..This.makes.it.difficult. concern.about.their.students.doing.too.much—enrolling. to.stay.informed.about.expectations,.coursework,.and. in.multiple.AP.courses.or.pursuing.competitive.sports.or. exams..They.recommended.school.administrators.expect. performing.arts—and.not.enjoying.high.school.enough. all.teachers.to.use.School.Loop.consistently. 28 The educaTion TrusT–wesT | carlSBad | March 2010
    • oo Parents.also.noted.that.not.all.parents.and.families.have. promotes.college-going.for.most.students,.though.not.neces- access.to.School.Loop.and.that.the.school.must.remain. sarily.for.all.students..Although.the.department.as.a.whole. vigilant.to.reach.out.to.all.students.through.other.meth- focuses.on.college.preparation.for.all.students,.counselors. ods. stated.that.they.do.not.currently.have.a.guidance.curriculum. to.facilitate.this..They.also.currently.lack.an.effective.sys- oo While.no.parents.had.students.in.the.AvID.program,.they. tem.of.monitoring.students’.progress.through.high.school.. did.express.positive.regard.for.it..Their.knowledge.of.the. Finally,.the.counselors.stated.that.they.do.not.have.the. program.was.somewhat.limited,.but.they.did.know.that. opportunity.to.meet.regularly.with.all.of.their.students,.as. some.students.in.AvID.were.having.positive.results. their.caseloads.are.too.large.to.allow.them.to.do.so. All.surveyed.parents.stated.that.their.child.has.plans.to. School Climate attend.college.and.will.succeed.there..A.significant.portion.of. oo Parents.said.plenty.of.opportunities.existed.for.students. parents.said.they.were.uninformed.about.the.college-applica- to.get.involved.and.feel.connected.to.CHS.but.that.a.sig- tion.process.before.their.child.entered.high.school,.and.a.few. nificant.group.of.students.are.still.able.to.“fly.below.the. of.those.parents.said.counselors.helped.in.this.regard..They. radar,”.essentially.unnoticed.by.staff. said.they.were.grateful.for.the.opportunities.to.meet.with.col- lege.admissions.staff.at.the.school..Not.all.parents.believed. oo While.many.students.have.parents.who.are.invested.in. the.school.was.making.adequate.efforts.to.reach.out.to.par- preparing.them.for.college.admission,.students.who.lack. ents.who.do.not.speak.English.as.their.primary.language.. support.from.home.may.not.receive.it.from.the.school. There.were.mixed.opinions.about.whether.all.students. have.access.to.rigorous.coursework.and.whether.the.current. mix.of.courses.adequately.prepares.students.for.college-level. college-Going culture Survey results work..In.addition,.opinions.differed.about.whether.the. These.surveys.provided.an.opportunity.for.members.of. school.culture.supports.all.students.pursuing.college.as.a. the.various.focus.groups.to.express.their.views.anonymously.. goal.and.whether.the.beliefs.of.the.adults.are.aligned.to.this. Results.show.that.all.teachers.do.not.believe.all.CHS.stu- goal.. dents.have.the.ability.to.move.on.to.postsecondary.educa- tion.after.graduation..Teachers.also.expressed.uncertainty. community conversation about.whether.all.students.even.wanted.to.attend.college. . A.community.conversation.was.held.at.Carlsbad. and.whether.all.students.were.aware.of.the.requirements.for. High.School.on.December.8,.2009..In.attendance.were.the. college.admission..This.slightly.contradicts.their.assertion.in. superintendent.and.other.district.personnel,.teachers.from. the.focus.groups.that.most.teachers.believe.school.staff.are. elementary.and.secondary.schools,.members.of.the.local. well.informed.about.college.requirements.and.provide.ample. community.college.system,.and.parents.and.community. information.to.students.and.families.about.these.require- members.from.the.Carlsbad.area..ETW.reviewed.the.district’s. ments.. current.status,.focusing.particularly.on.the.high.school..This. Most.teachers.in.the.survey.felt.that.college.attendance. provided.an.opportunity.to.celebrate.the.school’s.successes. was.a.personal.goal.they.held.for.students,.but.they.did.not. and.to.discuss.the.possibilities.for.continued.growth.. perceive.this.goal.to.be.schoolwide..In.addition,.no.consen- After.this.discussion,.two.break-out.groups.were.formed. sus.emerged.about.whether.the.level.of.academic.rigor.was. to.discuss.further.the.implications.of.current.levels.of.student. truly.preparing.students.for.postsecondary.success..Teachers. preparation.and.how.best.to.address.growth.areas..Both. perceived.counselors.to.be.somewhat.involved.in.college.and. groups.provided.suggestions,.some.for.the.high.school.and. career.preparation.for.all.students.. others.for.the.district..These.recommendations.will.help. For.their.part,.most.counselors.in.the.survey.said.they. guide.the.creation.and.implementation.of.the.blueprint.for.a. believed.all.CHS.students.were.capable.of.entering.college. college.and.career-preparatory.curriculum.for.all.students. after.graduation,.but.they.were.concerned.that.some.courses. are.not.rigorous.enough.to.make.this.a.reality.for.all.stu- dents..They.stated.that.CHS.has.a.schoolwide.culture.that. The educaTion TrusT–wesT | carlSBad | March 2010 29
    • Recommendations for Carlsbad High School vii: audit componEnt #5: ExamininG oo Increase.graduation.requirements.to.align.with.the.A-G. inStitutional practicE requirements. ETW.surveyed.various.district.departments.to.gather.data. for.the.Educational.Opportunity.Audit..The.primary.purpose. oo Build.stronger.collaboration.among.teachers.to.improve. was.to.examine.factors.that.directly.and.indirectly.affect.the. teaching.and.learning.for.all.students. district’s.ability.to.provide.a.rigorous.college.and.career-pre- paratory.curriculum.for.all.students..Department.representa- oo Reconsider.the.counselor’s.role,.and.ensure.they.know. tives.completed.the.surveys,.the.results.of.which.appear.here.. how.to.support.high.expectations. Additional.information.came.from.the.School.Accountability. Report.Card.for.the.2008-09.school.year..Areas.surveyed. oo Improve.communication.from.the.school.to.parents.to. included.the.following: inform.them.about.student.progress.by.using.School. . Loop.more.effectively. oo budGet:.The.funding.survey.identified.all.current.fund- ing.sources.for.the.high.school.within.the.district.budget,. oo Encourage.continued.and.expanded.parental.involve- including.categorical,.federal,.and.any.external.funds. ment,.using.various.forms.of.communication.in.the. provided.to.the.school.. home.language,.as.needed. oo CurriCuLum and instruCtion:.This.review. Recommendations for Carlsbad Unified School examined.district.policies.and.practices.affecting.the.high. District school,.including.the.textbook-adoption.process,.bench- oo Create.a.K-12.effort.that.focus.on.college.and.career. mark-assessment.practices,.curriculum.calibration,.and. preparation.for.all.students. backward-mapping. oo Provide.meaningful.professional.development.for.all. oo professionaL deveLopment:.The.professional. staff. development.survey.identified.district.and.school.initia- tives.and.structures.to.support.teacher.training.. oo Engage.the.entire.community,.including.local.businesses,. to.promote.increased.investment.in.education. oo speCiaL popuLations and student supports, safety nets, and interventions:.These.two.sur- oo Elect.district.leaders.who.represent.the.diverse.commu- veys.identified.CHS’s.differentiated.programs,.supports,. nity.of.Carlsbad. and.accommodations.for.English-language.learners.and. special.education.students,.as.well.as.offerings.in.general. oo Educate.all.parents.about.options.after.high.school.to. studies.and.for.gifted.students.. ensure.informed.decision.making. oo Career teChniCaL eduCation:.This.survey.iden- oo Increase.support.offered.to.students.who.struggle,.includ- tified.the.existing.courses.and.pathways.available.to. ing.English-language.learners.and.special.education. students..This.includes.both.on-campus.and.off-campus. students course.offerings,.as.well.as.nonacademic.experiences.and. any.certification.opportunities.for.students.to.demon- strate.skills.development..Please.see.Audit.Component.III. (page.X).for.these.survey.results. 30 The educaTion TrusT–wesT | carlSBad | March 2010
    • Findings of institutional practice exams.to.demonstrate.proficiency.in.each.subject.area. The.district.also.is.progressing.toward.a.more.systematic. Budget use.of.data.to.ensure.consistent.instruction.for.all.teachers. CUSD.is.a.basic.aid.district..CHS.receives.state,.federal,. and.departments..Teachers.manage.data.using.Data.Director,. and.district.funds.for.various.purposes..The.district.makes. which.allows.them.to.input.current.student-assessment.data.. funds.available.for.school.maintenance.and.improvement. Retrieval.of.past.assessments.is.also.available..The.program. projects..California.Proposition.P,.passed.in.2006,.provides. is.available.to.teachers.via.their.desktop.computers..It.is. CUSD.with.approximately.$200.million.generated.through. unclear.whether.schoolwide.use.of.Data.Director.currently.is. increased.property.development.fees..These.funds.are.to.be. the.practice.. used.to.modernize.existing.schools.and.to.construct.a.second. ETW.examined.the.district.textbook.lists..Some.text- comprehensive.high.school.on.district-owned.land.. books.were.printed.several.years.ago.and.may.be.outdated.. The.district.also.receives.grant.monies.for.California. The.district.has.developed.a.process.for.textbook.adoption,. School.Age.Families.Education.(Cal-SAFE),.a.block.grant. beginning.with.departments.collaborating.and.then.propos- for.art.and.music.programs,.and.the.Carl.Perkins.vocational. ing.changes.to.the.Coordinating.Council.(CC)..The.CC.then. Education.grant..During.the.2005-06.school.year,.CHS. recommends.selected.texts.to.the.school.board.for.official. received.a.five-year,.$1.million.grant.from.the.U.S..Depart- approval. ment.of.Education.to.develop.smaller.learning.communi- ties..Categorical.funds.support.students.through.specialized. Professional development programs.such.as.AvID.and.GATE..Summer.school.is.funded. CUSD.is.moving.toward.formally.implementing.the. for.remediation.purposes.and.is.determined.by.Average.Daily. National.Staff.Development.Council.Standards.for.Profes- Attendance.(ADA).calculations. sional.Development..The.aim.is.to.focus.efforts.on.ongo- Although.funds.remain.available.for.CHS.renovations.and. ing,.systemic.collaboration.that.considers.teachers’.needs.to. building.the.new.high.school,.the.overarching.California. provide.students.with.a.meaningful.educational.experience.. fiscal.crisis.has.led.to.a.feeling.of.uncertainty.by.school.and. The.district’s.current.policy.is.to.reserve.three.days.each.year. district.personnel..Budget.limitations.have.postponed.any. solely.for.professional.development.purposes.. opportunities.to.sustain.or.expand.such.programs.as.after- Early.release.days.occur.regularly..These.allow.department. school.tutoring.and.employee.buy-back.professional.devel- staff.to.collaborate.formally;.in.addition,.some.departments. opment.days. meet.regularly.after.school.for.planning..No.districtwide. structures.exist.for.K-12.collaboration.. curriculum and instruction Other.professional.development.in.the.district.includes. A.district.survey.examined.the.curriculum,.new.initiatives,. AB.75/SB.472.training.for.certain.CHS.teachers..This.training. benchmark.testing,.textbooks,.and.implementation.of.the. focuses.on.differentiation,.SDAIE,.and.AvID.training.for.ELL. state.standards..To.ensure.greater.consistency,.CUSD.is.in.the. instructors,.as.well.as.training.in.use.of.Data.Director.and. process.of.aligning.curricula.more.closely.with.instruction. School.Loop..Collaborative.teaching.and.articulation.groups. and.assessment.. also.have.been.addressed.through.districtwide.initiatives.. Curriculum.calibration.between.middle.and.high.school. Many.teachers.attend.subject-area.or.program-specific.train- courses.has.occurred.recently,.with.several.departments. ing.on.their.own.time.and.typically.at.their.own.expense. participating.in.the.process—including.English.language. PD.Express.program,.an.online.professional.development. arts,.mathematics,.and.visual.and.performing.arts..Other. management.system,.is.inactive.because.the.AB.825.Profes- departments.also.may.be.recalibrating.their.curricula.but. sional.Development/Buyback.program.has.been.discon- are.doing.so.in.a.less.formal.manner..Progress.has.occurred. tinued..In.the.previous.school.year,.however,.the.district. with.both.vertical.and.horizontal.curriculum.mapping.and. required.22.5.hours.of.professional.development.for.each. will.continue..Standardized.course.descriptions,.summative. teacher;.these.hours.could.be.completed.through.a.various. benchmarks,.and.improved.articulation.have.been.and.will. workshops,.conferences,.and.other.professional.development. continue.to.be.the.focus.for.this.ongoing.process..Bench- activities.offered.through.the.district. mark.testing.occurs.each.semester,.as.students.complete.final. The educaTion TrusT–wesT | carlSBad | March 2010 31
    • special Populations student supports, safety nets, and interventions speCiaL eduCation:.CHS.offers.special.education. CAHSEE.Support:.For.students.who.have.failed.to.pass. services.for.students.who.are.severely.handicapped,.Certifi- either.or.both.of.the.English.language.arts.and.math.por- cate-Bound.(formerly.Special.Day.Class),.Diploma-Bound. tions.of.CAHSEE,.support.courses.are.available.in.eleventh. (formerly.Resource.Specialist.Program),.deaf/hard.of.hearing,. and.twelfth.grade..One.class.section.taught.by.credentialed. and.emotionally.disturbed..Additionally,.a.speech/language. teachers.for.each.subject.is.offered.during.the.school.day.. therapist.and.a.psychologist.are.available.for.students.who. In.addition,.a.structured,.lunch-time.tutoring.program.was. require.such.assistance..Although.special.education.students,. established.in.fall.2009.under.the.guidance.of.CAHSEE. aides,.and.teachers.are.classified.separately,.they.are.fluid. intervention.specialists..These.specialists.also.work.with. between.each.level.of.study.and.type.of.program..Aides.and. English-language.development.specialists,.math.support,.and. teachers.are.all.able.to.adapt.to.teach.and.support.different. the.CAHSEE.support.classes.to.assist.students.with.remedia- classes.at.different.levels.within.the.department,.as.students’. tion.needs.. needs.dictate..CHS.utilizes.a.co-teaching.model,.which. includes.shared.teaching.(for.science.and.math),.collabora- summer sChooL:.Summer.school.is.offered.for.stu- tive.curriculum.preparation,.and.small-group.support. dents.who.earned.grades.of.D.or.F.in.coursework;.for.some. Special.education.students.have.access.to.a.college.and. students,.enrollment.in.summer.school.is.mandatory.to. career-preparatory.curriculum,.based.on.their.individual. advance.to.the.next.level.in.a.subject..Routine.advancement. ability.and.any.accommodations.made.in.their.Individual- is.not.available.through.summer.school.offerings.. ized.Education.Plan.(IEP)..Whenever.possible,.students.are. required.to.complete.college-preparatory.coursework.to.earn. avid:.The.Advancement.via.Individual.Determination. a.high.school.diploma..Some.special.education.students. (AvID).program.consists.of.up.to.four.years.of.a.year-long. have.the.option.for.exemption.from.CAHSEE.testing.and.a. course,.culminating.in.a.senior.seminar..Students.are.typi- differentiated.diploma,.specifically.a.certificate.of.comple- cally.identified.in.middle.school,.provided.they.fit.the.AvID. tion,.if.necessary. program.admission.requirements..They.join.the.AvID.pro- gram.once.they.enroll.at.CHS..All.ninth-grade.AvID.students. enGLish-LanGuaGe Learners:.Slightly.fewer.than. enroll.in.English.9.Honors,.and.all.are.encouraged.to.enroll. 5.percent.of.Carlsbad.High.School.students.are.classified.as. in.AP.U.S..History.in.eleventh.grade. English-language.learners..Students.who.are.still.developing. their.English.skills.have.the.opportunity.to.take.core.classes. GeneraL eduCation students:.Generally,.interven- in.a.“sheltered”.format.in.order.to.support.their.specific. tions.and.support.systems.are.available.to.students.on.an. language.needs..CUSD.employs.five.English-language.devel- as-needed.basis..Individual.tutoring.or.assistance.from.teach- opment.specialists.who.are.shared.among.the.schools;.one. ers.is.available.before.and.after.school,.as.well.as.informally. works.solely.at.Carlsbad.High..The.process.of.monitoring. during.lunch.. current.and.reclassified.ELL.students.was.not.included.in.the. survey. peer tutorinG:.Junior.and.seniors.with.high.GPAs. who.are.also.“peer.leaders”.provide.peer.tutoring.to.students. Gifted and taLented eduCation:.To.provide.chal- who.are.struggling.in.their.course.work..The.tutors.use.the. lenges.to.students.who.achieve.and.learn.at.higher.rates,.the. AvID.tutoring.program.model.and.are.required.to.partici- district.offers.a.Gifted.and.Talented.Education.(GATE).pro- pate.in.a.certain.amount.of.sessions.during.the.school.year.. gram..High.school.students.can.take.honors.and.Advanced. Students.who.attend.tutoring.sessions.have.the.option.of. Placement.courses. attending.either.during.lunch.or.after.school.and.have.the. flexibility.to.choose.the.peers.with.whom.they.work. 32 The educaTion TrusT–wesT | carlSBad | March 2010
    • aLternative eduCation:.CUSD’s.continuation.high. viii. nExt StEpS school.program,.Carlsbad.village.Academy.(CvA),.provides. The.Educational.Opportunity.Audit.can.be.an.important. opportunities.for.students.in.grades.10-12.who.are.behind.in. and.enlightening.tool.for.the.CHS.reform.efforts..This.final. earning.credits.for.graduation,.desire.a.smaller.school.setting,. audit.report.is.designed.to.serve.as.the.baseline.for.the.devel- or.have.experienced.academic.or.behavioral.problems..Most. opment.of.the.“Blueprint.for.Implementation.of.the.College- students.who.enroll.at.CvA.come.voluntarily,.though.some. Ready.and.Career-Ready.Curriculum”.for.all.students..This. do.so.as.a.result.of.involuntary.transfer.by.school.admin- action.plan.will.describe.in.detail.what.must.occur.to.trans- istration..Embedded.into.the.curriculum.are.supports.or. form.current.course-taking.patterns.so.that.all.CHS.students. career.counseling,.work.experience,.and.other.opportunities. are.enrolled.in.the.full.complement.of.courses.required.to.be. for.students.to.set.goals..Students.can.either.earn.their.high. ready.for.a.variety.of.postsecondary.options.. school.diploma.from.CvA.or.transfer.to.CHS.for.the.follow- Given.all.of.the.information.revealed.in.the.Educational. ing.semester. Opportunity.Audit.regarding.curriculum.and.instruction,. funding,.professional.development,.facilities,.special.popula- tions,.stakeholder.concerns.and.attitudes,.and.revelations. about.the.college-going.culture.in.the.district.and.commu- nity,.the.question.becomes:.How.will.the.CUSD.go.from. where.it.currently.is.to.where.it.wants.to.go?. Many.important.educational.concepts.are.embedded.in. the.strategic.priorities.and.vision.of.the.district..CUSD.can. build.upon.these.concepts.to.make.the.high.school.experi- ence.a.gateway.to.a.meaningful.career.or.postsecondary. training.for.every.graduate..In.addition,.the.foundation.for.a. traditional.college-preparatory.curriculum.is.strong.and.can. easily.be.expanded.and.enriched.for.all.students. The educaTion TrusT–wesT | carlSBad | March 2010 33
    • ix. implicationS For BluEprint that.do.not.meet.UC/CSU.A-G.requirements.will.ensure. It.is.not.the.intent.of.The.Education.Trust–West.to.carve. equal.access.to.college.preparatory.courses..Also,.updat- out.a.list.of.specific.recommendations.to.be.included.in.the. ing.the.list.of.UCOP-approved.courses.offered.at.CHS.on. blueprint..We.anticipate.that.the.enormous.amount.of.infor- the.Doorways.website.will.allow.for.informed.decision- mation.in.the.audit.report.will.spark.meaningful.conversa- making.about.course.selection..Additionally,.increase. tions.about.the.high.school.redesign.and.will.drive.the.work. senior.year.rigor.by.requiring.all.12th.grade.students. in.the.future..Nevertheless,.numerous.recurring.themes.have. enroll.in.at.least.5.academic.courses. emerged.from.the.audit.that.should.guide.the.blueprint- development.process. 4.. examine GradinG poLiCies..Standardized.grading. criteria.do.not.exist,.particularly.between.courses.taught. curriculum and instruction during.the.regular.school.year.and.those.taught.during. summer.school..In.addition,.D’s,.while.earning.students. 1.. aLiGn Chs Graduation requirements with credit,.do.not.allow.students.to.meet.the.A-G.require- the uC/Csu a-G requirements..Research.demon- ments. strates.that.no.divide.should.exist.between.the.knowl- edge.and.skills.students.should.be.required.to.master. 5.. open aCCess to advanCed pLaCement and to.prepare.for.college.and.a.career..This.will.be.accom- honors Courses..Students.must.be.given.the. plished.through.increasing.mathematics.requirements. opportunity.to.take.the.more.rigorous.AP.and.honors. up.to.Algebra.2,.requiring.all.English.and.lab.science. courses..In.line.with.developing.a.college-going.culture,. coursework.to.be.college.preparatory,.and.requiring.two. opening.access.to.these.courses.assists.in.creating.high. years.of.a.world.language.in.addition.to.one.year.of.a. expectations.for.all.students..A.thoughtful.and.systemic. visual.and.performing.arts.course. outreach.program.should.be.established.to.encourage. underserved.students.to.enroll..Students.who.are.willing. 2.. aLiGn aLL Cte Courses with uC/Csu a-G to.challenge.themselves.in.more.rigorous.coursework. requirements..The.strength.of.the.Career.Technical. such.as.AP/Honors.courses,.but.who.may.lack.the.foun- Education.department.is.evident.and.could.be.bolstered. dation.to.succeed.in.these.classes,.should.receive.special. further.through.UCOP.approval.of.courses..Submitting. support.to.allow.them.to.take.advantage.of.such.course. CTE.courses.for.approval.to.UC/CSU.will.increase.the. offerings.at.CHS..All.students.must.have.equal.oppor- college.and.career-preparatory.course-taking.options.for. tunity.to.pursue.the.most.rigorous.course.sequence. students..Evaluate.current.CTE.pathways.for.academic. possible. rigor.and.adequate.skill.development.for.certification.or. other.opportunities.to.demonstrate.proficiency..Elimi- professional development nate.any.courses.that.do.not.provide.students.with.the. skills.and.knowledge.to.go.into.that.career.after.high. 6.. evaLuate and impLement sChooLwide profes- school..Ensure.all.students.have.both.access.and.success. sionaL deveLopment..As.the.district.shifts.to.requir- in.the.most.rigorous.CTE.paths. ing.A-G.for.all,.staff.members.will.need.support.to.reach. this.goal..In.doing.so,.current.professional.development. 3.. examine the master-sCheduLe proCess..The. opportunities.must.be.evaluated.for.both.effectiveness. master.schedule.must.ensure.that.all.students.have.the. and.support.in.the.district’s.goal.of.ensuring.all.students. opportunity.and.the.time.to.take.the.courses.they.need. are.ready.for.college.and.career..The.district.must.focus. for.postsecondary.success..Any.necessary.interventions. on.professional.development.that.supports.teachers.in. should.not.prevent.students.from.taking.other.required. the.use.of.data.to.determine.students’.weaknesses.and. coursework..Involving.the.counseling.department.in. correspondingly.what.teachers.can.do.differently.in.the. developing.the.master.schedule.will.help.ensure.that. classroom.to.support.the.students. students’.needs.have.the.highest.priority.with.course.and. section.offerings..Eliminating.any.core.academic.courses. 34 The educaTion TrusT–wesT | carlSBad | March 2010
    • 7.. expand the use of sChooL Loop and data Two.other.aspects.of.interventions.need.attention:.how. direCtor..Both.programs.can.serve.as.powerful.tools. students.are.identified.and.placed.into.interventions.and. to.assist.teachers.with.instruction.and.in.communication. how.they.transition.out.of.interventions.once.they.have. with.families.about.students’.progress.. developed.mastery.of.a.given.skill. 8.. Coordinate middLe sChooL and hiGh 12.. impLement an eduCationaL advisory period.. sChooL CurriCuLa..Strategic.and.regular.meet- A.discrete.advisory.period.can.be.an.opportunity.for. ings.need.to.occur.between.these.two.levels.to.address. teachers.to.assist.students.in.their.educational.pursuits.. course.alignment,.skill.gaps,.and.planning..This.practice. They.can.explore.college.and.career.options.together,.or. has.begun.with.some.academic.departments.and.must. students.can.obtain.help.in.a.specific.subject.in.which. expand.to.all.others..Such.collaboration.between.the.two. they.are.struggling..This.process.must.be.very.thoughtful. levels.will.help.provide.all.students.with.the.preparation. and.purposeful.to.ensure.it.does.not.become.a.waste.of. they.need.to.transition.into.high.school.ready.to.enroll. time.for.students.and.teachers. and.succeed.in.a.rigorous.curriculum. other student supports 13.. Evaluate.current.staffing..As.the.districts.moves.toward. 9.. examine how to meet the needs of speCiaL a.college.and.career.preparatory.curriculum.for.all. popuLations..Examine.ELL.and.special.education. students,.the.district.must.ensure.that.it.has.enough.cre- courses.to.make.sure.students.have.opportunities.to. dentialed.teachers.on.staff..The.areas.of.highest.need.will. meet.A-G.requirements..In.particular,.examine,.and. be.science.and.world.language..Science.teachers.can.only. rework.as.needed,.the.instructional.program.offered.to. teach.the.subject.area.(biology,.chemistry,.etc.).in.which. ELLs.to.ensure.they.have.clear.pathways.to.meet.A-G. they.are.credentialed..Currently,.CUSD.only.requires. requirements..These.students.will.need.extra.support. one.year.of.world.language.OR.a.visual.and.performing. to.succeed..Give.special.education.students.access.to. arts.course..When.the.districts.moves.to.requiring.all. college-prep.coursework. students.to.take.two.years.of.a.world.language,.more.of. these.teachers.will.be.needed.to.accommodate.addi- 10.. deveLop a CoLLeGe-GoinG CuLture distriCt- tional.section.offerings. wide..The.college-going.emphasis.needs.to.be.systemic,. K-12,.with.the.goal.of.helping.every.student.reach.col- lege..Well.before.high.school,.students.must.be.intro- duced.to.career.options.and.college-eligibility.require- ments..In.high.school,.all.students.should.be.prepared. to.complete.the.UC/CSU.A-G.course.requirements..CHS. has.an.impressive.college.and.career.resource.center. with.information.for.students.and.families..This.should. expand.to.provide.support.and.guidance.in.navigating. the.college.admission.and.financial.aid.processes.to.all. CHS.students.. 11.. evaLuate intervention and support pro- Grams..Although.several.intervention.options.exist.for. students.who.struggle.academically,.not.all.interventions. are.formally.evaluated.for.effectiveness..A.systematic. process.will.ensure.replication.of.successful.practices. and.allow.removal.of.those.that.do.not.serve.students.. The educaTion TrusT–wesT | carlSBad | March 2010 35
    • appendices appEndix a Board of trustees carlsbad unified School disctruct Resolution # 50-0809 to Create Educational Equity That Prepares All Carlsbad Graduates for Success in College and Career: WhErEaS, the Board of Trustees of Carlsbad Unified School District is committed to ensuring that all Carlsbad students graduate with the skills, motivation, curiosity and resilience to succeed in their choice of career and college in order to lead and participate in the society of tomorrow; and WhErEaS, the Board is further committed to eliminating the achievement gap, increasing high school graduation, reducing dropout rates, and eliminating the need for employer provided remediation and a college preparatory course sequence has been shown to promote the attainment of these goals; and WhErEaS, the college preparatory course sequence embodied in the University of California A-G admission requirements is a rigorous life readiness curriculum that does not guarantee college admission, but rather is made up of rigorous courses teaching core skills that prepare students not only to enter college, but also to enter adult life in a changing economy and a changing world; and WhErEaS, not all District students currently have the opportunity to pursue an array of options, including college after high school, because they do not have the necessary foundation skills or are not enrolled in rigorous preparatory coursework that ensures college and career readiness, and WhErEaS, the completion of a college preparatory sequence in conjunction with a rigorous and relevant career and technical education program will provide Carls- bad Unified students a full array of post-secondary options; thErEForE, BE it rESolvEd, that the Board of Trustees of the Carlsbad Unified School District support entering into a partnership with Ed Trust West for the purpose of identifying the necessary steps that must be taken to ensure equal access for all students to A-G course sequence; and BE it FurthEr rESolvEd, that the necessary learning supports, alternative means for completion of the prescribed course sequence in order to accommodate the needs of all students, and realignment and dedication of resources necessary to ensure all students are prepared to successfully complete the college-prep course sequence; and BE it FurthEr rESolvEd, that the Board supports the alignment and dedication of resources towards professional development that ensures that all teachers are engaged in researching, developing, and sharing rigorous and culturally relevant curriculum and effective methods for the successful implementation of the more rigorous A-G curriculum for all students; and BE it FurthEr rESolvEd, that the Board directs the Superintendent to strengthen and sustain the vocational and career-technical education program so that it is more closely aligned with college preparatory requirements and will better prepare students for the 21st Century Skills required to be successful citizens, workers and leaders in today’s world; and BE it FurthEr rESolvEd, that the Superintendent shall establish an implementation committee that collaborates with parents, employees and employee organiza- tions, post-secondary institutions, and other stakeholders to incorporate community involvement in the development and implementation of the District’s strategy, paying specific attention to matters such as facilities, finance, personnel, curriculum, career and technical education, and the special needs of different student populations; BE it FurthEr rESolvEd, that the Superintendent shall report on or before October 2010, and biannually thereafter, on the progress of this implementation with respect to student outcomes and district resource allocation; and BE it FurthEr rESolvEd, that this planning and action begin immediately after the adoption of this Resolution. Adopted and approved by the Board of Trustees of the Carlsbad Unified School District at the regular meeting held on the 13th day of May, 2009. President Vice President Member Member Member Superintendent 36 The educaTion TrusT–wesT | carlSBad | March 2010
    • appEndix B appEndix c data team meeting december 8, 2009 The A-G graduation rate in 2008-09, as reported to the California Department of Education (CDE), was incorrect because of a data-tagging issue within poSition namE CUSD’s student information system. This miscalculation was discovered and investigated. While the number could not be resubmitted to CDE, CUSD inter- 1. Superintendent John Roach nally reports that 52.9 percent of all CHS graduates met the full A-G course 2. Assistant Superintendent Suzanne O’Connell sequence upon graduation. 3. Assistant Superintendent Torrie Norton 4. Assistant Superintendent Walter Freeman 5. Ind. Study/ Alt. Ed Keith Holley 6. Director Pupil Services Bruce Kramer 7. Director Instructional Services. Lucy Haines 8. Director Instructional Services Devin Vodicka 9. Student Services Specialist Rosemary Eshelman 10. English Learner Services Elisa Galicia 11. GATE Facilitator Joyce Vallone 12. NCCSE Program Specialist Brent Nielsen 13. CHS Principal Maggie Stanchi 14. CHS Counselor Patsy Bentley 15. CHS Counselor Roger Brown 16. CHS Registrar Therese Dolkas 17. CHS Teacher Monica Hall 18. CHS Teacher Christine Parr 19. CHS CTE Teacher Bruce Tillman 20. CHS Teacher Karl Walker 21. CHS Teacher Alan Cusey 22. CVA Counselor Julie Redfield 23. CVA Teacher Joseph Dunn 24. AOM Principal Carolyn Millikin 25. AOM Counselor Ron Cordell 26. VMS Principal Cesar Morales 27. VMS Teacher Carleen Proctor 28. VMS Counselor Melony Schroh 29. CHM Counselor Jesse Gonzalez 30. CHM Teacher Patty Adams 31. PR Elementary Teacher Megan Smith 32. AOE Principal Kimberly Huesing 33. CHE Principal Leslie Harden 34. SDCOE Todd Langager The educaTion TrusT–wesT | carlSBad | March 2010 37
    • notES 1.. .Anthony.Carnevale,.Analysis.of.Current.Population. 3.. Source:.EDD,.LMID.California.2008-2010.Industry.and. Survey.(1992-2004).and.Census.Population.Projection. Occupational.Employment.Projections... Estimates,.2006. http://www.calmis.ca.gov/specialreports/Occ-CA-Fastest- Growing-Industry-2008-10.pdf 2.. http://www.whitehouse.gov/the_press_office/excerpts- of-the-presidents-remarks-in-warren-michigan-and-fact- 4.. Achieve,.Inc.,.“Mathematics.at.Work”.series,.Washington,. sheet-on-the-american-graduation-initiative/ D.C.,.2008,.www.achieve.org/MathatWork. 38 The educaTion TrusT–wesT | carlSBad | March 2010
    • AboUt tHe eDUCAtion tRUst–West the education trust–West promotes high academic achievement for all students at all levels—pre-kindergarten through college. We work alongside parents, educators, and community and business leaders across the country in transforming schools and colleges into institutions that serve all students well. lessons learned in these efforts, together with unflinching data analyses, shape our state and national policy agendas. our goal is to close the gaps in opportunity and achievement that consign far too many young people—especially those who are black, latino, American indian, or from low-income families—to lives on the margins of the American mainstream. 1 8 1 4 F r a n K l i n S t. , S u i t E 2 2 0 o a K l a n d , c a l i F. 9 4 6 1 2 t 510/465-6444 F 510/465-0589 WWW .EdtruStWESt. orG