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The race for untapped talent: the prospects of diversity

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Keynote at the EAN Conference on access and diversity in higher education, Amsterdam, 17 June 2011

Keynote at the EAN Conference on access and diversity in higher education, Amsterdam, 17 June 2011

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  • 1. The race for untapped talent: the prospects of diversity
    Dirk Van Damme
    Head of the Centre for Educational Research and Development – OECD/EDU
  • 2. Outline
    The global race for talent
    Expanding higher education systems
    Untapped stocks of talent
    Opportunities for ethnic minority students
    Benefits and prospects
    The pedagogy of success
    Conclusions
    2
  • 3. The global race for talent
    1.
    3
  • 4. Demography
    4
  • 5. 5
  • 6. The global talent pool
  • 7. Need for skilled people
    Demographic transition and a rapidly changing economy dramatically increase the need for skilled jobs and people
    Increasing international competition for talent and high-skilled labour
    Countries will increasingly look into the possibilities of high-skilled migration to solve short-term skill needs
    But there may be more sustainable policy approaches…
    7
  • 8. Expanding higher education systems
    2.
    8
  • 9. Expansion
    Higher education systems are
    Recruiting more students than even before
    Delivering more qualified graduates than…
    Receiving more (mainly public) funding than…
    Attracting more international students and international staff than…
    Expansion, massification and internationalisation will continue to grow
    9
  • 10. Growth in university-level qualifications
    Approximated by the percentage of the population that has attained tertiary-type A education in the age groups 25-34 years, 35-44 years, 45-54 years and 55-64 years (2007)
    %
  • 11. Changes in student numbers and expenditure Index of change between 2000 and 2007 (2000=100, 2007 constant prices)
    Expenditure per student increased by
    14% on average between 2000-2007
  • 12. Source: CERI/OECD, 2008
    Massification will continue
    12
  • 13. International studentsPercentage of all foreign tertiary students enrolled by destination
    3.3 million tertiary students are enrolled outside their country, compared to 2 millions in 2000.
  • 14. International students
    2007, OECD Education database
    14
  • 15. 15
  • 16. …will that be enough…?
    16
  • 17. Untapped stocks of talent
    3.
    17
  • 18. Waste of talent?
    Higher education is not very effective in taking benefit of the human resources it potentially can tap on
    High failure and drop out rates, especially in the early years
    Low access and low success rates of students from disadvantaged backgrounds
    Low SES students
    Low educational capital
    Ethnic minority students
    18
  • 19. Failure remains a huge problem…
    Proportion of students who enter a tertiary programme but leave without at least a first tertiary degree (2005)
    %
    19
  • 20. 20
    Source: Education at a Glance 2008
  • 21. Higher education participation according to educational attainment father (2004)
    21
  • 22. Success rates of students according to educational attainment mother (Antwerp University, 2006)
    22
  • 23. Opportunities for ethnic minority students
    4.
    23
  • 24. Changing populations
    24
  • 25. Percentage of 15 year-old school pupils with at least one parent born abroad and percentage of 15 year-old school pupils born abroad in 2009
    25
  • 26. Percentage point changes in the share of 15 year-old school pupils with at least one parent born abroad and of 15 year-old school pupils born abroad, 2000-09
    26
  • 27. But gaps in educational achievement
    27
    PISA 2009 data (reading scale)
  • 28.
    • “SES” and “speaking a different language at home” largely explain the performance gap between the two groups in many countries. But they are not the only reasons.
    • 29. Other factors: availability of educational resources at home, reading at home at a young age, and participating in ECEC, etc.
    Accounting for students' socio
    -
    economic background
    Accounting for students' socio
    -
    economic background and language spoken at home
    Performance difference in reading
    20
    Score point
    difference
    0
    38 pts
    Roughly equivalent to one year of schooling
    (science -proxy)
    -
    20
    -
    40
    -
    60
    -
    80
    -
    100
  • 30. Proportion of 20-24y-olds who are not in education and have not attained upper secondary education, by migrant status (2007)
    29
  • 31. Educational opportunities for migrants
    Rapidly increasing share of school population
    Achievement gaps in school education between native born and migrant students
    With strong impact of SES and language spoken at home
    But with very large variation between countries
    Unqualified and out-of-school 20-24y olds are in most countries disproportionally from migrant backgrounds
    And what about higher education?
    30
  • 32. Proportion of 25-29 year-olds who either have a tertiary education qualification or are currently enrolled in a tertiary education programme, by migrant status
    2007
    31
  • 33. Increasing participation disadvantaged
    32
    England
    Increase for advantaged areas in the same period was only 4% (from 55% to 59%)
  • 34. Difference in 25-29y olds in tertiary education between migrants and born in country and difference in 20-24y olds with secondary education
    Migrants more in tertiary education
    Migrants more with secondary education
    Migrants less in tertiary education
    Migrants more with secondary education
    Migrants more in tertiary education
    Migrants less with secondary education
    Migrants less in tertiary education
    Migrants less with secondary education
    33
  • 35. Migrant students in HE
    In most countries educational participation and qualification of migrant students are lagging behind those of native students
    But there are indications of rising participation levels
    Large differences between countries suggest that this has little to do with innate capacities nor that it should be a insolvable problem
    There seems to be a link in country profiles between migrant participation and participation of foreign students in higher education
    34
  • 36. Difference in 25-29y olds in tertiary education between migrants and born in country and percentage of foreign students (2007-2008)
    35
  • 37. Benefits and prospects
    5.
    36
  • 38. Benefits and prospects
    More migrant students accessing and succeeding in higher education might have very powerful economical benefits
    Additional skills input in the economy has a positive impact on growth
    Employment opportunities improve
    A more ‘open’ science and innovation system also seems to be a more productive and innovative one
    37
  • 39. The economic cost of educational underachievement
    McKinsey calculated the economic cost of the 1983-1998 achievement gap in PISA results for the US today
    Racial gap: black and Latino students to level of white students 2 to 4% 2008 GDP
    Income gap: students from families earning <25k US$ to level of students from families >25k: 3 to 5%
    System gap: underperforming states to average achievement level: 3 to 5%
    International gap with top-performing nations: 9 to 16%
    (1% 2008 US GDP ≈ 165 billion US$)
    38
  • 40. Proportion of employed 25-29y-old non-students with a tertiary education, working as technicians or as professionals by migrant status
    2007
    39
  • 41. Difference between 25-29y olds foreign born and born in country for tertiary education and employment (2007)
    Migrants less in tertiary education
    Migrants with tertiary education more employed
    Migrants more in tertiary education
    Migrants with tertiary education more employed
    Migrants less in tertiary education
    Migrants with tertiary education less employed
    Migrants more in tertiary education
    Migrants with tertiary education less employed
    40
  • 42. Link with innovation
  • 43. The pedagogY of success
    6.
    42
  • 44. Old (or not so old) paradigm
    Selection of the gifted
    ‘Only small minority has the necessary abilities’
    The impact of education is ceiled by the limited availability of innate abilities
    Distribution of innate abilities follows normal distribution, so learning outcomes have to be distributed in the same way
    Early tracking and streaming to select the best
    Concentration of educational efforts and resources in elite institutions for the few
    ‘Pedagogy of failure’ for the many
    29 April 2010
    43
    Hungarian Lifelong Learning Conference
  • 45. Future paradigm
    All talents to the highest possible level
    Excellence is not contradictory to equity
    Some countries are capable of raising achievement at both ends of the performance scale or even to enhance excellence while decreasing inequity
    Effective learning demands pedagogical differentiation and less standardisation
    ‘Pedagogy of success’ for all!
    But: talents which are more difficult to exploit demand more effective and more intensive educational interventions
    29 April 2010
    Hungarian Lifelong Learning Conference
    44
  • 46. Conclusions
    7.
    45
  • 47. Conclusions
    Demographic changes, skill demands of the knowledge economy and social change at large will increasingly ask HE to mine hitherto untapped and even undiscovered talent, beyond the ‘easy’ solution of recruiting high-skilled on the international market.
    There are large ‘reservoirs’ of talent in the disadvantaged communities in our counties, more specifically in the migrant community.
    46
  • 48. Conclusions
    Access and – slowly – success of migrant students in HE is improving, but much more needs to be done
    Mining talents in disadvantaged students will require more effective pedagogy and educational structures in institutions
    Beyond the ‘call of moral duty, economic and social benefits are potentially very huge, both for society at large and institutions
    47
  • 49. Thank you !
    dirk.vandamme@oecd.org
    www.oecd.org/edu/ceri
    48

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