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Onderwijs en jeugdwerkloosheid

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Presentatie op congres jeugdwerkloosheid van de Koninklijke Vlaamse Academie van Belgie. Thema's: basiskwalificatie voor iedereen, meer hooggeschoolden, betere trajecten in beroepsopleiding en

Presentatie op congres jeugdwerkloosheid van de Koninklijke Vlaamse Academie van Belgie. Thema's: basiskwalificatie voor iedereen, meer hooggeschoolden, betere trajecten in beroepsopleiding en

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  • 1. ONDERWIJS EN JEUGDWERKLOOSHEID Dirk Van Damme, Head of the Innovation and Measuring Progress Division, Directorate for Education and Skills, OECD
  • 2. Youth unemployment rate (as % of youth labour force), 15-24 year-olds 60 Austria Belgium 50 Denmark France Germany 40 Greece Hungary Ireland 30 Italy Netherlands Portugal 20 Spain Sweden Switzerland 10 United Kingdom OECD-Total 0 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2
  • 3. Luxembourg Poland Hungary Czech Republic Germany Slovak Republic Finland Iceland Estonia Belgium France Greece Sweden Netherlands Denmark Korea Switzerland Ireland Austria Portugal OECD average Italy Spain Norway United Kingdom Inactivity among very young youth Percentage of 15-19 year-old NEET (2011) Not in education and unemployed Not in education and not in the labour force Not in education (Total) 20 18 16 14 12 % 10 8 6 4 2 0 3
  • 4. Some key data for Belgium (2011-2012) • Of 15-29 year-olds are – 47% in education – 53% not in education • 39.1% employed • 13.9% not in employment – 7.8% not in the labour force – 6.1% unemployed » 2.9% more than 6 months » 3.2% less than 6 months 4
  • 5. STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE 1: MAKE SURE ALL YOUTH HAVE A BASIC QUALIFICATION 5
  • 6. Employment rate by educational attainment, 2005-11, 25-34 year-olds Belgium below upper sec Belgium upper secondary Belgium tertiary OECD av below secondary OECD av upper secondary OECD av tertiary EU21 av below upper secondary EU21 av upper secondary EU21 av tertiary 100 25-34 year-olds 95 90 85 80 75 70 65 60 55 50 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 6
  • 7. Employment rate by educational attainment, 2005-11, 45-54 year-olds Belgium below upper sec Belgium upper secondary Belgium tertiary OECD av below secondary OECD av upper secondary OECD av tertiary EU21 av below upper secondary EU21 av upper secondary EU21 av tertiary 100 45-54 year-olds 95 90 85 80 75 70 65 60 55 50 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 7
  • 8. Employment rate gap for 25-34 y-olds with less than upper sec, 2005-11 Belgium difference in employment rates upper sec minus below secondary OECD difference in employment rates upper sec minus below secondary EU21 difference in employment rates upper sec minus below secondary 30 25-34 year-olds 25 20 15 10 5 n 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 8
  • 9. 9
  • 10. STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE 2: ENSURE HIGHER LEVELS OF TERTIARY ATTAINMENT 10
  • 11. Evolution of employment in occupational groups defined by level of education Percent Percentage change in the share of employment relative to 1998, by occupational groups defined by workers’ average level of education 25 Occupations with high educated workers 20 15 Occupations with medium educated workers Occupations with low-educated workers 10 5 0 -5 -10 -15 11
  • 12. Italy Austria Czech Republic Slovak Republic Portugal Germany Hungary Greece Slovenia Denmark OECD average 25-34 year-olds Estonia Spain Poland Iceland 70 Finland % Netherlands Switzerland Belgium Sweden France Luxembourg Norway United Kingdom Ireland Tertiary attainment rate (2011) 25-64 year-olds 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 12
  • 13. Finland United States Belgium Netherlands Japan Denmark Austria France United Kingdom Canada Mexico Greece Hungary Overall population growth Czech Republic OECD average Switzerland Australia New Zealand Slovak Republic Italy Iceland % 8 Korea Luxembourg Portugal Poland Spain Turkey Ireland Annual growth rate in tertiary educational attainment rate (1998-2008) Attainment rate growth 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 -1
  • 14. 0 Italy Netherlands Flanders (Belgium) Cyprus¹ ² Poland Finland Slovak Republic Denmark Sweden United States Norway Czech Republic Austria Korea Average Spain Germany Estonia Canada Ireland Australia England/N.… Japan Risk of over-qualification? Percentage of workers whose highest qualification is higher than the qualification they deem necessary to get their job today (PIAAC, 2011) 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 14
  • 15. Flemish youth is not more or less overqualified than older workers 4 Adjusted odds ratio showing the likelihood of over-qualification by age group 45-54 year olds United States Sweden Spain Slovak Republic Poland Norway Netherlands Italy Ireland Germany Flanders (Belgium) Finland Estonia England/N. Ireland (UK) Denmark Czech Republic Austria 0 1 2 3 16-24 year olds 15
  • 16. STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE 3: PROVIDE HIGHER QUALITY AND MORE RELEVANT EDUCATIONAL TRAJECTORIES 16
  • 17. Employment rate 25-34 & 35-44 years-old, upper secondary attainment, by programme orientation General Vocational Total General Vocational 25-34 Total 35-44 Belgium 69.24 83.01 79.44 80.31 85.38 84.12 Netherlands 75.98 88.13 85.75 83.24 87.29 86.33 Germany 53.25 84.27 80.33 73.35 85.89 85.65 France 75.15 79.17 77.87 83.19 85.29 84.70 OECD average 69.03 79.18 75.57 78.28 83.57 81.23 EU21 average 67.79 78.17 76.28 78.45 83.03 82.41 17
  • 18. % Countries where expenditure in VET programmes is above the OECD average Countries where expenditure in VET programmes is below the OECD average OECD average Percentage of 25-34 year-olds that have attained an upper secondary VET qualification as highest level of education 100 90 80 Czech Republic Slovak Republic 70 Austria Germany 60 Luxembourg 50 Switzerland Poland 40 Finland OECD average 30 Estonia France New Zealand 20 Netherlands Sweden Hungary Turkey 10 n 65 70 75 80 85 Employment rates for 25-34 year-olds with upper secondary VET qualifications 90 18 %
  • 19. STRATEGIC OBJECTIVE 4: VALUE SKILLS MORE THAN QUALIFICATIONS 19
  • 20. Youth unemployment and skills are linked 305 Japan Literacy proficiency 16-24 year-olds (PIAAC) (2011) 300 Finland 295 Korea Netherlands 290 Estonia 285 Australia 280 Average Austria Denmark Canada Norway Germany 275 Belgium Sweden Poland Czech Republic United States 270 Japan France Germany United Kingdom 265 Spain Italy 260 255 0 10 20 30 40 Youth unemployment rate 15-24 year-olds (2012) 50 60 20
  • 21. Flanders (Belgium) Finland Canada Cyprus¹ ² Korea Denmark Norway Estonia Sweden Spain Primary education or less Netherlands United States Ireland Average Poland Australia England/N. Ireland (UK) Germany Japan Slovak Republic Czech Republic Italy Austria Percentage workers in high-skilled and unskilled jobs Tertiary education or more 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 10 20 30 21
  • 22. Likelihood of positive social and economic outcomes among highly literate adults (scoring at Level 4/5 compared with those scoring at Level 1 or below) Average Germany England (UK) Flanders (Belgium) 5.0 4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 Odds ratio Good to excellent health Being Employed High levels of Participation in High levels of trust volunteer political activities efficacy High wages 22
  • 23. 23
  • 24. Young age is critical in skills development 310 300 Literacy unadjusted Numeracy unadjusted 290 280 270 Literacy adjusted Numeracy adjusted Level 2 260 250 240 15 20 25 30 35 40 Age 45 50 55 60 65 24
  • 25. Dank! dirk.vandamme@oecd.org www.oecd.org/edu/ceri twitter @VanDammeEDU 25