Evaluating and rewarding teachers the prospects of the valorizza experiment rev

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  • 1. Evaluating and rewardingteachers – the prospects ofthe Valorizza experiment Dirk Van Damme Head of the Centre for Educational Research and Innovation - OECD
  • 2. Introductory comments• Improving teacher quality is the most successful route to building high-quality education systems – Attracting and retaining good teachers – Supporting the professionalisation of teachers – Motivating teachers – Involving teachers in educational reform• Evaluation, appraisal and feedback are key features of professionalisation• Their ultimate function is to create a knowledge- rich environment for teachers 2
  • 3. Introductory comments• Evaluation of teachers serves many purposes – Rewarding excellence in the profession – Stimulating improvement – Supporting professional standards of excellence – Demonstrating public accountability – Identifying underperforming teachers – Fostering professional development, coaching, effective supervision and collegial intervision• All leading, of course, to improved student learning and achievement 3
  • 4. Insights from TALIS 2008• Most teachers welcome evaluation, appraisal and feedback and would like to receive more• Too many teachers still do not receive adequate appraisal and feedback• Evaluation and appraisal too often do not lead to effective consequences• Teachers receiving feedback generally feel more effective, have greater job satisfaction and engage in professional improvement activities• School leaders are not investing enough in adequate appraisal 4
  • 5. Insights from TALIS 2008 5
  • 6. Designing effective teacher evaluation • Critical conditions for teacher evaluation to be effective – Needs to be in line with other policies sustaining their professionalisation: • recruitment, selection, training, induction, professional development, remuneration, incentives, … – Balancing improvement and accountability – Needs to be seen by teachers as fair, firmly based in the profession, evidence-based 6
  • 7. Designing effective teacher evaluation • Possible methods and sources of evidence: – Classroom observation – Objective setting and individual interviews – Self-evaluation – Teacher portfolio – Standardised forms to record performance – Teacher testing – Surveys of students and parents – Use of student achievement data 7
  • 8. Designing effective teacher evaluation • Evaluators – Need to be perceived as competent, trustworthy – Preferably should have a training in evaluation • External use of evaluation results: – Rewarding excellence – Career advancement – Sanctions for poorly performing teachers 8
  • 9. The Valorizza experiment• The Valorizza experiment is a most valuable contribution to the international experience in teacher evaluation – Following established good practice – Introducing some original elements – Sometimes also departing from the mainstream practice • The use of ‘reputation’ as evidence • Relying on peer judgment rather than extensive documented evidence • School-based rather than standards based 9
  • 10. Reputation• In educational evaluation reputation is a contested concept – Still widely used, for example in university rankings• Two contrasting views – Reputation measurement ultimately is not much more than a ‘popularity poll’ – Peers, supervisors and parents have a fairly accurate view of the actual quality of teachers and reputation thus is a trustworthy proxy for quality 10
  • 11. Reputation• Convergence of reputation indicators across different communities is a key validity measure• Time factor in reputation is important – Building a high reputation takes time – Losing a reputation can go fast – Time-lag in reputation should not work against innovative teachers 11
  • 12. Peer judgment• Evaluation of professional practice should always be based on the principle of ‘peer review’ and should be as much as possible ‘evidence- based’ – The evidence collected should not automatically lead to a judgment but is mediated by the review by peers – Evaluation can never be completely ‘objective’, but involves ‘inter-subjective’ judgment by well- informed peers 12
  • 13. Peer judgment– Evaluation should be evidence-based but should not necessarily involve huge amounts of data; keep it practical and as simple as possible– In complex and information-rich environments a judgment inevitably reduces the complexity to essentially very simple decisions– The evaluators making the judgment should be trusted as competent to do so 13
  • 14. School-based• In contrast to many teacher evaluation schemes, the Valorizza experiment is very much school- based – Other systems prefer standards-based assessment where every teacher is evaluated on equal grounds against general standards – A school-based approach has many merits though • Strengthening the school as a professional community of practice • Taking into account the specific contextual conditions in which teachers have to perform 14
  • 15. School-based• Still, it would make sense to try to link the teacher evaluation more explicitly to agreed standards of excellence in professional practice, while still allowing variation to conform to school specificities and local contexts 15
  • 16. Conclusion• The Valorizza experiment definitely is a very interesting new development and deserves a second round• Its main contributions are situated in – The methodological sound use of reputation – The judgment by peers based on a cross-community evidence base – Its school-based design• It could improve on – The use of professional standards as reference of good practice – The feedback to teachers – A need to take into consideration the relation between teacher evaluation and innovation. 16
  • 17. Thank you !dirk.vandamme@oecd.org www.oecd.org/edu/ceri 17