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Education for economic success new models for higher education ewf london january 2011


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  • 1. Education for Economic Success: New Strategies for Higher Education Dirk Van Damme Head of the Centre for Educational Research and Innovation at the OECD, Paris
  • 2. Outline
    • Some starting points and questions
    • Contexts of change: trends and policies
    • Diverging rationales and resistance to change
    • Four scenario’s for higher education’s future
    • The need for new strategies
    • And technology…?
  • 3. Starting points and questions
    • Despite high degree of technology adoption, massive impact of globalisation and continued massification, universities in general have not radically transformed their operation and delivery model.
    • Increasing and diversifying demand and participation will continue to challenge prevailing models.
    • Economic and fiscal crisis will lead to increased policy demands for excellence, efficiency and accountability.
    • Will this create an environment of innovation and reform leading to new models of higher education?
  • 4. Contexts
    • Main trends :
      • Continued expansion of higher education systems in access and participation; demand will remain high
      • More heterogeneous student population
      • Institutional diversification
      • More challenging and insecure funding
      • Increased competition for resources and output, including for academics on a competitive market
      • In an increasingly global context of networking, mobility and collaboration
  • 5. Contexts
    • Main policy directions :
      • Policy frameworks (theoretically) exchanging more institutional autonomy for accountability
      • Integration (or subordination) of research in national and regional innovation systems
      • From ensuring quality to promoting excellence
      • Continued (or even increased) steering to integrate institutional objectives with national priorities
      • Regional convergence (Europe: EHEA and ERA)
      • Positioning national systems in global arena with rankings as benchmarking tools
  • 6. Contexts
    • Future trends and policies to be expected:
      • Continued increasing participation ; growth will come from more diverse and more demanding students
      • Changing skill demands , including innovative skills and interdisciplinary skills for new professions
      • More challenging situation at input side: resources, staff
      • Increased social and political demand for effectiveness , productivity in research and teaching, innovation
      • More competition , not only between institutions and countries, but also with new types of institutions outside the HE sector
  • 7. Resistance to change?
    • Challenge of tuning the different rationales , system dynamics and motivations present in the higher education and research system
      • Public policy rationale : efficiency, rationalisation and specialisation
      • Institutional rationale : autonomy, expansion, coherence and competition
      • Market rationale : rankings, reputation race and competition
      • Research rationale : flexible networks organised around research needs and ideas
  • 8. University Futures: Four Future Scenarios
    • Open networking
    • Serving local communities
    • New public responsibility
    • Higher education, Inc.
  • 9. Scenario 1 Open Networking
    • Main features
    • International collaboration and networking leading to harmonization of systems
    • English as lingua franca
    • Free and open knowledge exchange and access to research
    • International collaborative research, even if within the persistent hierarchy of institutions
    • New approaches to teaching
    • Related developments
    • Bologna Process in Europe
    • International academic partnerships and consortia
    • Increased mobility
    • Cheap and fast communication facilitated by the Internet
    • Developing culture of openness
  • 10. Open Networking – Some Implications
    • Institutional Governance
    • Focus on international co-operation and networking
    • Institutional leaders providing overall vision and guidance
    • Rather horizontal than vertical decision-making structures
    • Networks within disciplines
    • Inter-institutional information sharing for decision-making
    • Students
    • Autonomous and cosmopolitan students (use of English)
    • Study flexibility (online courses)
    • Widespread student mobility
    • Active international student networks
  • 11. Scenario 2 Serving Local Communities
    • Features
    • Institutions mainly focused on national, regional and/or local missions
    • Convergence between universities and polytechnics
    • Academics are trusted professionals with teaching as their central objective
    • Mainly publicly funded and administered systems
    • Strengthened financial support from local industry and needs-based lifelong learning
    • Related developments
    • Scepticism regarding globalisation, even anti-globalisation movements
    • Emergence of geo-strategic concerns
    • Interest in preservation of national culture and fostering social cohesion
    • Interest in regional role of higher education
  • 12. Serving Local Communities – Some Implications
    • Institutional Governance
    • Focus on local responsiveness
    • Integral industry and community participation in decision-making
    • Regular informal exchanges
    • Coordination between local institutions
    • Students
    • Interlinked study and working life
    • Preference for vocationally oriented degrees
    • Strengthened family and community ties
    • Diversity of students and lifelong learning
  • 13. Scenario 3 New Public Responsibility
    • Features
    • Autonomy of institutions combined with ‘new public management’ tools
    • Significant share of public funding with increasingly mixed resource base
    • Strong public accountability but also more private reward systems
    • Strong national competition for public research funding
    • Related developments
    • General quest for transparency, accountability, efficiency and effectiveness in public management
    • Increasing institutional autonomy in many countries
    • Cost-sharing and raising tuition fees increasingly under debate
    • Increasingly competitive research funding
  • 14. New Public Responsibility – Some Implications
    • Institutional Governance
    • Institutional autonomy coupled with accountability
    • Increasingly diversified accountability (Governments, students, industry)
    • Strong supervision bodies
    • Increased vertical accountability of staff
    • Students
    • Students as “clients”
    • Increased financial responsibilities
    • Participation in institutional decision-making
    • Responsiveness on the needs of different kinds of students
    • Rather cross-border mobility of institutions than of students
  • 15. Scenario 4 Higher Education Inc.
    • Features
    • Global competition on a commercial basis
    • Disconnection of research and teaching according to competitive advantage
    • Strong competition for (English-speaking) students
    • Concentration of research with worldwide competition for funding
    • Public funding exclusively to non-commercially viable disciplines
    • Related developments
    • Trade in higher education and inclusion of it in trade negotiations
    • Increasing international mobility of students and cross-border higher education
    • Increase of cross-border funding of research and private research activities
  • 16. Higher Education Inc. – Some Implications
    • Institutional Governance
    • High institutional autonomy coupled with “market test”
    • Direct accountability to different financial contributors
    • Focus on securing funding and ensuring competitive advantage of the institution
    • Business like human resource practices
    • Students
    • Students as mobile “clients” of global higher education industry
    • Strong financial participation
    • Strong say in decision-making
    • Choice over variety of programs and prices
    • Influence of rankings on student choice
  • 17. University Futures Scenarios Serving Local Communities International National Market Demand-driven Administration Supply-driven Open Networking Higher Education Inc. New Public Responsibility •
  • 18. Need for new strategies
    • Continued expansion of demand, participation and graduation: massification
  • 19. Source: CERI/OECD, 2008
  • 20. Expected supply of tertiary graduates
  • 21. Need for new strategies
    • Continued expansion of demand, participation and graduation: massification
    • Changing skills demand and skills utilisation in learning organisations
  • 22. Changing skill demand 4-Dec-2009 Dies Address Academic Ceremony 25th Anniversary OUNL Source: Levy and Murnane, 2005 Mean task input as percentiles of the 1960 task distribution Economy-wide measures of routine and non-routine task input (US)
  • 23. Distribution of employees across organisation classes (2005) Source: Holms, Lorenz, Lundvall and Valeyre
  • 24. Learning organisations are associated with lead innovation (2000)
    • Discretionary learning
    • Lean organisation
  • 25. Need for new strategies
    • Continued expansion of demand, participation and graduation: massification
    • Changing skills demand and skills utilisation in learning organisations
    • Added-value of tertiary level qualifications and skills need to be maintained and even improved
  • 26.  
  • 27. Need for new strategies
    • Continued expansion of demand, participation and graduation: massification
    • Changing skills demand and skills utilisation in learning organisations
    • Added-value of tertiary level qualifications and skills need to be maintained and even improved
    • Growth and globalisation of scientific research asks for more flexible and interdisciplinary knowledge organisation
  • 28.  
  • 29. And technology…?
    • IT has penetrated and transformed HE, but more so in research and management than education
    • Today’s students are technology savvy, but do want technology to improve the teaching & learning process, not to radically change it
    • Some expectations for revolutionary change in HE did not materialise
    • But technology will be a crucial part of the process of change in higher education
  • 30. Thank you ! [email_address]