Education for economic success new models for higher education ewf london january 2011

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Education for economic success new models for higher education ewf london january 2011

  1. 1. Education for Economic Success: New Strategies for Higher Education Dirk Van Damme Head of the Centre for Educational Research and Innovation at the OECD, Paris
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Some starting points and questions </li></ul><ul><li>Contexts of change: trends and policies </li></ul><ul><li>Diverging rationales and resistance to change </li></ul><ul><li>Four scenario’s for higher education’s future </li></ul><ul><li>The need for new strategies </li></ul><ul><li>And technology…? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Starting points and questions <ul><li>Despite high degree of technology adoption, massive impact of globalisation and continued massification, universities in general have not radically transformed their operation and delivery model. </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing and diversifying demand and participation will continue to challenge prevailing models. </li></ul><ul><li>Economic and fiscal crisis will lead to increased policy demands for excellence, efficiency and accountability. </li></ul><ul><li>Will this create an environment of innovation and reform leading to new models of higher education? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Contexts <ul><li>Main trends : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continued expansion of higher education systems in access and participation; demand will remain high </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More heterogeneous student population </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Institutional diversification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More challenging and insecure funding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased competition for resources and output, including for academics on a competitive market </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In an increasingly global context of networking, mobility and collaboration </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Contexts <ul><li>Main policy directions : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Policy frameworks (theoretically) exchanging more institutional autonomy for accountability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integration (or subordination) of research in national and regional innovation systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From ensuring quality to promoting excellence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continued (or even increased) steering to integrate institutional objectives with national priorities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional convergence (Europe: EHEA and ERA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positioning national systems in global arena with rankings as benchmarking tools </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Contexts <ul><li>Future trends and policies to be expected: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continued increasing participation ; growth will come from more diverse and more demanding students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Changing skill demands , including innovative skills and interdisciplinary skills for new professions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More challenging situation at input side: resources, staff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased social and political demand for effectiveness , productivity in research and teaching, innovation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More competition , not only between institutions and countries, but also with new types of institutions outside the HE sector </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Resistance to change? <ul><li>Challenge of tuning the different rationales , system dynamics and motivations present in the higher education and research system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public policy rationale : efficiency, rationalisation and specialisation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Institutional rationale : autonomy, expansion, coherence and competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Market rationale : rankings, reputation race and competition </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research rationale : flexible networks organised around research needs and ideas </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. University Futures: Four Future Scenarios <ul><li>Open networking </li></ul><ul><li>Serving local communities </li></ul><ul><li>New public responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Higher education, Inc. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Scenario 1 Open Networking <ul><li>Main features </li></ul><ul><li>International collaboration and networking leading to harmonization of systems </li></ul><ul><li>English as lingua franca </li></ul><ul><li>Free and open knowledge exchange and access to research </li></ul><ul><li>International collaborative research, even if within the persistent hierarchy of institutions </li></ul><ul><li>New approaches to teaching </li></ul><ul><li>Related developments </li></ul><ul><li>Bologna Process in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>International academic partnerships and consortia </li></ul><ul><li>Increased mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Cheap and fast communication facilitated by the Internet </li></ul><ul><li>Developing culture of openness </li></ul>
  10. 10. Open Networking – Some Implications <ul><li>Institutional Governance </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on international co-operation and networking </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional leaders providing overall vision and guidance </li></ul><ul><li>Rather horizontal than vertical decision-making structures </li></ul><ul><li>Networks within disciplines </li></ul><ul><li>Inter-institutional information sharing for decision-making </li></ul><ul><li>Students </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomous and cosmopolitan students (use of English) </li></ul><ul><li>Study flexibility (online courses) </li></ul><ul><li>Widespread student mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Active international student networks </li></ul>
  11. 11. Scenario 2 Serving Local Communities <ul><li>Features </li></ul><ul><li>Institutions mainly focused on national, regional and/or local missions </li></ul><ul><li>Convergence between universities and polytechnics </li></ul><ul><li>Academics are trusted professionals with teaching as their central objective </li></ul><ul><li>Mainly publicly funded and administered systems </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthened financial support from local industry and needs-based lifelong learning </li></ul><ul><li>Related developments </li></ul><ul><li>Scepticism regarding globalisation, even anti-globalisation movements </li></ul><ul><li>Emergence of geo-strategic concerns </li></ul><ul><li>Interest in preservation of national culture and fostering social cohesion </li></ul><ul><li>Interest in regional role of higher education </li></ul>
  12. 12. Serving Local Communities – Some Implications <ul><li>Institutional Governance </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on local responsiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Integral industry and community participation in decision-making </li></ul><ul><li>Regular informal exchanges </li></ul><ul><li>Coordination between local institutions </li></ul><ul><li>Students </li></ul><ul><li>Interlinked study and working life </li></ul><ul><li>Preference for vocationally oriented degrees </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthened family and community ties </li></ul><ul><li>Diversity of students and lifelong learning </li></ul>
  13. 13. Scenario 3 New Public Responsibility <ul><li>Features </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomy of institutions combined with ‘new public management’ tools </li></ul><ul><li>Significant share of public funding with increasingly mixed resource base </li></ul><ul><li>Strong public accountability but also more private reward systems </li></ul><ul><li>Strong national competition for public research funding </li></ul><ul><li>Related developments </li></ul><ul><li>General quest for transparency, accountability, efficiency and effectiveness in public management </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing institutional autonomy in many countries </li></ul><ul><li>Cost-sharing and raising tuition fees increasingly under debate </li></ul><ul><li>Increasingly competitive research funding </li></ul>
  14. 14. New Public Responsibility – Some Implications <ul><li>Institutional Governance </li></ul><ul><li>Institutional autonomy coupled with accountability </li></ul><ul><li>Increasingly diversified accountability (Governments, students, industry) </li></ul><ul><li>Strong supervision bodies </li></ul><ul><li>Increased vertical accountability of staff </li></ul><ul><li>Students </li></ul><ul><li>Students as “clients” </li></ul><ul><li>Increased financial responsibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Participation in institutional decision-making </li></ul><ul><li>Responsiveness on the needs of different kinds of students </li></ul><ul><li>Rather cross-border mobility of institutions than of students </li></ul>
  15. 15. Scenario 4 Higher Education Inc. <ul><li>Features </li></ul><ul><li>Global competition on a commercial basis </li></ul><ul><li>Disconnection of research and teaching according to competitive advantage </li></ul><ul><li>Strong competition for (English-speaking) students </li></ul><ul><li>Concentration of research with worldwide competition for funding </li></ul><ul><li>Public funding exclusively to non-commercially viable disciplines </li></ul><ul><li>Related developments </li></ul><ul><li>Trade in higher education and inclusion of it in trade negotiations </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing international mobility of students and cross-border higher education </li></ul><ul><li>Increase of cross-border funding of research and private research activities </li></ul>
  16. 16. Higher Education Inc. – Some Implications <ul><li>Institutional Governance </li></ul><ul><li>High institutional autonomy coupled with “market test” </li></ul><ul><li>Direct accountability to different financial contributors </li></ul><ul><li>Focus on securing funding and ensuring competitive advantage of the institution </li></ul><ul><li>Business like human resource practices </li></ul><ul><li>Students </li></ul><ul><li>Students as mobile “clients” of global higher education industry </li></ul><ul><li>Strong financial participation </li></ul><ul><li>Strong say in decision-making </li></ul><ul><li>Choice over variety of programs and prices </li></ul><ul><li>Influence of rankings on student choice </li></ul>
  17. 17. University Futures Scenarios Serving Local Communities International National Market Demand-driven Administration Supply-driven Open Networking Higher Education Inc. New Public Responsibility •
  18. 18. Need for new strategies <ul><li>Continued expansion of demand, participation and graduation: massification </li></ul>
  19. 19. Source: CERI/OECD, 2008
  20. 20. Expected supply of tertiary graduates
  21. 21. Need for new strategies <ul><li>Continued expansion of demand, participation and graduation: massification </li></ul><ul><li>Changing skills demand and skills utilisation in learning organisations </li></ul>
  22. 22. Changing skill demand 4-Dec-2009 Dies Address Academic Ceremony 25th Anniversary OUNL Source: Levy and Murnane, 2005 Mean task input as percentiles of the 1960 task distribution Economy-wide measures of routine and non-routine task input (US)
  23. 23. Distribution of employees across organisation classes (2005) Source: Holms, Lorenz, Lundvall and Valeyre
  24. 24. Learning organisations are associated with lead innovation (2000) <ul><li>Discretionary learning </li></ul><ul><li>Lean organisation </li></ul>
  25. 25. Need for new strategies <ul><li>Continued expansion of demand, participation and graduation: massification </li></ul><ul><li>Changing skills demand and skills utilisation in learning organisations </li></ul><ul><li>Added-value of tertiary level qualifications and skills need to be maintained and even improved </li></ul>
  26. 27. Need for new strategies <ul><li>Continued expansion of demand, participation and graduation: massification </li></ul><ul><li>Changing skills demand and skills utilisation in learning organisations </li></ul><ul><li>Added-value of tertiary level qualifications and skills need to be maintained and even improved </li></ul><ul><li>Growth and globalisation of scientific research asks for more flexible and interdisciplinary knowledge organisation </li></ul>
  27. 29. And technology…? <ul><li>IT has penetrated and transformed HE, but more so in research and management than education </li></ul><ul><li>Today’s students are technology savvy, but do want technology to improve the teaching & learning process, not to radically change it </li></ul><ul><li>Some expectations for revolutionary change in HE did not materialise </li></ul><ul><li>But technology will be a crucial part of the process of change in higher education </li></ul>
  28. 30. Thank you ! [email_address] www.oecd.org/edu/ceri

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