Fabric Formwork The state-of-the-art and future endeavors Diederik Veenendaal, M.Sc. ETH Zürich, Witteveen + Bos June 15 t...
Contents <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Possibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Beams </li><...
<ul><li>Introduction. </li></ul>Introduction
Oxymorons <ul><li>“ Fabric formwork is an  oxymoron .” – A.-M. Manelius </li></ul>Introduction
Oxymorons <ul><li>Concrete can be  pretty ugly , or  awfully nice . </li></ul>Introduction
Definition <ul><li>What is fabric formwork? What are membrane moulds? </li></ul><ul><li>General definition: </li></ul><ul>...
<ul><li>Possibilities. </li></ul>Possibilities
Current applications <ul><li>Structural engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Foundations </li></ul><ul><li>Walls and wall panels ...
Casa Dent, Puerto Rico, 2001 Possibilities
Open City, Chile, 2003-present Possibilities
Black Treehouse, U.S., 2007 Possibilities
Hanil Guest House, South Korea, 2009 Possibilities
Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts Possibilities
<ul><li>Design. </li></ul>Design
Design aspects <ul><li>Fabric formwork; a special case of tensile structures? </li></ul><ul><li>membrane </li></ul><ul><li...
Physical modelling <ul><li>“ If you can make it small, you can make it large.” – M.West </li></ul>Design
Engineering <ul><li>Computational modelling? Design rules? </li></ul><ul><li>Completed (quantitative/engineering) research...
Conclusions on fabric formwork Design <ul><li>Fabric formwork remains of interest due to: </li></ul><ul><li>low-tech chara...
<ul><li>Beams. </li></ul>Beams
Pinch mold prestressing edge width keel height spacer width pinch point/’impacto’ fluid pressure Beams
Pinch mold Beams
<ul><li>Thesis research. </li></ul>Thesis research
Acknowledgements <ul><li>Vambersky </li></ul><ul><li>Jeroen Coenders </li></ul><ul><li>Pierre Hoogenboom </li></ul><ul><li...
Optimizing beams <ul><li>Bi-directional Evolutionary Structural Optimization, or  BESO </li></ul>Manufacturable? Thesis re...
Proposed optimization <ul><li>Evolutionary optimization of fabric formed beams </li></ul><ul><li>Form-finding (analogous t...
FabricFormer Thesis research <ul><li>Input: </li></ul><ul><li>Loads </li></ul><ul><li>Supports </li></ul><ul><li>Span </li...
Variables for fabric formwork Thesis research
Perform analysis Calculate performance Thesis research Stiffness Volume Performance =
FabricFormer Thesis research
FabricFormer Thesis research
FabricFormer <ul><li>Equal volume, equal w/h ratio </li></ul><ul><li>91% less deflection </li></ul><ul><li>Equal volume, e...
Conclusions on thesis <ul><li>Optimization and manufacturability </li></ul><ul><li>have been  explicitly  combined, </li><...
Developments Developments.
Doctoral research at ETH Zürich <ul><li>Structurally informed design of fabric formed systems </li></ul><ul><li>Exploring ...
Texas Tech, U.S. Developments
MIT, U.S. Developments
San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, U.S.  Developments
Architectural Association, U.K. Developments
University of Manitoba, Canada Developments
<ul><li>Thank you for your attention! </li></ul>
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Fabric formwork - The state-of-the-art and future ende

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  • Possibilities by example
  • Nadrukkelijker in het Nederlands “Textiele bekistingen” vandaar “Textielmallen” Matter of taste of course, but shape and material of the formwork determine how concrete expresses itself, not the concrete itself. Concrete connotations of the every man/woman lie in rectangular/angular/robust/crude geometries, not associated with a fluid material
  • Matter of taste of course, but shape and material of the formwork determine how concrete expresses itself, not the concrete itself. Concrete connotations of the every man/woman lie in rectangular/angular/robust/crude geometries, not associated with a fluid material
  • Related fields: Adaptive formworks Inflatable formworks, pneumatic formworks Deflatable formworks, vacuumatics Pin mould Adaptable membrane mould Controlled permeability formworks
  • 3 examples of columns, 2 of walls, 1 of beams
  • Cast-in-place Advantage: Light-weight of the formwork; savings on transport, material Project info: Casa Dent, is a 303 m2 (3,300 ft.) private villa on the island of Culebra, Puerto Rico, designed by Fu-Tung Cheng of Cheng Design with Robert Lawson structural engineer. The architectural design and formworks, and on-site construction of these columns was done by Mark West in 2001 on consultation with Cheng Design.
  • Prefabricated on site and cast-in-place (columns consist of 4 elements) Advantage: freeform design (double curvature) CAST and the Catholic University of Valparaiso are engaged in a long-term collaboration to design and construct experimental fabric-formed concrete architecture at the Open City in Ritoque Chile. As a part of the extraordinary experimental architecture of the Open City, this research and construction collaboration embraces both the poetic and technical dimensions of architecture.
  • Arro-design, Vermont Cast in place
  • Prefabricated on site
  • The design considerations for these formworks is similar to those in the design and engineering of tensioned membrane structures, involving the interaction of prestress, non-linear material behavior and the support conditions. Additionally, fabric formwork has concrete pressures and fluid structure interaction as complicating factors. There are two aspects that distinguish the design of fabric formwork from that of membrane structures, caused by its short term use. Firstly, the formwork invites the designer to apply not only fixed, but also supports along which the fabric may slide during stressing and casting, normally leading to long-term wear and tear. Secondly, the stress distribution within the fabric may be highly uneven.
  • Ofcourse, West’s comment does not account for ultimate strength. (You would be hard pressed to make a fabric formed skyscraper in a single pour.)
  • Additionally, fabric formwork has concrete pressures and fluid structure interaction as complicating factors. There are two aspects that distinguish the design of fabric formwork from that of membrane structures, caused by its short term use. Firstly, the formwork invites the designer to apply not only fixed, but also supports along which the fabric may slide during stressing and casting, normally leading to long-term wear and tear. Secondly, the stress distribution within the fabric may be highly uneven.
  • Current BESO models use very small loads and fictitious, isotropic, linear material properties BESO is fast, robust and straightforward, but inflexible , difficult to adapt Non-linear BESO results are indicative of optimal shapes, more realistic, but still not practical General optimization algorithm needed, as well as a manufacturing technique with potential for optimization Fabric formwork is relatively form free Current beam prototypes demonstrate the viability of creating complex geometries
  • where the equilibrium state equals a situation minimum potential energy
  • where the equilibrium state equals a situation minimum potential energy
  • Differential Evolution A generic population-based metaheuristic optimization algorithm Uses concepts from biological evolution Population Reproduction Mutation Recombination Selection
  • Fabric formwork constitutes a new way of constructing and therefore imagining concrete structures. The use of fabric as the main material for a concrete mold allows complex geometric shapes with the potential for re-envisioned concrete esthetics, structural and material optimization, cost savings associated with manufacturing and transportation as well as high quality surface finishes. The aim of this research is to investigate the complex interaction of fabric and fresh concrete, to study the consequences for rebar design, to develop computational tools for the design of fabric formed systems and validate the results. Parallel to these objectives, the value of fabric formwork will be investigated to identify threats to and determine key factors in the market development of this technology. The results of this analysis will frame and direct the development of the computational and experimental research.
  • Andrew Kudless, P-Wall
  • Transcript of "Fabric formwork - The state-of-the-art and future ende"

    1. 1. Fabric Formwork The state-of-the-art and future endeavors Diederik Veenendaal, M.Sc. ETH Zürich, Witteveen + Bos June 15 th 2010
    2. 2. Contents <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Possibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Beams </li></ul><ul><li>Thesis research </li></ul><ul><li>Developments </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>Introduction. </li></ul>Introduction
    4. 4. Oxymorons <ul><li>“ Fabric formwork is an oxymoron .” – A.-M. Manelius </li></ul>Introduction
    5. 5. Oxymorons <ul><li>Concrete can be pretty ugly , or awfully nice . </li></ul>Introduction
    6. 6. Definition <ul><li>What is fabric formwork? What are membrane moulds? </li></ul><ul><li>General definition: </li></ul><ul><li>Moulds where the contact surface is primarily made of supported, (pre-)stressed membranes . </li></ul><ul><li>Connotations of fabric formwork: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>woven polymer fabrics for the membrane </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>intended for the (direct*) casting of concrete </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>low-tech ; no energy use during operation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>*prior to 2009 </li></ul>Introduction
    7. 7. <ul><li>Possibilities. </li></ul>Possibilities
    8. 8. Current applications <ul><li>Structural engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Foundations </li></ul><ul><li>Walls and wall panels </li></ul><ul><li>Columns </li></ul><ul><li>Beams </li></ul><ul><li>Floors </li></ul><ul><li>Shells </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial design </li></ul><ul><li>Furniture </li></ul><ul><li>Sinks </li></ul>Possibilities
    9. 9. Casa Dent, Puerto Rico, 2001 Possibilities
    10. 10. Open City, Chile, 2003-present Possibilities
    11. 11. Black Treehouse, U.S., 2007 Possibilities
    12. 12. Hanil Guest House, South Korea, 2009 Possibilities
    13. 13. Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts Possibilities
    14. 14. <ul><li>Design. </li></ul>Design
    15. 15. Design aspects <ul><li>Fabric formwork; a special case of tensile structures? </li></ul><ul><li>membrane </li></ul><ul><li>prestress </li></ul><ul><li>non-linear, bi-axial </li></ul><ul><li>form-active </li></ul><ul><li>equilibrium </li></ul><ul><li>physical/computational </li></ul>Design
    16. 16. Physical modelling <ul><li>“ If you can make it small, you can make it large.” – M.West </li></ul>Design
    17. 17. Engineering <ul><li>Computational modelling? Design rules? </li></ul><ul><li>Completed (quantitative/engineering) research: </li></ul><ul><li>Various papers on ‘ Controlled Permeability Formwork’ (back to 1987) </li></ul><ul><li>Design and analysis of fabric formed concrete panels (U.S., 2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Design and analysis of double curved shells (Belgium, 2008-present) </li></ul><ul><li>Physical testing of fabric formed beams (U.K., 2007-2009) </li></ul><ul><li>Physical testing of fabric formed beams (Canada, 2008-present) </li></ul><ul><li>Evolutionary optimization of fabric formed beams (Netherlands, 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Design and analysis of columns (Belgium, 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>Design and analysis of fabric formed structural elements (U.K., 2009-present) </li></ul><ul><li>Structurally informed design of fabric formed systems (Switzerland, 2010-present) </li></ul>Design
    18. 18. Conclusions on fabric formwork Design <ul><li>Fabric formwork remains of interest due to: </li></ul><ul><li>low-tech character and material efficiency, compatible with economic considerations and current interest in sustainability , </li></ul><ul><li>free-form character, compatible with current architectural trends and inherent possibilities of fluid concrete </li></ul><ul><li>However, </li></ul><ul><li>research is limited, and collaboration is minimal </li></ul><ul><li>design theory is lacking due to hands-on approach of current researchers </li></ul><ul><li>practical applications remain relatively simplistic and full potential has not been commercially explored </li></ul><ul><li>industrialization, or automation, is not clear at this time </li></ul>
    19. 19. <ul><li>Beams. </li></ul>Beams
    20. 20. Pinch mold prestressing edge width keel height spacer width pinch point/’impacto’ fluid pressure Beams
    21. 21. Pinch mold Beams
    22. 22. <ul><li>Thesis research. </li></ul>Thesis research
    23. 23. Acknowledgements <ul><li>Vambersky </li></ul><ul><li>Jeroen Coenders </li></ul><ul><li>Pierre Hoogenboom </li></ul><ul><li>Cor van der Veen </li></ul><ul><li>Mark West </li></ul>prof. dipl.-ing. ir. dr. ir. dr. ir. prof. Thesis research
    24. 24. Optimizing beams <ul><li>Bi-directional Evolutionary Structural Optimization, or BESO </li></ul>Manufacturable? Thesis research
    25. 25. Proposed optimization <ul><li>Evolutionary optimization of fabric formed beams </li></ul><ul><li>Form-finding (analogous to tensile structures, using dynamic relaxation) </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis (Finite Element Analysis) </li></ul><ul><li>Optimization (genetic algorithm, specifically differential evolution) </li></ul>Thesis research
    26. 26. FabricFormer Thesis research <ul><li>Input: </li></ul><ul><li>Loads </li></ul><ul><li>Supports </li></ul><ul><li>Span </li></ul><ul><li>Materials </li></ul><ul><li>Output: </li></ul><ul><li>Mold geometry </li></ul><ul><li>Beam geometry </li></ul><ul><li>Prestressing </li></ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul>Optimization Dynamic Relaxation
    27. 27. Variables for fabric formwork Thesis research
    28. 28. Perform analysis Calculate performance Thesis research Stiffness Volume Performance =
    29. 29. FabricFormer Thesis research
    30. 30. FabricFormer Thesis research
    31. 31. FabricFormer <ul><li>Equal volume, equal w/h ratio </li></ul><ul><li>91% less deflection </li></ul><ul><li>Equal volume, equal h </li></ul><ul><li>78% less deflection </li></ul><ul><li>Equal h, equal deflection </li></ul><ul><li>58% less volume </li></ul>Thesis research Linear comparison with rectangular beam deflection h h w
    32. 32. Conclusions on thesis <ul><li>Optimization and manufacturability </li></ul><ul><li>have been explicitly combined, </li></ul><ul><li>have been combined within a functional design tool , </li></ul><ul><li>with manufacturable, optimized results with respect to stiffness over volume </li></ul>Developments
    33. 33. Developments Developments.
    34. 34. Doctoral research at ETH Zürich <ul><li>Structurally informed design of fabric formed systems </li></ul><ul><li>Exploring the value of fabric formwork </li></ul><ul><li>Comprehensive literature study </li></ul><ul><li>Developing parametric design tools for fabric formwork </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Form-finding that includes folding and/or cutting patterns </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient analysis (fast, approximate methods versus advanced meshing and analysis methods) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rebar design </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Imagining new geometries, new structural systems </li></ul><ul><li>… and contributing to the visions of others: </li></ul>Developments
    35. 35. Texas Tech, U.S. Developments
    36. 36. MIT, U.S. Developments
    37. 37. San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, U.S. Developments
    38. 38. Architectural Association, U.K. Developments
    39. 39. University of Manitoba, Canada Developments
    40. 40. <ul><li>Thank you for your attention! </li></ul>
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