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Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
Unit 1 notebook  constitution studend handouts modified
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Unit 1 notebook constitution studend handouts modified

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  • We will get into the 3 branches, separation of Power and check and balances more at a later date.
  • Have students underling key parts of each section as we read over it as a class. As we go over this, show one political cartoon that acts as an example. Click on the link above to go that PowerPoint
  • Have students underling key parts of each section as we read over it as a class. As we go over this, show one political cartoon that acts as an example. Click on the link above to go that PowerPoint
  • Have students underling key parts of each section as we read over it as a class. As we go over this, show one political cartoon that acts as an example. Click on the link above to go that PowerPoint
  • Have students underling key parts of each section as we read over it as a class. As we go over this, show one political cartoon that acts as an example. Click on the link above to go that PowerPoint
  • Transcript

    • 1. Why do we need government? What do you think life would be like without any government? Would this be good? Why? Would this be bad? Why?
    • 2. What would life boil down to at its simplest form? What would we all need to survive?
    • 3. Philosophical Influences A. Ideas of Enlightenment – Derived on the scientific discoveries of the 1600s. Also influenced by Glorious Revolution. – Thinkers believed that God created an orderly universe & laws could be discovered through use of human reason – Thinkers argued that laws which governed nature also applied to human life & society – Influential Enlightenment Thinkers: • • • • Thomas Hobbes John Locke Jean-Jacques Rousseau Baron de Montesquieu
    • 4. The only Rights in a State of Nature are our Natural Rights Natural Rights humans have rights in “nature”. Man created gov’t to protect these rights What core basic natural rights do you think you have? Who came up with this idea?
    • 5. Thomas Hobbes
    • 6. Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679) – English Philosopher – 1651 book Leviathan – Hobbes argues that the natural state of man (without any civil government) is war – “... the life of man solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short. ... The condition of man ... is a condition of war of everyone against everyone.” • man in the state of nature seeks nothing but his own selfish pleasure • individualism naturally leads to a war in which every man's hand is against his neighbor • In pure self-interest and for self-preservation men entered into a compact [social contract] by which they agreed to surrender part of their natural freedom to an absolute ruler in order to preserve the rest • The State determines what is just and unjust, right and wrong
    • 7. Thomas Hobbes • State of Nature – living without government; anarchy • champion of absolutism for the sovereign (king) • developed the ideas of: – right of the individual – the natural equality of all men – Legitimate political power must be "representative" and based on the consent of the people – a liberal interpretation of law which leaves people free to do whatever the law does not explicitly forbid.
    • 8. John Locke
    • 9. • John Locke (1632-1704)- English Writer – Argued that people were born free, equal, & independent & possess Natural Rights • Second Treatise of Government – “All mankind…being all equal and independent, no one ought to harm another in his life, health, liberty, or possessions.” – Believed if gov’t tried to take away people’s natural rights, it was breaking the Social Contract • Social Contract- an agreement among people in a society to give up part of their freedom to a gov’t in exchange for protection or natural rights. Agree to obey as long as it protects their rights
    • 10. John Locke Natural Rights humans have rights in “nature”. Man created gov’t to protect these rights Life- right to live and be safe Liberty- “ “ be free of others controls, “ “ make own decisions, live as you please Property- “ “ to work , own land, tools, & $ to survive
    • 11. Jean-Jacques Rousseau
    • 12. • Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) -French Philosopher – The Social Contract (published 1762) • “man is born free, yet everywhere he is found in chains.” – He was referring to large number of people in Europe living under oppressive governments – He argued that the people had the right to determine how they should be governed
    • 13. Baron de Montesquieu
    • 14. Baron de Montesquieu (1689-1755)French Writer – Developed idea of dividing government into branches to balance each other so that no one part became too strong or threatened individual rights – His ideas of separation of powers, along with Locke’s ideas on the social contract and natural rights, became cornerstones of the Declaration of Independence & the U.S. Constitution.
    • 15. Lesson 1, Unit 1 Vocab • constitution A plan of government that sets forth the structures and powers of government. In democracies, a constitution is an authoritative law through which the sovereign people authorize a government to be established and grant it certain powers. • constitutional government Limited government; the rule of law. A form of government in which a written, unwritten, or partly written constitution serves as a higher or fundamental law that everyone, including those in power, must obey. The rule of law is an essential feature of constitutional government.
    • 16. Lesson 1, Unit 1 Vocab • democracy Literally defined as "rule of the people," democracy is a form of government in which all citizens exercise political power, either directly or through their elected representatives. See also representative democracy limited government In natural rights philosophy, a system restricted to protecting natural rights that does not interfere with other aspects of life. More generally, limited government is constitutional government governed by the rule of law. Written or unwritten constitutions are used to empower and limit government.
    • 17. Lesson 1, Unit 1 Vocab • Parliament The British legislature, which consists of two houses: the House of Lords, which once represented the nobility, and the House of Commons, which formally represents the common people. Most members of the House of Lords are appointed for life by the government of the day and are not members of the hereditary aristocracy, who once dominated it. • republic According to James Madison, a form of government that derives its powers directly or indirectly from the people, is administered by officials holding power for a limited time, and incorporates representative institutions.
    • 18. Lesson 1, Unit 1 Vocab • Parliament The British legislature, which consists of two houses: the House of Lords, which once represented the nobility, and the House of Commons, which formally represents the common people. Most members of the House of Lords are appointed for life by the government of the day and are not members of the hereditary aristocracy, who once dominated it. republic According to James Madison, a form of government that derives its powers directly or indirectly from the people, is administered by officials holding power for a limited time, and incorporates representative institutions.
    • 19. Lesson 1, Unit 1 Vocab • unwritten constitution The body of political practices developed through custom and tradition. Only three of the world's major democracies have constitutions that are not single, written documents: Britain, Israel, and New Zealand. In each of these nations, the constitution is a combination of written laws and precedents. written constitution A written plan of government that sets forth the structures and powers of government. See constitution
    • 20. What are the philosophical and historical foundations of the American Political System? We will address this question later.
    • 21. What did the founders think about constitutional government? P.3
    • 22. What were some characteristics of Colonial America? P.4
    • 23. How did the founders learn about government? P.5
    • 24. What did the founders learn about government? P. 5
    • 25. What forms of government could the founders choose from? P. 6-7
    • 26. What is a constitution? P. 8-9
    • 27. How did the founders characterize higher law? P.9
    • 28. What kinds of government may be constitutional governments? P.10
    • 29. Now, back to the Lesson question. What are the philosophical and historical foundations of the American Political System?
    • 30. How gov’t secures our natural rights How does gov’t secure our natural rights?
    • 31. How gov’t secures our natural rights Limited Government (p.8) – those who govern (rule/lead) have restraints (limits) such as laws and free elections Unlimited Government- those who govern are free to use their power as they choose as they are not restrained by law Ex. Tyranny, Dictatorship, totalitarianism
    • 32. How gov’t secures our natural rights Constitution- a set of customs, traditions, rules and laws that set the basic way a government is organized and operates. Constitutional Government- the powers of the government are limited by a constitution (written or not). Those in power have to follow the laws too!!
    • 33. • Can an Constitutional Gov’t be unlimited?
    • 34. Constitutional gov’t protects natural rights How does a constitutional government protect our natural rights?
    • 35. Constitutional gov’t protects natural rights 1. It established limits on the power of the government to prevent it from violating natural rights 2. It states that the government should be organized and its power distributed in such a way as to increase the possibility that those limitations will be effective
    • 36. Constitutional gov’t protects natural rights Separation of Power- 3 branches each have a specific job- Judicial, Executive and Legislative Checks and Balances – power is spread out between the branches so that no one branch is able to control the others
    • 37. 8A Articles of Confederation What were the major issues with our first constitution, the Articles of Confederation?
    • 38. 8B Articles of Confederation 1. Pinkie Finger ( pink) is the smallest and weakest figure = weak central government – 9 out of 13 states need to vote on new laws and even then could not enforce any of its laws 2. Ring Finger (yellow) has no ring, so this mean it has no money. Congress could not tax, only ask for money 3. Middle Finger (red) is used when people argue, argument happens because of unenforceable trade agreements. 4. Index Finger (brown) is pointed at people often when singled out in a threatening way. Threats to citizens rights to property (like land, which has brown trees and dirt) 5. Thumb (orange) – thumbs down shows feeling of unhappiness / orange the color of jealousy - Unfair competition / poor opinions between the states (people see themselves as from their state first, and America second) 6. Close all the fingers and you make a fist – grey – gray is the color of the smoke make from black power – Shay's Rebellion
    • 39. 8C Articles of Confederation Read pp. 56-58 and write down more information about these topics 1. Weak Central Government (# 2 in book on page 57) Congress could not force states / citizens to follow the laws. US gov’t could not enforce treaties by making states pay for or give back land to loyalist 2. No Money (# 1 in book on page 57) Congress could not tax the states / people, could only ask for money. 3. Unenforceable trade agreements (# 3) Congress could not force states to follow treaties / trade agreements with other nations. Congress could not force states to pay for what they bought 4.Threats to citizens rights to property (# 5) In state legislatures, small groups gained power and took away the rights of others, even their property.
    • 40. Articles of Confederation 5. Unfair competition between the states (# 4 on page 58) states pass laws that on goods that cross state lines. This prevented efficient trade across state lines. Congress was powerless to stop this practice. 6. Shay’s Rebellion (p. 58) farmers are in debt because of taxes. Courts are going to foreclose on their farms, so farmers get their guns and take over the courthouse. 7.Northwest Ordinance – the one thing that worked! (p. 59) creates a plan for 5 new states. Slavery is never allowed here. All new states are equal to the original 13. 8D
    • 41. 9A Framers of the U.S. Constitution • Who was at the Constitution Convention? • Who would you think would be there that were not?
    • 42. 9B Framers of the U.S. Constitution • • • Constitutional Convention (a.k.a. The Philadelphia Convention) 55 white men Referred to by historian James McGregor as, “the well bred, well fed, the well read and the well wed.” i.e. generally from high society, but not always there because of ability Notable Absences: • Thomas Jefferson – US ambassador to France • John Adams – US ambassador to Britain (great loss because he had framed the Mass Constitution and had written on the idea of constitutional government for the US) • The state of Rhode Island sent no representatives Reason for meeting Trying to fix Articles of Confederation, but saw it was to messed up and choose to start all over
    • 43. 9C Framers of the U.S. Constitution George Washington- Alexander Hamilton- Ben Franklin-
    • 44. 9D Framers of the U.S. Constitution James Madison- George Mason- Roger Sherman-
    • 45. 9C Framers of the U.S. Constitution George Washington- wanted strong national gov’t- not interested in public office. Did not want to go, but felt he had to or the people would have no faith in the gov’t. Elected unanimously President of the Convention. His presence and support of the Constitution and the thought that he would be the first president were essential to the Constitutions ratification. Did not take part in the debates. Alexander Hamilton- strong presence for strong central govt. Wrote the Federalist to help convents states to ratify the constitution. Ben Franklin- 81 and in poor health. His presence lent an aura of wisdom to the convention
    • 46. 9D Framers of the U.S. Constitution James Madison- “Father of the Constitution” – Came to convention with Virginia plan in hand – the basic framework with which the US Constitution was based on. George Mason- wrote the Virginia Bill of Rights – wanted a Bill of Rights for the US Constitution. Roger Sherman- Came up with the Great Compromise / Connecticut Compromise and saved the convention from ending in disaster.
    • 47. 11A Virginia and New Jersey Plans • What is the major similarities and differences between the Virginia and New Jersey Plans? Which plan is most like our gov’t today?
    • 48. 11B Virginia and New Jersey Plans Constitution Key Terms Federal System- a form of political organization in which government power is divided between a national and state governments, with the national gov’t having more power than the states in most matters. proportional representation- the number of people elected to government is based on the number of people in the state. equal representation – the number of people elected to government is same for each states.
    • 49. 11C Virginia and New Jersey Plans • • • • • VIRGINIA PLAN Two Chamber (part) Legislature Representation in Legislature based on population and amount of money the states give the US Executive (President) has veto power over legislature. Judicial branch appointed by legislature Citizens under the authority of two governments, national and state
    • 50. 11D Virginia and New Jersey Plans • • • • • NEW JERSEY PLAN One Chamber Legislature Representation equal among the states. One state, one vote Executive (President has no veto Judicial branch chosen by executive Citizens remain primarily under the authority of state government
    • 51. 12A Great Compromise / Connecticut Compromise • What was the Great Compromise and who’s idea was it?
    • 52. Great Compromise / Connecticut 69-70 Compromise • House of Representatives: – Elected by the people, based on proportional representation. – This favors the large states. • Senate: – based on equal representation. – This favors the small states. Executive- Veto and pick judicial branch 12B
    • 53. 13A Other important compromise
    • 54. Other important compromise 13B Slavery Issues 3/5 Compromise 3 out of every 5 slaves count as 1 citizen = more congressmen for the south 20 year ban Congress can’t stop slaves from being shipped into the US for 20 years Fugitive Slave clause US law runaway slaves if found in other states must be returned to their owners Trade Congress can control commerce (business) between the states
    • 55. 14A Powers and Limits of the National Government • What kind of powers does the US government have? • What kind of limits does the US government have?
    • 56. 14A The Preamble What does the Preamble mean?
    • 57. The Preamble Preamble- a intro statement that explains what the document is about. 14B
    • 58. 15B Quiz II – Constitutional Convention
    • 59. 16A Powers and Limits of the National Government In your opinion, what is the greatest thing that the US government does for us? What is the one thing that your are most grateful that they can’t do? Rank the 2 most important Powers and explain why Rank the 2 most important Limits and explain why
    • 60. 16B Powers and Limits of the National Government POWERS • Supremacy Clause – The US Constitution is the supreme law of the land. If federal and state laws go against each other, then the federal laws wins. • Congress has the power to make new states • Gov’t needs to protect the states from invasion • Each state gets a republican form of government – each state gets to vote for their leaders.
    • 61. 16B Powers and Limits of the National Government LIMITS • Can’t take away right to know why you are in jail (except in emergencies) • Can’t make something a crime and punish someone for it after they did it back when it was legal • Congress can’t pass a law making someone guilty of a crime • Can’t take money from US without permission • Can’t tax things made in states and sold out of state • Grant titles of nobility (sirs, dukes, lords, etc
    • 62. 17B Powers of the Legislative Branch • Make the laws These are the enumerated – specifically listed – powers of congress • Issue and collect taxes • Pay the nations debts • Provide for the defense of the nation • Provide for the general welfare of the nation • Regulate commerce with foreign nations and the states
    • 63. 17B Powers of the Legislative Branch • • • • Declare War Raise an army and navy Coin / print money Impeach (to charge a public official with a crime in office for which they can be removed from power) Executive, Judicial or other Legislative officials – House calls for Impeachment – Senate acts as Jury: decides guilt or innocence
    • 64. 18 B HOUSE OF REPRESENATATIVES • Requirements: 25 yrs old, US citizen 7 yrs, citizen of state elected from • Term: 2 Years • Responsibilities: Make the laws / impeach / Declare war / over ride presidents veto with 2/3 votes • Speaker of the House – Leader, currently Nancy Pelosi – 2nd in line to be President – elected by other congressmen to be Speaker • 435 members of the House - called Congressmen / Congresswomen
    • 65. 18 B HOUSE OF REPRESENATATIVES OUR CONGRESSMEN TODAY! • 1 NH Congressional District: (D) Carol Shea-Porter • 2 NH Congressional District: (D) Paul Hodes • Committees – meet in smaller committees (groups) to discuss problems • US Capital / Capital Hill
    • 66. 19 A SENATE
    • 67. 19 B SENATE • Legislative Branch • Requirements: 30 yrs. Old, US Citizen for 9 years, a citizen of the state you run in. • Term: 6 years (3 classes) • Responsibilities: Make Laws / Declare War / approve treaties / jury during impeachment trials / override veto with 2/3 vote / filibuster – senators can talk for ever to kill a bill / approve judges and cabinet positions / approves treaties • 2 from each state = 100 • Senator
    • 68. 19 B SENATE • President of the Senate: Vice of the United States = Joe Biden (D) • President Pro Tempore: Daniel Inouye (D) 3rd in line to be president • NH Senators: Judd Gregg (R) / Jeanne Shahenn (D) • Meet at US Capital / Capital Hill
    • 69. 20 A EXECUTIVE BRANCH
    • 70. 20 B EXECUTIVE BRANCH • Requirements: 35 yrs old, 14 years resident of the US / natural born US Citizen • Term: 4 years / or 2 terms / or 10 years (2 terms elected on own after finishing 2 years after being V.P. • President of the US / Vice President • Responsibilities: Commander-in-Chief (runs the military) / veto laws / Enforces the Laws / pardon criminals / appoints judges and cabinet positions / creates treaties
    • 71. Presidential Order of succession 1 Vice President Joe Biden (D) 2 3 4 5 Nancy Pelosi Robert Byrd Hillary Clinton Timothy Geithner Speaker of the House President pro tempore of the Senate Secretary of State Secretary of the Treasury 6 Secretary of Defense Robert Gates (R) 7 Attorney General Eric Holder
    • 72. 8 Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar 9 Secretary of Agriculture Tom Vilsack 10 Secretary of Commerce Gary Locke 11 Secretary of Labor Hilda Solis 12 Secretary of Health and Human Services Kathleen Sebelius 13 Secretary of Housing and Urban Development Shaun Donovan 14 Secretary of Transportation Ray LaHood (R) 15 Secretary of Energy Steven Chu (I) 16 Secretary of Education Arne Duncan 17 Secretary of Veterans Affairs Eric Shinseki (I) 18 Secretary of Homeland Security Janet Napolitano
    • 73. 21 B POWERS OF THE EXECUTIVE BRANCH Executive Powers Powers shared with Legislative • • • • • Carrying out and enforcing the laws made by Congress Nominating people for federal jobs Negotiate treaties with other nations Conducting war • • • • Pardon people convinced of crimes • Send and receive ambassadors Veto- can veto laws passed by congress Appointments- can nominate people to executive and judicial jobs, senate must approve them. Treaties – can negotiate treaties, but 2/3 of senate must approve War – can wage war, only congress can declare war
    • 74. 22 B ELECTRAL COLLEGE • Meet once every 4 years, elect president, then dissolve • Members of electoral college are called electors • Same number for each electors for each state as the number of people they have in congress (House and Senate plus 3 for D.C.) = 538 • 270 electoral votes to be elected president • If no one gets the 270, the House of Reps. picks the president
    • 75. 23 A POWERS OF THE JUDICAL BRANCH • What is the purpose of the Judicial Branch?
    • 76. 23 B JUDICAL BRANCH • Supreme Court Building • Lower Federal Courts: US Court of Appeals / US District Courts • War – do nothing
    • 77. 23 B JUDICAL BRANCH • Requirements: No age requirement / no citizenship requirement / no education or law requirement • Term: Unlimited term of office unless impeached, death or resign • Responsibilities: Find what laws are constitutional or not (Judicial Review), judges during impeachment trials • Justices – 9 • Chief Justice – John Roberts • Associate Justices : 8
    • 78. POWERS OF THE JUDICAL BRANCH 20 B • Block 4 –read pp 77-79: students needed to take notes on the things that would help answer question on 25A

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