world war i causes


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world war i causes

  1. 1. The Causes of World War I •Militarism •Alliances •Imperialism •Nationalism
  2. 2. Militarism• Militarism - Building up weapons and forces to get ready for war
  3. 3. Militarism• Germany was competing with the UK to build battleships• The British feared an attack on their Empire, so they built even more battleships
  4. 4. Militarism• Germany was competing with Russia and France to expand their armies
  5. 5. Alliances• Alliance - Agreement or promise to defend and help another country
  6. 6. Alliances• By 1914 all the major powers were linked by a system of alliances.• The alliances made it more likely that a war would start.• Once started, the alliances made it more likely to spread.
  7. 7. Alliances• Triple Entente – France, Russia, Great Britain• Triple Alliance – German, Austria- Hungary, Italy
  8. 8. Alliances• Aid – Supporting another country with the use of goods• Treaty – An agreement to not attack each other• Alliance – a promise to support another country with military if necessary
  9. 9. Imperialism• Imperialism - When one country takes over another territory to try to build up an Empire• Empire – Where a powerful country controls several less powerful countries
  10. 10. Imperialism• All the great powers were competing for colonies and territory• The British did not want Germany involved in Africa• The Austrians did not want Serbia or Russia in the Balkans
  11. 11. Nationalism• Nationalism – having pride in your country, willing to defend it• Think: What are some holidays where people celebrate pride in their heritage?
  12. 12. Nationalism• This was an age when all nations wanted to assert their power and independence• Slavs in Austria-Hungary, aided by Serbia and Russia, wanted to be free of Austrian rule
  13. 13. Key Figures• Kaiser Wilhelm II• Aggressive foreign policy – wanted Germany to be a “Bully”• Built up German army and navy• Determined to make Germany a top nation “Germany must have its place in the sun”• Distrusted by other powers “The world belongs to the strong.”
  14. 14. Key Figures• Count Berchtold• Austrian Foreign Minister, later Prime Minister• Hated Serbia, wanted a reason to have a war with them
  15. 15. The Crisis• June 28, 1914• Heir to the Austrian throne, Franz Ferdinand, visits Sarajevo• Sarajevo was the capital of Bosnia, recently grabbed by Seal of the Austria Black Hand• Sarajevo was the center group of Slav nationalism
  16. 16. The Crisis• “Black Hand” terrorists attack the Arch Duke• Bomb attempt in the morning fails to kill the Arch Duke• Later in the day, Serb nationalist Gavrilo Princip shoots Archduke and his wife• Austrians blame Serbia for supporting terrorists
  17. 17. The Crisis• Austrians, supported by Germany, send Serbia a tough ultimatum• Serbia agrees to all but two terms of the ultimatum• Russia prepares troops to support Serbia
  18. 18. The Crisis• Germany demands that the Russian army stand down• Germany declares war on Russia
  19. 19. Major Causes of WWI-Arms Race between Germany and France-Naval Rivalry Between Britain and Germany-Austria and Russia competing in Southeast Europe-Two Alliances in place brought everyone against eachother-Germany trying to gain colonies annoys/scares France andBritain-Extreme Nationalism made people too proud to negotiateproblems Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand
  20. 20. The Schlieffen Plan• Germany’s military plan to defeat France and Russia• A fast attack, or “Knock out blow” was aimed at France first• Germany could avoid French defenses by invading through neutral country Belgium• Germans thought Britain would not get involved
  21. 21. A World War• Neutral Country – Country that did not support either side in the war, or did not want to get involved
  22. 22. A World War• Britain had Ententes with France and Russia which drug them into the fight
  23. 23. A World War• 1838- UK had signed a Treaty to protect Belgium.• Britain also scared of Germany controlling the seas and oceans
  24. 24. A World War• Britain did not want Germany to defeat France and dominate Europe• UK issued ultimatum to Germany to withdraw troops from Belgium.• Germany Refused; war declared August 4 1914
  25. 25. What about the United States?• U.S. President was Woodrow Wilson from 1912 to 1920• Wilson wanted the U.S. to remain neutral• Wilson won the election in 1916 by using the slogan “He kept us out of war!”
  26. 26. What about the United States?• The U.S. could not stay neutral forever• As more problems occurred, it became clear that the U.S. would soon be dragged into this world war