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Class Notes on World War I given 2/18/13 and 2/19/13

Class Notes on World War I given 2/18/13 and 2/19/13

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    world war i world war i Presentation Transcript

    • Inevitability of war• June 28, 1914 – Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand causes a crisis• The alliances in Europe caused a “World War” that spread quickly
    • 1914 – 1915: False Beliefs• Many Europeans were excited about war! – Both sides thought they were the “good guys”
    • 1914 – 1915: False Beliefs • Most thought the war would be over in a few weeks – Ignored the length and brutality of the American Civil War (a model for World War I)
    • 1914 – 1915: False Beliefs• Belief that Modern industrial war could not be conducted for more than a few months• Most said they’d be “Home by Christmas”
    • 1914 – 1915: False Beliefs• Many European nations thought the war would be “fun” – A glorious adventure – War would rid the nations of selfishness – War could make people “heroes”
    • The Schlieffen Plan
    • The Schlieffen Plan• Invade western front 1st• After defeating France concentrate on the Eastern front• Avoid fighting a 2 front war
    • The Schlieffen Plan• Germany made an encircling movement through Belgium to enter Paris• But the British quickly sent troops to France
    • The Schlieffen Plan• Battle of Marne – Sept 6-10, 1914 – France stopped the Germans but were exhausted – Both sides dug trenches for shelter -Caused a Stalemate
    • Stalemate - A position counting as a draw,or a “Dead-End”
    • The Trenches• 6,250 miles of Trenches were dug• 6 to 8 feet deep• This immobilized both sides for 4 years
    • The Trenches
    • Life in the Trenches• Elaborate systems of defense – barbed wire – Concrete machine gun nests – Mortar batteries – Troops lived in holes underground
    • Life in the Trenches• Boredom – Soldiers read to pass the time
    • Life in the Trenches• Death numbed the soldier’s minds• Shell shock – Could cause panic or even paralysis “We all had on us the stench of dead bodies.”
    • Life in the Trenches• Mustard gas – Carried by the wind – Burned out soldier’s lungs – Deadly in the trenches where it would sit at the bottom
    • Life in the Trenches– Millions of young men sacrificed attempting to break the lines
    • Battle of Verdun• 10 months• 700,000 men killed
    • Battle of Verdun• 10 months• 700,000 men killed
    • The changes of war• New weapons were made because of new technology (industrial revolution) – Poison gas (mustard gas) – Hand grenades – Flame throwers – Tanks – Airplanes – Tanks – Subs
    • The changes of war• Airplanes – Dog fights in the air – Bombing inaccurate – Paris and London bombed – Pilots fired pistols and threw hand grenades
    • The Eastern Front• Russian army moved into Eastern Germany on August 30, 1914 – Russia has major losses• The Austrians were chased out of Serbia• Germany came to Austrian aid and pushed Russians back 300 miles into own territory • 1915: 2.5 million Russians killed, captured, or wounded
    • The Eastern Front• Germany and Austria Hungary joined by Bulgaria in Sept. 1915 – Attacked and eliminated Serbia from war
    • The Home Front• Women took war factory jobs• Received lower wages than males• Food shortages made things at home hard also
    • The Home Front• Censorship – The Public was not told about high death toll – Made the dead “legendary”
    • QUESTIONWhy do you think thegovernmentsinvolved in WorldWar I did not tell thepublic people aboutthe number ofsoldiers killed?
    • The Home Front• Censorship – Newspapers described troops as “itching to go over the top” – Made “trench warfare” seem like a nice adventure
    • The Home Front• Taking Leave (getting a break from the war and visiting home)• Troops would stay togetherWhy?• so they could sympathize with each other
    • The Home Front• Impossible to hide death – Women in mourning, lost husbands and sons – Badly wounded soldiers began to return home – Opposition to the war began
    • The war ends• 1917 – Russia surrenders• U.S. joins the war on the Allied side• Nov. 11, 1918 Armistice – End of Fighting
    • Death Toll of War Allied Central Powers Powers42 million served 23 million served 22 million 15 million casualties casualties
    • Social Impact• Men lost limbs and were mutilated• Birthrate fell markedly• Invalids unable to work• Ethnic hostility• Influenza epidemic