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  • 1. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Geo-data : the world geographical encyclopedia / John F. McCoy, project editor.-- 3rd ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references (p. ) and index. ISBN 0-7876-5581-3 (hardcover : alk. paper) 1. Gazetteers. I. McCoy, John, 1976- G103.5 .G36 2002 910'.3--dc21 2002010926 Project Editor John F. McCoy Editorial Mary Rose Bonk, Pamela A. Dear, Rachel J. Kain, Lynn U. Koch, Michael D. Lesniak, Nancy Matuszak, Michael T. Reade Imaging and Multimedia Randy Bassett, Christine O'Bryan, Barbara J. Yarrow Project Design Cindy Baldwin, Tracey Rowens Manufacturing Nekita McKee © 2002 by Gale. Gale is an imprint of The Gale Group, Inc., a division of Thomson Learning, Inc. Gale and Design™ and Thomson Learning™ are trademarks used herein under license. For more information contact The Gale Group, Inc. 27500 Drake Rd. Farmington Hills, MI 48331–3535 Or you can visit our Internet site at http://www.gale.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED No part of this work covered by the copyright hereon may be reproduced or used in any form or by any means--graphic, electronic, or mechanical, including photocopying, record- ing, taping, Web distribution, or information storage retrieval systems--without the written permission of the publisher. For permission to use material from this prod- uct, submit your request via Web at http:// www.gale-edit.com/permissions, or you may download our Permissions Request form and submit your request by fax or mail to: Permissions Department The Gale Group, Inc. 27500 Drake Rd. Farmington Hills, MI 48331–3535 Permissions Hotline: 248–699–8006 or 800–877–4253; ext. 8006 Fax: 248–699–8074 or 800–762–4058 Cover photographs reproduced by permission of Digital Stock (Taj Mahal, center left), Digi- tal Vision (Fall trees, top left; Waterfall, top right; Water carriers, center; City in smog, center right), and PhotoDisc (Pink buttes, top center; Mountains, bottom). All of the maps appearing in this book were created to order by XNR Productions, Inc., of Madison, WI. Maps are the property of Gale, © 2002, all rights reserved. Since this page cannot legibly accommodate all copyright notices, the acknowledgements constitute an extension of this copyright notice. While every effort has been made to ensure the reliability of the information presented in this publication, The Gale Group, Inc. does not guarantee the accuracy of the data con- tained herein. The Gale Group, Inc. accepts no payment for listing; and inclusion in the pub- lication of any organization, agency, institu- tion, publication, service, or individual does not imply endorsement of the editors or pub- lisher. Errors brought to the attention of the publisher and verified to the satisfaction of the publisher will be corrected in future edi- tions. GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA Printed in the United States of America 10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Geodata.book Page iv Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 2. GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA ix PREFACE Gale is pleased to present the third edition of Geo-Data: The World Geographical Encyclopedia. This is the first new edition of Geo-Data since 1989, and it represents a complete revision and updating of that work. The pur- pose of the book remains unchanged: to provide the reader with the most detailed and comprehensive descriptions available for the physical geography of coun- tries. Geo-Data’s focus and design is unique. Many encyclo- pedias, atlases, and other books provide some informa- tion on geography, but it is usually secondary to history, current events, or other topics. In these sorts of refer- ences physical geography receives a few paragraphs of coverage per country at best, compared to pages in Geo- Data. Among the few books that can rival Geo-Data cov- erage, none can match its ease of use. There is no need to hunt from one end of a dictionary or gazetteer to another, searching for details on a country's many different fea- tures. In Geo-Data everything is presented in one place. Each of Geo-Data’s entries gives the reader a complete portrait of a country's mountains, fields, forests, deserts, rivers, seas, wetlands, and other features, with additional information on population distribution and natural resources. Key facts and statistics are highlighted at the beginning of each entry. In addition to the country entries, Geo-Data features a World Rankings Appendix, listing the world's tallest mountains, longest rivers, deep- est oceans, largest lakes, most populous countries, and other outstanding features. Selection Criteria Geo-Data features 207 entries, each describing a single country or dependency. Every entry includes a relief map depicting the country or dependency. There is a separate entry for each of the world’s 192 countries, including the new nation of East Timor. In addition, the autonomous island of Taiwan and the continent of Antarctica have their own entries, as do 13 dependencies: Anguilla, Aruba, Ber- muda, the British Virgin Islands, the Cayman Islands, French Guiana, Greenland, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Netherlands Antilles, Puerto Rico, the Turks and Caicos Islands, and the U.S. Virgin Islands. Smaller, less popu- lated, and more remote dependencies, such as the Cook Islands, Palmyra Atoll, and Svalbard, are discussed in the entries of their parent states. Although all countries and dependencies are described in detail, entries can vary greatly in length. This is often due to the obvious reason that some coun- tries are much larger than others. However, countries with particularly complicated geography, such as Nepal, may have longer entries than much larger countries with fewer outstanding features, such as Libya. Countries with a large number of dependencies, such as France or the United Kingdom, also have longer entries than compara- bly sized countries. Names and Measurements Geography is an imprecise science. Knowledgeable experts, most of whom have lived, worked, or studied extensively in the countries about which they wrote, pre- pared the entries for this new edition of Geo-Data. Gale editors have relied on authoritative sources such as Mer- riam Webster’s Geographical Dictionary, 3rd ed., The World Factbook 2001 of the CIA, The Columbia Gazetteer of the World, and the statistics and geographic divisions of the United Nations and various countries to check our facts. However, the reader should be aware that it is diffi- cult if not impossible to measure exactly such large and irregular features as mountains, lakes, and rivers. Even authoritative sources often vary slightly in their informa- tion. Population information can be even more difficult to determine accurately, as many countries do not mea- Geodata.book Page ix Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 3. GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIAx Pref ace sure this scientifically and on a regular basis. While basic population statistics are present in every entry, detailed tables and other breakdowns are present only in those entries for which accurate and reasonably current infor- mation was available. It is common for a single geographical feature or country to be called by many different names, depending on the source and context. In Geo-Data we have attempted to use the names that will be most familiar to the majority of our readers. These are most commonly English-language names, but widely used names in other languages and names which have no English equivalent also appear frequently. In addition, the reader will often find alternative names for the same feature given in parentheses after it is first mentioned in the text. In the case of country and dependency names, the edi- tors have again opted for using the most easily recognized versions of their names. Thus the reader will find Brazil under B, not under F for Federative Republic of Brazil or R for República Federative do Brasil. Full, formal, names are used with the two Congos and the two Koreas, but these countries still appear under C and K, respectively. When discussing geography it is impossible to avoid controversy. There are many regions around the world whose ownership is disputed, sometimes violently. Although Gale does not support or seek to legitimize the views of any of the parties of these disputes, for the sake of completeness it was necessary to include these dis- puted regions in one entry or another. The editors have chosen to discuss disputed regions within the entries of the countries that physically control them, while at the same time carefully noting in those entries that the region is claimed by other countries and its status is not determined. Thus the West Bank can be found under Israel, Jammu and Kashmir within the entries on India and Pakistan, and Taiwan in its own separate entry. How Each Profile is Organized Geo-Data’s 207 entries are organized alphabetically. All entries follow the same basic structure, beginning with a collection of Key Facts. The purpose of the Key Facts is to gather together in one easy to find place the basic information about each country that readers most often need. These facts always include a country’s: area (total and ranked relative to other entries), location rela- tive to the rest of the world, coordinates, border length (overall and with individual countries), coastline length, territorial seas, highest point, lowest point, population (total and ranked relative to other entries), largest city, and capital city. When available and applicable, the long- est distances across the country, its longest river, and its largest lake are also provided. Following the Key Facts are eight rubrics. First, the overall geography and geology of the country is described in the Overview. Next, Mountains and Hills describes the major elevations of the country. Inland Waterways then describes the country’s lakes, rivers, and wetlands. The Coast, Islands, and the Ocean gives information on the bodies of water that border on the country, the country's coasts, and its major islands. Climate and Vegetation describes the country’s temperature and rainfall patterns, as well as its forests, grasslands, deserts, and other ground cover. Human Population outlines the major concentra- tions of people in the country. Then Natural Resources identifies the most important resources found within the country. Finally, the Further Readings rubric gives an interested reader suggestions on where to find more information. All eight rubrics appear in every entry, in the order given above, making it easy to navigate within entries and to compare information across countries. Entries are written as a narrative, so the reader looking for the com- plete picture on a country should find the entire entry an enjoyable read. Rubrics are clearly denoted in the text, however, so a reader looking for specific information can find it easily. Throughout the text, major features are identified by name, and their height, length, or other dimensions are provided whenever possible, both in imperial and metric units. Sidebars highlight particularly unusual and interesting facts. Geo-Data’s entries are greatly enhanced by their maps. Every entry in the book includes a relief map. These maps were created specifically for their entries and give the user an extremely detailed view of the geography they are reading about. Since they were created especially for Geo-Data, the reader can be assured that all but the smallest of features mentioned in the text also appear on the map. In addition to the maps, most entries feature one or two tables. These tables list the country's largest cities and their populations and the country's provinces, their capitals, area, and populations. Additional Features Readers looking for comparative information on the world's most remarkable features will find the World Rankings Appendix useful. The 19 tables in this section include lists of the world’s tallest mountains by continent and country; the world’s longest borders; the world’s largest bays and gulfs; the world’s tallest volcanoes; the world’s deepest oceans; and much more. Geo-Data’s exhaustive subject index can help the reader find more information in the text on these and other features. A glossary is also provided, for those readers who are unfamiliar with some of the terms used throughout the book. Acknowledgements Earlier edition of Geo-Data were produced by George Kurian and associates, and distributed by Gale. Gale Geodata.book Page x Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 4. GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA xi P refa ce thanks Mr. Kurian entrusting us with Geo-Data and allowing us to continue his excellent work. Many assisted Gale in producing Geo-Data, for which Gale thank’s them. Eastword Publications, Inc., of Cleveland, OH, contributed most of the research and writing required for the book’s text and tables, as well as typesetting the book. Their many contributors are acknowledged below, but Gale would like to give special thanks to Eastword’s Susan Gall. All maps appearing in Geo-Data were created by XNR Productions of Madison, WI (Tanya Buckingham, Jon Daugherity, Laura Exner, Paul Exner, Andy Grosvold, Cory Johnson, Rob McCaleb, and Paula Robbins). Copy- editing support was provided by Cathy Dybiec Holm, John Krol, Christopher “Rollo” Romig, and Carrie Sny- der. The index was prepared by Synapse Corporation of Franktown, CO. Contributors T. Anne Dabb Karen Ellicott Susan Gall Robert J. Groelsema, Ph.D. Jim Henry Jeneen Hobby, Ph.D. Tara Hohne Hendrick Isengingo Sarah Kunz David H. Long Daniel Lucas John McCoy Edith Mirante Christine Sciulli Jeanne Marie Stumpf, Ph.D. Michelle Tackla Max White Rosalie Wieder We Welcome Your Suggestions Gale appreciates your comments and suggestions. Please direct all correspondence to: Editor Geo-Data: The World Geographical Encyclopedia Gale Group 27500 Drake Rd. Farmington Hills, MI 48331–3535 Geodata.book Page xi Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 5. GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA 613 WORLD RANKINGS APPENDIX Continents by area Rank Continent Area (sq mi) Area (sq km) 1 Asia 17,139,445 44,391,162 2 Africa 11,677,239 30,244,049 3 North America 9,361,791 24,247,039 4 South America 6,880,706 17,821,029 5 Antarctica 5,500,000 14,245,000 6 Europe 3,997,929 10,345,636 7 Australia 2,967,909 7,686,884 Islands by area All measurements are approximate Rank Island Continent Body of water Area (sq mi) Area (sq km) 1 Greenland N. America Atlantic Ocean 840,000 2,175,600 2 New Guinea Oceania Pacific Ocean 305,000 790,000 3 Borneo Asia South China Sea 285,000 737,000 4 Madagascar Africa Indian Ocean 226,657 587,040 5 Baffin N. America Baffin Bay 196,000 507,000 6 Sumatra Asia Andaman Sea 164,000 425,000 7 Honshu Asia Pacific Ocean 88,000 228,000 8 Great Britain Europe North Sea 84,400 219,000 9 Victoria N. America Viscount Melville Sound 83,900 217,000 10 Ellesmere N. America Arctic Ocean 75,800 196,000 11 Sulawesi (Celebes) Asia Celebes Sea 67,400 174,000 12 South Island (New Zealand) Oceania Pacific Ocean 58,200 151,000 13 Java Asia Indian Ocean 50,000 129,000 14 North Island (New Zealand) Oceania Pacific Ocean 44,200 114,000 15 Newfoundland N. America Atlantic Ocean 42,000 109,000 16 Cuba N. America Caribbean Sea 40,500 105,000 17 Luzon Asia Pacific Ocean 40,400 105,000 18 Iceland Europe Atlantic Ocean 39,769 103,000 19 Mindanao Asia Pacific Ocean 36,500 94,600 20 Ireland Europe Atlantic Ocean 32,500 84,100 21 Hokkaido Asia Pacific Ocean 30,100 78,000 22 Sakhalin Asia Sea of Okhotsk 29,500 76,400 23 Hispaniola N. America Atlantic Ocean 29,200 75,600 24 Banks N. America Arctic Ocean 27,000 70,000 25 Sri Lanka Asia Indian Ocean 25,332 65,610 26 Tasmania Australia Indian Ocean 24,900 64,400 27 Devon N. America Baffin Bay 21,300 55,200 28 Novaya Zemlya Europe North Kara Sea 18,900 48,900 29 Grande de Tierra del Fuego S. America Atlantic Ocean 18,700 48,400 [continued] 30 Marajo S. America Atlantic Ocean 18,500 48,000 31 Alexander Antarctica Bellingshausen Sea 16,700 43,200 32 Axel Heiberg N. America Arctic Ocean 16,700 43,200 33 Melville N. America Viscount Melville Sound 16,300 42,100 34 Southampton N. America Husdon Bay 15,900 41,200 35 West Spitsbergen Europe Arctic Ocean 15,300 39,500 36 New Britain Oceania Bismarck Sea 14,600 37,800 37 Taiwan Asia Pacific Ocean 13,892 35,980 38 Kyushu Asia Pacific Ocean 13,800 35,700 39 Hainan Asia South China Sea 13,100 34,000 40 Prince of Wales N. America Viscount Melville Sound 12,900 33,300 41 Novaya Zemlya Europe Barents Sea 12,800 33,300 42 Vancouver N. America Pacific Ocean 12,100 31,300 43 Timor Asia Timor Sea 10,200 26,300 44 Sicily Europe Mediterranean 9,810 25,400 45 Somerset N. America Lancaster Sound 9,570 24,800 46 Sardinia Europe Mediterranean 9,190 23,800 47 Bananal S. America Araguaia River 7,720 20,000 48 Halmahera Asia Molucca Sea 6,950 18,000 49 Shikoku Asia Pacific Ocean 6,860 17,800 50 Ceram Asia Banda Sea 6,620 17,200 51 New Caledonia Oceania Coral Sea 6,470 16,700 52 Bathurst N. America Viscount Melville Sound 6,190 16,000 53 Prince Patrick N. America Arctic Ocean 6,120 15,800 54 North East Land Europe Barents Sea 5,790 15,000 55 Flores Asia Flores Sea 5,520 14,300 56 Oktyabrskoy Revolyutsii Asia Arctic Ocean 5,470 14,170 57 Sumbawa Asia Indian Ocean 5,160 13,400 58 King William N. America Queen Maud Gulf 5,060 13,100 59 Samar Asia Pacific Ocean 5,050 13,100 60 Negros Asia Sulu Sea 4,900 12,700 61 Palawan Asia South China Sea 4,550 11,800 62 Kotelnyy Asia Arctic Ocean 4,500 11,700 63 Panay Asia Sulu Sea 4,450 11,500 64 Bangka Asia Java Sea 4,370 11,320 65 Ellef Ringnes N. America Arctic Ocean 4,360 11,300 66 Bolshevik Asia Arctic Ocean 4,350 11,270 67 Sumba Asia Indian Ocean 4,310 11,200 68 Bylot N. America Baffin Bay 4,270 11,100 69 Jamaica N. America Caribbean Sea 4,243 10,990 70 Dolak Asia Arafura Sea 4,160 10,800 71 Hawaii Oceania Pacific Ocean 4,040 10,500 72 Viti Levu Oceania Pacific Ocean 4,010 10,400 73 Cape Breton N. America Atlantic Ocean 3,980 10,300 [continued] Islands by area All measurements are approximate Rank Island Continent Body of water Area (sq mi) Area (sq km) Geodata.book Page 613 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 6. GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA614 World Ra nking s Ap pendi x 74 Bougainville Oceania Pacific Ocean 3,880 10,000 75 Mindoro Asia South China Sea 3,760 9,730 76 Prince Charles N. America Foxe Basin 3,680 9,520 77 Kodiak N. America Pacific Ocean 3,670 9,510 78 Cyprus Asia Mediterranean 3,571 9,250 79 Komsomolets Asia Arctic Ocean 3,480 9,010 80 Buru Asia Banda Sea 3,470 9,000 81 Corsica Europe Mediterranean 3,370 8,720 82 Puerto Rico N. America Atlantic Ocean 3,350 8,680 83 New Ireland Oceania Pacific Ocean 3,340 8,650 84 Disco N. America Davis Strait 3,310 8,580 85 Chiloe S. America Pacific Ocean 3,240 8,390 86 Crete Europe Mediterranean 3,190 8,260 87 Anticosti N. America Gulf of St. Lawrence 3,070 7,940 88 Wrangel Asia Chukchi Sea 2,820 7,300 89 Leyte Asia Visayan Sea 2,780 7,210 90 Zealand Europe Baltic Sea 2,710 7,020 91 Cornwallis N. America Barrow Strait 2,700 7,000 92 Wellington S. America Trinidad Gulf 2,610 6,750 93 Iturup (Etorofu) Asia Pacific Ocean 2,600 6,720 94 Prince of Wales N. America Pacific Ocean 2,590 6,700 95 Graham N. America Pacific Ocean 2,460 6,360 96 East Falkland S. America Atlantic Ocean 2,440 6,310 97 Melville Asia Timor Sea 2,400 6,220 98 Novaya Sibir Asia East Siberian Sea 2,390 6,200 99 Kerguelen Antarctica Indian Ocean 2,320 6,000 100 Andros N. America Grand Bahama Bank 2,300 5,960 101 Prince Edward Island N. America Gulf of St. Lawrence 2,180 5,660 102 Bali Asia Indian Ocean 2,170 5,620 103 Guadalcanal Oceania Solomon Sea 2,170 5,630 104 Vanua Levu Oceania Pacific Ocean 2,140 5,530 105 Coats N. America Hudson Bay 2,120 5,500 106 Santa Ines S. America Pacific Ocean 2,120 5,500 107 Lombok Asia Indian Ocean 2,100 5,430 108 Chicagof N. America Gulf of Alaska 2,080 5,400 109 Madura Asia Java Sea 2,040 5,290 110 Amund Ringnes N. America Peary Channel 2,030 5,260 111 MacKenzie King Island N. America Hazen Strait 1,950 5,050 112 Edge Europe Barents Sea 1,940 5,030 113 Faddeyevskiy Asia Arctic Ocean 1,930 5,000 114 Espiritu Santo Asia Coral Sea 1,930 5,000 115 Caviana S. America Atlantic Ocean 1,920 4,970 116 Grande de Gurupa S. America Amazon River 1,880 4,860 117 Vendsyssel -Thy Europe Skagerrak 1,810 4,680 118 Malaita Oceania Pacific Ocean 1,750 4,530 119 Long N. America Atlantic Ocean 1,723 4,462 120 Kangaroo Australia Indian Ocean 1,680 4,350 121 West Falkland S. America Atlantic Ocean 1,680 4,350 122 Hoste S. America Pacific Ocean 1,590 4,110 123 Santa Isabel Oceania Pacific Ocean 1,550 4,010 124 Berkner Antarctica Weddell Sea 1,500 3,880 125 Isabela S. America Pacific Ocean 1,450 3,760 126 South Georgia S. America Atlantic Ocean 1,450 3,760 127 Euboea Europe Aegean Sea 1,410 3,650 128 Majorca Europe Mediterranean 1,400 3,630 129 Makira (San Cristóbal) Oceania Pacific Ocean 1,350 3,500 130 Vaygach Europe Kara Sea 1,310 3,380 131 Adelaide Antarctica Bellingshausen Sea 1,270 3,300 132 Waigeo Asia Pacific Ocean 1,250 3,250 133 Kolguyev Europe Barents Sea 1,240 3,200 134 Riesco S. America Strait of Magellan 1,200 3,110 135 Gotland Europe Baltic Sea 1,160 3,000 136 Fyn Europe Baltic Sea 1,150 2,980 137 Zemlya Georga Europe Barents Sea 1,120 2,900 138 Zemlya Aleksandry Europe Barents Sea 1,080 2,800 139 Manitoulin N. America Lake Huron 1,068 2,766 140 Sarema Europe Baltic Sea 1,030 2,680 141 Magdalena S. America Moraleda Channel 998 2,580 142 Reunion Africa Indian Ocean 970 2,512 143 Navarino S. America Nassau Bay 955 2,470 144 Ross Antarctica Ross Sea 888 2,300 145 Clarence S. America Strait of Magellan 863 2,240 146 Hinn Europe Norwegian Sea 849 2,200 147 Bioko Africa Bight of Bonny 779 2,020 148 Charcot Antarctica Bellingshausen Sea 772 2,000 [continued] Islands by area All measurements are approximate Rank Island Continent Body of water Area (sq mi) Area (sq km) 149 Tenerife Africa Atlantic Ocean 745 1,930 150 Mauritius Africa Indian Ocean 720 1,860 151 Skye Europe Sea of the Hebrides 643 1,670 152 Fuerte Ventura Africa Atlantic Ocean 642 1,663 153 Zanzibar Africa Indian Ocean 640 1,656 154 Lesbos Europe Aegean Sea 629 1,630 155 Gran Canaria Africa Atlantic Ocean 592 1,530 156 Mexiana S. America Atlantic Ocean 592 1,530 157 Sao Luis S. America Atlantic Ocean 465 1,200 158 Grande Comore Africa Indian Ocean 443 1,147 159 Sao Tiago Africa Atlantic Ocean 384 995 160 Pemba Africa Indian Ocean 380 984 161 Santa Cruz S. America Pacific Ocean 358 927 162 Margarita S. America Pacific Ocean 355 920 163 Dahlac Africa Red Sea 347 900 164 São Tomé Africa Gulf of Guinea 330 854 165 Lanzarote Africa Atlantic Ocean 302 782 166 Santo Antao Africa Atlantic Ocean 302 782 167 Madeira Africa Atlantic Ocean 286 741 168 La Palma Africa Atlantic Ocean 256 662 169 Fernandina S. America Pacific Ocean 253 655 170 Boa Vista Africa Atlantic Ocean 239 620 171 San Salvador S. America Pacific Ocean 199 515 172 Djerba Africa Gulf of Gabes 197 510 173 San Cristobal S. America Pacific Ocean 185 480 174 Fogo Africa Atlantic Ocean 184 476 175 Nzwani Africa Mozambique Channel 164 424 176 Mayotte Africa Mozambique Channel 144 374 Oceans and seas by area All measurements are rounded to the nearest thousand Rank Name Area (sq mi) Area (sq km) 1 Pacific Ocean 60,060,000 155,557,000 2 Atlantic Ocean 29,638,000 76,762,000 3 Indian Ocean 26,469,000 68,556,000 4 Southern Ocean 7,848,000 20,327,000 5 Arctic Ocean 5,427,000 14,056,000 6 Coral Sea 1,850,000 4,791,000 7 Arabian Sea 1,492,000 3,864,000 8 South China Sea (Nan Hai) 1,423,000 3,685,000 9 Weddell Sea 1,080,000 2,796,000 10 Caribbean Sea 1,063,000 2,753,000 11 Mediterranean Sea 971,000 2,515,000 12 Tasman Sea 900,000 2,331,000 13 Bering Sea 890,000 2,305,000 14 Bay of Bengal 839,000 2,173,000 15 Sea of Okhotsk 614,000 1,590,000 16 Gulf of Mexico 596,000 1,544,000 17 Gulf of Guinea 592,000 1,533,000 18 Barents Sea 542,000 1,405,000 19 Norwegian Sea 534,000 1,383,000 20 Gulf of Alaska 512,000 1,327,000 21 Hudson Bay 476,000 1,233,000 22 Greenland Sea 465,000 1,205,000 23 Bellinghausen Sea 430,000 1,110,000 24 Amundsen Sea 400,000 1,036,000 25 Arafura Sea 400,000 1,036,000 26 Philippine Sea 400,000 1,036,000 27 Sea of Japan 378,000 979,000 28 Mozambique Channel 376,000 975,000 29 Ross Sea 370,000 958,000 30 East Siberian Sea 361,000 936,000 31 Scotia Sea 347,000 900,000 32 Kara Sea 341,000 883,000 33 Labrador Sea 309,000 800,000 34 East China Sea (Dong Hai / Tung Hai) 290,000 752,000 35 Solomon Sea 278,000 720,000 36 Laptev Sea 270,000 700,000 [continued] Islands by area All measurements are approximate Rank Island Continent Body of water Area (sq mi) Area (sq km) Geodata.book Page 614 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 7. GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA 615 Worl d R ankin gs A ppend ix WorldRankings 37 Baffin Bay 268,000 695,000 38 Banda Sea 268,000 695,000 39 Drake Passage 240,000 620,000 40 Timor Sea 237,000 615,000 41 Andaman Sea 232,000 601,000 42 North Sea 232,000 601,000 43 Davis Strait 230,000 596,000 44 Chukchi Sea 225,000 582,000 45 Great Australian Bight 187,000 484,000 46 Beaufort Sea 184,000 476,000 47 Celebes Sea 182,000 472,000 48 Black Sea 178,000 461,000 49 Red Sea 175,000 453,000 50 Java Sea 167,000 433,000 51 Sulu Sea 162,000 420,000 52 Yellow Sea (Huang Hai) 161,000 417,000 53 Baltic Sea 147,000 382,000 54 Gulf of Carpentaria 120,000 310,000 55 Molucca Sea 119,000 307,000 56 Persian Gulf 93,000 241,000 57 Gulf of Thailand 92,000 239,000 58 Gulf of St. Lawrence 92,000 239,000 59 Bismarck Sea 87,000 225,000 60 Gulf of Aden 85,000 220,000 61 Makassar Strait 75,000 194,000 62 Ceram Sea 72,000 187,000 Bays, gulfs, inlets and passages by area All measurements are rounded to the nearest thousand Rank Name Continent Country Area (sq mi) Area (sq km) 1 Bay of Bengal Asia India/Myanmar/Sri Lanka 839,000 2,173,000 2 Gulf of Mexico N. America U.S.A./Cuba/Mexico 596,000 1,544,000 3 Gulf of Guinea Africa Cameroon/Nigeria/ Equatorial Guinea 592,000 1,533,000 4 Gulf of Alaska N. America U.S.A./Canada 512,000 1,327,000 5 Hudson Bay N. America Canada 476,000 1,233,000 6 Baffin Bay N. America Greenland/Canada 268,000 695,000 7 Great Australia Bight Australia Australia 187,000 484,000 8 Gulf of Carpentaria Australia Australia 120,000 310,000 9 Persian Gulf Asia Bahrain/Iran/Qatar/ Saudi Arabia/U.A.E. 93,000 240,000 10 Gulf of St. Lawrence N. America Canada 93,000 240,000 11 Gulf of Thailand Asia Cambodia/Thailand 92,000 239,000 12 Gulf of Aden Asia and Africa Somalia/Yemen 85,000 220,000 13 Gulf of Oman Asia Iran/U.A.E/Oman 70,000 181,000 14 Gulf of California N. America Mexico 62,000 161,000 15 Gulf of Tonkin Asia Vietnam/China 45,000 117,000 16 Gulf of Bothnia Europe Finland/Sweden 45,000 117,000 17 Bight of Benin Africa Benin 26,000 67,000 18 Strait of Malacca Asia Malaysia/Indonesia 25,000 65,000 19 Gulf of Boothia N. America Canada 23,000 60,000 20 Amundsen Gulf N. America Canada 23,000 60,000 21 Gulf of Finland Europe Finland/Estonia 12,000 30,000 Ocean trenches by depth Rank Name Ocean Depth (ft) Depth (m) 1 Mariana Trench Pacific 38,635 11,784 2 Philippine Trench Pacific 37,720 11,505 3 Tonga Trench Pacific 37,166 11,336 4 Izu Trench Pacific 36,850 11,239 5 Kermadec Trench Pacific 34,728 10,592 [continued] Oceans and seas by area All measurements are rounded to the nearest thousand Rank Name Area (sq mi) Area (sq km) 6 Kuril Trench Pacific 34,678 10,577 7 New Britain Trench Pacific 31,657 9,655 8 Puerto Rico Trench Atlantic 31,037 9,466 9 Bonin Trench Pacific 29,816 9,094 10 Japan Trench Pacific 29,157 8,893 11 South Sandwich Trench Atlantic 28,406 8,664 12 Palau Trench Pacific 27,972 8,531 13 Peru-Chile Trench Pacific 27,687 8,445 14 Yap Trench Pacific 27,552 8,403 15 Aleutian Trench Pacific 26,775 8,166 16 Roanche Gap Atlantic 26,542 8,095 17 Cayman Trench Atlantic 26,519 8,088 18 New Hebrides Trench Pacific 25,971 7,921 19 Ryukyu Trench Pacific 25,597 7,807 20 Java Trench Indian 24,744 7,547 21 Diamantina Trench Indian 24,249 7,396 22 Mid America Trench Pacific 22,297 6,801 23 Brazil Basin Atlantic 22,274 6,794 24 Ob Trench Indian 21,785 6,644 25 Vema Trench Indian 19,482 5,942 26 Agulhas Basin Indian 19,380 5,911 27 Ionian Basin Mediterranean 17,306 5,278 28 Eurasia Basin Arctic 16,122 4,917 Rivers by length All measurements are approximate Rank Name Continent Country Length (mi) Length (km) 1 Nile Africa Egypt, Sudan, Uganda 4,160 6,693 2 Amazon S. America Brazil, Colombia, Peru, Venezuela 3,900 6,280 3 Mississippi- Missouri N. America U.S.A. 3,860 6,211 4 Chang Jiang (Yangtze or Yangtse) Asia China 3,434 5,525 5 Ob'-Irtysh Asia Kazakhstan, Russia 3,335 5,380 6 Paraná S. America Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay 3,030 4,870 7 Huang He (Huang-ho or Yellow) Asia China 2,903 4,671 8 Irtysh Asia Kazakhstan, Russia 2,760 4,441 9 Lena Asia Russia 2,734 4,400 10 Amur Asia China, Russia 2,719 4,350 11 Congo (Zaire) Africa Angola, Dem. Rep. of the Congo, Rep. of the Congo 2,700 4,344 12 Mackenzie N. America Canada 2,635 4,290 13 Mekong Asia Cambodia, China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam 2,600 4,200 14 Niger Africa Benin, Guinea, Mali, Niger, Nigeria 2,594 4,184 15 Yenisey Asia Russia 2,566 4,129 16 Missouri N. America U.S.A. 2,466 3,968 17 Mississippi N. America U.S.A. 2,348 3,787 18 Volga Europe Russia 2,293 3,689 19 Ob' Asia Russia 2,270 3,650 20 Euphrates Asia Iraq, Syria, Turkey 2,235 3,596 21 Purus S. America Brazil, Peru 2,100 3,380 22 Madeira S. America Brazil 2,013 3,241 23 Lower Tunguska Asia Russia 2,000 3,220 24 Indus Asia Pakistan 1,988 3,200 25 São Francisco S. America Brazil 1,988 3,199 26 Yukon N. America Canada, U.S.A. 1,980 3,180 27 Rio Grande N. America Mexico, U.S.A. 1,885 3,034 28 Brahmaputra (Jamuna) Asia Bangladesh, China, India 1,800 2,900 29 Danube Europe Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Germany, Hungary, Romania, Ukraine, Slovakia, Yugoslavia 1,775 2,857 30 Salween Asia China, Myanmar 1,770 2,849 [continued] Ocean trenches by depth Rank Name Ocean Depth (ft) Depth (m) Geodata.book Page 615 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 8. GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA616 World Ra nking s Ap pendi x 31 Darling Australia Australia 1,702 2,739 32 Tocantins S. America Brazil 1,677 2,698 33 Nelson N. America Canada 1,660 2,671 34 Vilyuy Asia Russia 1,650 2,650 35 Zambezi Africa Angola, Mozambique, Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe 1,650 2,650 36 Murray Australia Australia 1,609 2,589 37 Paraguay S. America Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay 1,584 2,549 38 Amu Dar'ya Asia Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan 1,580 2,540 39 Kolyma Asia Russia 1,562 2,513 40 Ganges Asia Bangladesh, India 1,560 2,510 41 Ishim Asia Kazakhstan, Russia 1,520 2,450 42 Ural Asia Kazakhstan, Russia 1,510 2,430 43 Japurá S. America Brazil, Colombia 1,500 2,414 44 Arkansas N. America U.S.A. 1,460 2,350 45 Colorado N. America U.S.A. 1,450 2,330 46 Dnieper Europe Belarus, Russia, Ukraine 1,420 2,290 47 Negro S. America Brazil, Colombia, Venezuela 1,400 2,250 48 Ubangi Africa Central African Rep., Dem. Rep. of the Congo, Rep. of the Congo 1,400 2,253 49 Aldan Asia Russia 1,390 2,240 50 Columbia- Snake N. America Canada, U.S.A. 1,390 2,240 51 Syr Dar'ya Asia Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan 1,370 2,200 52 Araguaia S. America Brazil 1,366 2,198 53 Olenek Asia Russia 1,350 2,170 54 Irrawaddy Asia Myanmar 1,350 2,170 55 Kasai Africa Angola, Dem. Rep of the Congo 1,338 2,153 56 Ohio- Allegheny N. America U.S.A. 1,310 2,109 57 Tarim Asia China 1,300 2,090 58 Orange Africa Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa 1,300 2,090 59 Orinoco S. America Venezuela 1,281 2,061 60 Shabeelle Africa Ethiopia, Somalia 1,250 2,011 61 Xingu S. America Brazil 1,230 1,979 62 Columbia N. America Canada, U.S.A. 1,214 1,953 63 Mamoré S. America Bolivia 1,200 1,931 64 Tigris Asia Iraq, Turkey 1,180 1,900 65 Northern Dvina Europe Russia 1,160 1,870 66 Don Europe Russia 1,153 1,860 67 Angara Asia Russia 1,151 1,852 68 Kama Europe Russia 1,120 1,800 69 Indigirka Asia Russia 1,112 1,789 70 Pechora Europe Russia 1,112 1,789 71 Limpopo Africa Botswana, South Africa, Mozambique 1,100 1,770 72 Salado S. America Argentina 1,110 1,770 73 Guaporé S. America Bolivia, Brazil 1,087 1,749 74 Tobol Asia Kazakhstan, Russia 1,042 1,677 75 Snake N. America U.S.A. 1,038 1,670 76 Red N. America U.S.A. 1,018 1,638 77 Sénégal Africa Guinea, Mali, Mauritania, Senegal 1,015 1,663 78 Churchill N. America Canada 1,000 1,613 79 Jubba Africa Ethiopia, Somalia 1,000 1,613 80 Okavango Africa Angola, Botswana 1,000 1,613 81 Pilcomayo S. America Argentina, Bolivia, Paraguay 1,000 1,613 82 Uruguay S. America Uruguay 1,000 1,613 83 Volta Africa Burkina Faso, Ghana 992 1,600 Rivers by length All measurements are approximate Rank Name Continent Country Length (mi) Length (km) Rivers by drainage area In thousands of sq mi and sq km. All measurements are approximate Rank Name Continent Country Drainage basin (sq mi) Drainage basin (sq km) 1 Amazon S. America Brazil, Colombia, Peru, Venezuela 2,375 6,150 2 Congo (Zaire) Africa Angola, Dem. Rep. of the Congo, Rep. of the Congo 1,476 3,822 3 Nile Africa Egypt, Sudan 1,293 3,349 4 Mississippi N. America U.S.A. 1,247 3,230 5 Paraná S. America Argentina, Brazil Paraguay 1,197 3,100 6 Ob'-Irtysh Asia Kazakhstan, Russia 1,154 2,990 7 Yenisey Asia Russia 996 2,580 8 Lena Asia Russia 961 2,490 9 Niger Africa Benin, Guinea, Mali, Niger, Nigeria 808 2,092 10 Amur (Hei-lung chiang or Heilong Jiang) Asia China, Russia 716 1,855 11 Chang Jiang (Yangtze or Yangtse) Asia China 705 1,827 12 Mackenzie N. America Canada 690 1,787 13 Saint Lawrence N. America Canada, U.S.A. 550 1,424 14 Volga Europe Russia 525 1,360 15 Zambezi Africa Angola, Mozambique, Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe 514 1,331 16 Madeira S. America Brazil 463 1,200 17 Indus Asia Pakistan 450 1,165 18 Nelson N. America Canada 437 1,132 19 Shatt al-Arab* Asia Iran, Iraq, Syria, Turkey 427 1,105 20 Paraguay S. America Argentina, Paraguay 425 1,100 21 Murray Australia Australia 408 1,057 22 Negro (Guainía) S. America Brazil 386 1,000 23 Ganges Asia Bangladesh, India 368 952 24 Kasai Africa Angola, Dem. Rep. of the Congo 349 904 25 Orinoco S. America Venezuela 340 880 26 Orange Africa Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa 330 855 27 Yukon N. America Canada, U.S.A. 328 850 28 Para S. America Brazil 323 836 29 Danube Europe Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Germany, Hungary, Romania, Ukraine, Slovakia, Yugoslavia 315 816 30 Mekong Asia Cambodia, China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam 313 811 32 Okavango Africa Angola, Botswana 303 78531 Salado N. America Argentina 309 800 33 Ubangi Africa Central African Rep., Dem. Rep. of the Congo, Rep. of the Congo 298 773 34 Huang He (Huang- ho or Yellow) Asia China 297 771 35 Ob' Asia Russia 295 765 36 Aldan Asia Russia 281 729 37 Shari Africa Cameroon, Chad 270 700 38 Columbia N. America Canada, U.S.A. 258 668 39 Kolyma Asia Russia 248 648 40 Colorado N. America Mexico, U.S.A. 247 640 41 São Francisco S. America Brazil 241 623 42 Guapore (Iténez) S. America Bolivia, Brazil 232 600 43 Brahmaputra Asia Bangladesh 224 580 44 Panjnad Asia India, Pakistan 206 533 45 Ohio-Allegheny N. America U.S.A. 204 528 46 Sungari Asia China 202 524 47 Kama Europe Russia 196 507 48 Dnieper Europe Belarus, Russia, Ukraine 195 504 49 Lower Tunguska Asia Russia 183 473 50 Tapajós S. America Brazil 179 463 51 Volta Africa Burkina Faso, Ghana 154 398 52 Northern Dvina Europe Russia 138 357 *The Shatt al-Arab is the confluence of the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers. Geodata.book Page 616 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 9. GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA 617 Worl d R ankin gs A ppend ix WorldRankings Rivers by discharge rate All measurements are approximate Rate River Continent Country Discharge rate (cu ft per sec) Discharge rate (cu m per sec) 1 Amazon S. America Brazil, Colombia, Peru, Venezuela 6,180,000 175,000 2 Congo (Zaire) Africa Angola, Dem. Rep. of the Congo 1,377,000 39,000 3 Negro (Guainía) S. America Brazil 1,236,000 35,000 4 Chang Jiang (Yangtze or Yangtse) Asia China 1,137,000 32,190 5 Orinoco S. America Venezuela 890,000 25,200 6 Paraná S. America Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay 809,000 22,900 7 Madeira S. America Brazil 770,000 21,800 8 Brahmaputra Asia Bangladesh, China, India 678,000 19,200 9 Yenisey Asia Russia 622,000 17,600 10 Lena Asia Russia 586,000 16,600 11 Mississippi N. America U.S.A. 531,000 15,040 12 Mekong Asia Cambodia, China, Laos, Myanmar, Thailand, Vietnam 501,000 14,200 13 Irrawaddy Asia Myanmar 447,000 12,660 14 Zhu (Pearl) Asia China 441,000 12,500 15 Ganges Asia Bangladesh, India 440,000 12,460 16 Ob'-Irtysh Asia Russia 438,000 12,400 17 St. Lawrence N. America Canada, U.S.A. 355,000 10,050 18 Salween Asia Myanmar 353,000 10,000 19 Kasai Africa Rep. of the Congo, Dem. Rep. of the Congo 351,000 9,951 20 Amur (Hei-lung chiang or Heilong Jiang) Asia China, Russia 349,000 9,860 21 Mackenzie N. America Canada 316,000 8,940 22 Para S. America Brazil 305,000 8,630 23 Volga Europe Russia 285,000 8,060 24 Magdalena S. America Colombia 283,000 8,000 25 Ohio N. America U.S.A. 272,000 7,710 26 Solo Asia Indonesia 268,000 7,600 27 Ubangi Africa Central African Rep., Rep. of the Congo, Dem. Rep. of the Congo 265,000 7,500 28 Zambezi Africa Angola, Mozambique, Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe 250,000 7,070 29 Caqueta S. America Brazil 247,000 7,000 31 Indus Asia Pakistan 235,000 6,640 32 Yukon N. America Canada, U.S.A. 223,000 6,310 33 Danube Europe Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Germany, Hungary, Romania, Ukraine, Slovakia, Yugoslavia 221,000 6,250 34 Araguaia S. America Brazil 217,000 6,140 35 Tapajos-Juruena S. America Brazil 212,000 6,000 36 Niger Africa Benin, Guinea, Mali, Niger, Nigeria 201,000 5,700 37 Uruguay S. America Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay 194,000 5,490 38 Columbia N. America Canada, U.S.A. 194,000 5,490 39 Branco S. America Brazil 191,000 5,400 40 Aldan Asia Russia 177,000 5,010 41 Putumayo S. America Brazil 177,000 5,010 42 Ob Asia Russia 174,000 4,920 43 Atrato S. America Colombia 173,000 4,900 44 Caroni S. America Venezuela 168,000 4,750 45 Ogooue Africa Gabon 165,000 4,670 46 Fly Asia Papua New Guinea 157,000 4,450 47 Paraguay S. America Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay 155,000 4,400 48 Chindwin Asia Myanmar 141,000 4,000 48 Jurua S. America Brazil 141,000 4,000 48 Pechora Europe Russia 141,000 4,000 49 Northern Dvina Europe Russia 120,000 3,400 49 Fraser N. America Canada 120,000 3,400 50 Lower Tunguska Asia Russia 117,000 3,300 51 Kama Europe Russia 99,000 2,800 Lakes by area All measurements are approximate Rank Name Continent Country Area (sq mi) Area (sq km) 1 Caspian Sea Asia Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia, Turkmenistan 143,000 371,000 2 Superior N. America Canada, U.S.A. 31,820 82,732 3 Victoria Africa Uganda, Tanzania, Kenya 26,828 69,484 4 Aral Sea Asia Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan 24,900 64,500 5 Huron N. America Canada, U.S.A. 23,000 59,570 6 Michigan N. America U.S.A. 22,400 58,020 7 Tanganyika Africa Burundi, Dem. Republic of the Congo, Tanzania, Zambia 12,700 32,020 8 Baikal Asia Russia 12,160 31,500 9 Great Bear N. America Canada 12,095 31,328 10 Great Slave N. America Canada 11,030 28,570 11 Erie N. America Canada, U.S.A. 9,920 25,690 12 Winnipeg N. America Canada 9,420 24,390 13 Malawi Africa Malawi, Mozambique, Tanzania, 8,680 22,490 14 Ontario N. America Canada, U.S.A. 7,440 19,240 15 Balkhash Asia Kazakhstan 7,030 18,200 16 Ladoga Russia Russia 7,000 18,130 17 Maracaibo S. America Venezuela 5,020 13,010 18 Chad Africa Cameroon, Chad, Niger, Nigeria 4,000– 10,000 10,360– 25,900 19 Embalse del Río Negro S. America Uruguay 4,000 10,360 20 Patos S. America Brazil 3,920 10,153 21 Onega Europe Russia 3,750 9,720 22 Eyre Australia Australia 3,668 9,500 23 Volta Africa Ghana 3,276 8,485 24 Titicaca S. America Bolivia, Peru 3,200 8,288 25 Nicaragua S. America Nicaragua 3,150 8,160 26 Athabasca N. America Canada 3,060 7,940 27 Reindeer N. America Canada 2,570 6,650 28 Smallwood Reservoir N. America Canada 2,500 6,460 29 Turkana (Rudolf) Africa Ethiopia, Kenya 2,473 6,405 30 Issyk Kul Asia Kyrgyzstan 2,360 6,100 31 Torrens Australia Australia 2,230 5,780 32 Albert Africa Dem. Republic of the Congo, Uganda 2,160 5,590 33 Vanern Europe Sweden 2,160 5,580 34 Netilling N. America Canada 2,140 5,540 35 Winnipegosis N. America Canada 2,070 5,370 36 Nasser Africa Egypt, Sudan 2,026 5,248 37 Bangweulu Africa Zambia 1,930 5,000 38 Chott el Djerid Africa Tunisia 1,930 5,000 39 Urmia Asia Iran 1,879 4,868 40 Nipigon N. America Canada 1,870 4,850 41 Gairdner Australia Australia 1,840 4,770 42 Manitoba N. America Canada 1,800 4,660 43 Kyoga Africa Uganda 1,710 4,430 44 Khanka Asia China, Russia 1,700 4,400 45 Saimaa Europe Finland 1,700 4,403 46 Mweru Africa Dem. Republic of the Congo 1,680 4,350 47 Great Salt N. America U.S.A. 1,680 4,350 48 Qinghai (Koko) Asia China 1,625 4,209 49 Woods N. America Canada 1,580 4,100 50 Taymyr Asia Russia 1,540 3,990 51 Nasser Africa Egypt 1,522 3,942 52 Orumiyeh Asia Iran 1,500 3,880 53 Dubawnt N. America Canada 1,480 3,830 54 Van Asia Turkey 1,430 3,710 55 Tana Africa Ethiopia 1,390 3,600 56 Peipus Europe Estonia, Russia 1,386 3,555 57 Uvs Asia Mongolia 1,300 3,366 Geodata.book Page 617 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 10. GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA618 World Ra nking s Ap pendi x Lakes by depth Rank Lake Continent Country Depth (ft) Depth (m) 1 Baikal Asia Russia 5,315 1,621 2 Tanganyika Africa Burundi, Tanzania, Dem. Republic of the Congo, Zambia 4,825 1,471 3 Caspian Sea Asia Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia, Turkmenistan 3,363 1,025 4 Malawi Africa Malawi, Tanzania, Mozambique 2,316 706 5 Issyk Kul Asia Kyrgyzstan 2,303 702 6 Great Slave N. America Canada 2,015 614 7 Matana Asia Indonesia 1,936 590 8 Crater N. America U.S.A. 1,932 589 9 Toba Asia Indonesia 1,736 529 10 Hornindals Europe Norway 1,686 514 11 Sarez Asia Tajikistan 1,657 505 12 Tahoe N. America U.S.A. 1,645 501 13 Chelan N. America U.S.A. 1,605 489 14 Kivu Africa Rwanda, Dem. Republic of the Congo 1,575 480 15 Quesnel N. America Canada 1,560 475 16 Sals Europe Norway 1,522 464 17 Adams N. America Canada 1,500 457 18 Mjøsa Europe Norway 1,473 449 19 Manapuri Oceania New Zealand 1,453 443 20 Poso Asia Indonesia 1,444 440 21 Nahuel Huapi S. America Argentina 1,437 438 22 Dead Sea Asia Israel, Jordan 1,421 433 23 Tazawa Asia Japan 1,394 425 24 Great Bear N. America Canada 1,356 413 25 Como Europe Italy 1,352 412 26 Superior N. America Canada, U.S.A. 1,333 406 27 Hawea Asia New Zealand 1,286 392 28 Wakatipu Asia New Zealand 1,240 378 29 Suldals Europe Norway 1,234 376 30 Maggiore Europe Italy, Switzerland 1,221 372 31 Fyres Europe Norway 1,211 369 32 Chilko N. America Canada 1,200 366 33 Pend Oreille N. America U.S.A. 1,200 366 34 Shikotsu Asia Japan 1,191 363 35 Powell N. America Canada 1,174 358 36 Llanquihue S. America Chile 1,148 350 37 Garda Europe Italy 1,135 346 38 Towada Asia Japan 1,096 334 39 Wanaka Asia New Zealand 1,086 325 40 Bandak Europe Norway 1,066 325 41 Telestskoya Asia Russia 1,066 325 42 Eutsuk N. America Canada 1,060 323 43 Atitlan N. America Guatemala 1,050 320 44 Lunde Europe Norway 1,030 314 45 Geneva Europe France, Switzerland 1,017 310 46 Morar Europe Scotland 1,017 310 47 Kurile Asia Russia 1,004 306 48 Walker N. America U.S.A. 1,000 305 49 Titicaca S. America Bolivia, Peru 997 304 50 Argentino S. America Argentina 984 300 51 Iliamna N. America U.S.A. 980 299 52 Tyrifjorden Europe Norway 968 295 53 Lugano Europe Italy, Switzerland 945 288 54 Takla N. America Canada 941 287 55 Ohrid Europe Albania, Yugoslavia 938 286 56 Atlin N. America Canada 930 283 57 Nuyakuk N. America U.S.A. 930 283 58 Michigan N. America U.S.A. 923 285 59 Harrison N. America Canada 916 279 60 Te Anau Oceania New Zealand 906 276 Lakes by volume Rank Lake Continent Country Volume (cu mi) Volume (cu km) 1 Caspian Sea Asia Azerbaijan, Iran, Kazakhstan, Russia, Turkmenistan 18,882 78,707 2 Baikal Asia Russia 5,517 22,995 3 Tanganyika Africa Burundi, Tanzania, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Zambia 4,391 18,304 4 Superior N. America Canada, USA 2,921 12,174 5 Malawi Africa Malawi, Tanzania, Mozambique 1,473 6,140 6 Michigan N. America USA 1,169 4,874 7 Huron N. America Canada, USA 858 3,575 8 Victoria Africa Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda 604 2,518 9 Great Bear N. America Canada 550 2,292 10 Great Slave N. America Canada 542 2,258 11 Issyk Kul Asia Kyrgyzstan 420 1,725 12 Ontario N. America Canada, USA 369 1,539 13 Aral Sea Asia Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan 348 1,450 14 Ladoga Russia Russia 218 905 15 Titicaca S. America Bolivia, Peru 198 827 16 Erie N. America Canada, USA 111 462 17 Winnipeg N. America Canada 89 370 18 Hovsgol Asia Mongolia 88 367 19 Kivu Africa Rwanda Congo, Dem. Republic of 80 333 20 Onega Europe Russia 70 285 21 Maracaibo S. America Venezuela 67 280 Glaciers, ice shelves, and related features, by area Only named features are included in this list. All measurements are approximate. Also note that glaciers and similar features can vary in size over time. Rank Name Continent Country Area (sq mi) Area (sq km) 1 Antarctic Ice Shelf* Antarctica Antarctica 3,805,235– 4,619,957 9,855,570– 11,965,700 2 Greenland Ice Sheet N. America Greenland 659,087 1,707,038 3 Novaya Zemlya Ice Sheet Asia Russia 8,301– 9,112 21,500– 23,600 4 Prince of Wales Ice Field N. America Canada 7,247 18,770 5 Mer de Glace Agassiz Europe Switzerland 6,216 16,100 6 Devon Island Ice Cap N. America Canada 5,019 13,000 7 Southern Patagonian Ice Field S. America Argentina-Chile 5,019 13,000 8 Bering Glacier N. America U.S.A. 3,800 9,800 9 Austfonna Ice Cap Europe Svalbard (dependency of Norway) 3,248 8,413 10 Vatnajökull Ice Cap Europe Iceland 3,166–3,297 8,200–8,538 11 Akaioa Ice Cap N. America Canada 2,799 7,250 12 Malaspina Glacier** N. America U.S.A. 847–3,089 2,195–8,000 13 Barnes Ice Cap N. America Canada 2,292 5,935 14 Bering Glacier N. America Canada-U.S.A. 2,008 5,200 15 Axel Heiberg Island Ice Cap N. America Canada 1,969 5,100 16 Northern Patagonian Ice Field S. America Argentina-Chile 1,622 4,200 17 Hubbard Glacier N. America U.S.A. 1,313 3,400 18 Olav V Land Ice Field Europe Svalbard (Norway) 1,158 3,000 19 Kallstenius Ice Field N. America Greenland 1,050 2,720 20 Vestfonna Ice Cap Europe Svalbard (Norway) 967 2,505 21 Juneau Icefield N. America U.S.A. 703 1,820 22 Skeidararjökull Europe Iceland 665 1,722 23 Asgardfonna Ice Cap Europe Svalbard (Norway) 635 1,645 24 Edgeoyjokulen Ice Cap Europe Svalbard (Norway) 512 1,300 [continued] Geodata.book Page 618 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 11. GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA 619 Worl d R ankin gs A ppend ix WorldRankings 25 Breidamerkurujökull Europe Iceland 489 1,266.5 26 Glacier Bruggen (Pio XI) S. America Argentina-Chile 488 1,265 27 Hinlopenbreen Europe Svalbard (Norway) 482–483 1,248–1,250 28 Negribreen Europe Svalbard (Norway) 456 1,180 29 Brasvellbreen Europe Svalbard (Norway) 448 1,160 30 Etonbreen Europe Svalbard (Norway) 413–440 1,070–1,140 31 Columbia Glacier N. America U.S.A. 422–425 1,093–1,100 32 Siachen Glacier Asia India-Pakistan 386 1,000 33 Langjökull Europe Iceland 368 953 34 Leighbreen Europe Svalbard (Norway) 357 925 35 Holtedahlfonna and Isachsenfonna Europe Svalbard (Norway) 347 900 36 Fedchenko Glacier Asia Tajikistan 347 900 37 Nabesna Glacier N. America U.S.A. 316 819 38 Jostedalsbreen Europe Norway 315 815 39 Kvitoyjokulen Europe Svalbard (Norway) 272 705 40 Stonebreen Europe Svalbard (Norway) 270 700 41 Myrdals Glacier Europe Iceland 268.3 695 42 Kronebreen Europe Svalbard (Norway) 267.5 693 43 Taku Glacier Europe Svalbard (Norway) 259 671 44 Hochstetterbreen Glacier Europe Svalbard (Norway) 224.3 581 45 Kahiltna Glacier N. America U.S.A. 223.9 580 46 Barentsjokulen Europe Svalbard (Norway) 220 571 47 Kennicott Glacier N. America U.S.A. 213 551 48 Shokalsky Glacier Asia Kazakhstan- Kyrgyzstan 210.4 545 49 Balderfonna Europe Svalbard (Norway) 209.7 543 50 Baird Glacier N. America U.S.A. 205 532 51 Muldrow Glacier N. America U.S.A. 199 516 52 Baltoro Glacier Asia Pakistan 70 181 53 Aletsch Glacier Europe Switzerland 66 171 * Antarctic glaciers are difficult, if not impossible, to list by their surface area, because Antarctica is an effectively continuous ice mass and there is no easy way to determine the boundaries of a given glacier. ** Scientists do not agree on the size of this glacier; area measurements reported reflect the range of research findings as of 2002. Glaciers, ice shelves, and related features, by area Only named features are included in this list. All measurements are approximate. Also note that glaciers and similar features can vary in size over time. Rank Name Continent Country Area (sq mi) Area (sq km) Deserts by area All measurements are approximate Rank Name Continent Country Area (sq mi) Area (sq km) 1 Sahara Africa Algeria, Chad, Egypt, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Niger, Sudan, and Tunisia 3,475,000 9,000,000 2 Arabian* Asia Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Qatar, the United Arab Emirates, Oman, Yemen, Jordan, Syria, Iraq 900,000 2,330,000 3 Gobi Asia China, Mongolia 500,000 1,300,000 4 Kalahari Africa Botswana, Namibia, South Africa 360,000 930,000 5 Great Victoria Australia Australia 134,652 348,750 6 Taklimakan (Takla Makan) Asia China 125,000 320,000 7 Sonoran N. America United States of America, Mexico 120,000 310,000 8 Kara-Kum Asia Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan 115,830 300,000 9 Kyzyl Kum Asia Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan 115,000 297,850 10 Namib Africa Namibia, South Africa 110,000 285,000 11 Great Sandy Australia Australia 103,185 267,250 12 Somali Africa Somalia 100,000 260,000 13 Thar Asia India, Pakistan 90,000 233,000 14 Tanami Australia Australia 71,235 184,500 15 Atacama S. America Chile, Peru 70,000 180,000 16 Simpson Australia Australia 68,150 176,500 17 Gibson Australia Australia 60,230 156,000 18 Little Sandy Australia Australia 43,050 111,500 * Two deserts are commonly referred to by this name. This entry refers to the deserts of the Arabian Peninsula and not the Arabian Desert of Egypt, which is part of the Sahara. Mountain peaks by height and continent All measurements are approximate. Note that many mountains have multiple peaks, which will appear separately in the table. Rank Name Country Elevation (ft) Elevation (m) Africa 1 Kibo (Mt. Kilimanjaro) Tanzania 19,340 5,895 2 Mawensi (Mt. Kilimanjaro) Tanzania 17,100 5,210 3 Batian (Mt. Kenya) Kenya 17,058 5,203 4 Nelion (Mt. Kenya) Kenya 17,020 5,190 5 Margherita Peak (Mt. Stanley) Dem. Rep. of the Congo, Uganda 16,756 5,110 6 Alexandra Peak (Mt. Stanley) Dem. Rep. of the Congo, Uganda 16,700 5,094 7 Albert Peak (Mt. Stanley) Dem. Rep. of the Congo 16,690 5,090 8 Savoia Peak (Mt. Stanley) Uganda 16,330 4,981 9 Elena Peak (Mt. Stanley) Uganda 16,300 4,972 10 Elizabeth Peak (Mt. Stanley) Uganda 16,170 4,932 11 Phillip Peak (Mt. Stanley) Uganda 16,140 4,923 12 Moebius Peak (Mt. Stanley) Uganda 16,130 4,920 13 Vittorio Emanuele (Mt. Speke) Uganda 16,040 4,892 14 Ensonga (Mt. Speke) Uganda 15,960 4,868 15 Johnston (Mt. Speke) Uganda 15,860 4,834 16 Edward (Mt. Baker) Uganda 15,890 4,846 17 Umberto (Mt. Emin) Dem. Rep. of the Congo 15,740 4,798 18 Semper (Mt. Baker) Uganda 15,730 4,795 19 Kraepelin (Mt. Emin) Dem. Rep. of the Congo 15,720 4,791 20 Iolanda (Mt. Gessi) Dem. Rep. of the Congo 15,470 4,751 21 Bottego (Mt. Gesi) Dem. Rep. of the Congo 15,418 4,699 22 Sella (Mt. Luigi) Dem. Rep. of the Congo 15,178 4,626 23 Ras Deshen Ethiopia 15,157 4,620 24 Weismann (Mt. Luigi) Dem. Rep. of the Congo 15,157 4,620 25 Okusoma (Mt. Luigi) Dem. Rep. of the Congo 15,020 4,578 [continued] Geodata.book Page 619 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 12. GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA620 World Ra nking s Ap pendi x Antarctica 1 Vinson Antarctica 16,860 5,142 2 Tyree Antarctica 16,290 4,968 3 Shinn Antarctica 15,750 4,800 4 Gardner Antarctica 15,370 4,690 5 Epperly Antarctica 15,100 4,600 Asia 1 Everest (Zhumulangma Feng) Nepal, China 29,030 8,850 2 K2 China, Pakistan 28,251 8,611 3 Kanchenjunga India, Nepal 28,169 8,586 4 Lhotse China, Nepal 27,890 8,500 5 Makalu China, Nepal 27,824 8,481 6 Kanchenjunga, south peak India, Nepal 27,800 8,479 7 Kanchenjunga, west peak India, Nepal 27,620 8,424 8 Lhotse Shar China, Nepal 27,500 8,388 9 Dhaulagiri Nepal 26,813 8,172 10 Manslu Nepal 26,775 8,155 11 Cho Oyu China, Nepal 26,750 8,150 12 Nanga Parbat I Pakistan 26,660 8,130 13 Masherbrum I Pakistan 26,610 7,810 14 Annapurna I Nepal 26,500 8,080 15 Gasherbrum I Pakistan 26,470 8,070 16 Broad, highest peak Pakistan 26,400 8,050 17 Gasherbrum II Pakistan 26,360 8,030 18 Gosainthan China 26,290 8,010 19 Broad, middle peak Pakistan 26,250 8,000 20 Gasherbrum III Pakistan 26,090 7,950 21 Annapurna II Nepal 26,040 7,940 22 Gasherbrum IV Pakistan 26,000 7,930 23 Gyachung Kang China, Nepal 25,990 7,927 24 Nanga Parbat II Pakistan 25,950 7,910 25 Kangbachen India, Nepal 25,930 7,909 26 Manslu, east pinnacle Nepal 25,900 7,900 27 Distaghil Sar Pakistan 25,870 7,890 28 Nuptse Nepal 25,850 7,880 29 Himachuh Nepal 25,800 7,860 30 Khiangyang Kish Pakistan 25,760 7,850 31 Ngojumba Ri China, Nepal 25,720 7,847 32 Dakura Nepal 25,710 7,842 33 Masherbrum II Pakistan 25,660 7,826 34 Nanda Devi, west peak India 25,650 7,823 35 Nanga Parbat III Pakistan 25,650 7,823 36 Rakaposhi Pakistan 25,550 7,793 37 Batura Mustagh I Pakistan 25,540 7,790 38 GasherbrumV Pakistan 25,500 7,770 39 Kamet China, India 25,440 7,760 Europe 1 El'brus (Elborus), west peak Russia 18,481 5,633 2 El'brus (Elborus), east peak Russia 18,360 5,590 3 Shkhara Georgia, Russia 17,064 5,205 4 Dykh, west peak Russia 17,050 5,200 5 Dykh, east peak Russia 16,900 5,150 6 Koshtan Russia 16,880 5,148 7 Pushkina Russia 16,730 5,100 8 Kazbek, east peak Georgia 16,526 5,040 9 Dzhangi Georgia 16,520 5,039 10 Katyn Georgia, Russia 16,310 4,975 11 Shota Rustaveli Georgia, Russia 16,270 4,962 12 Mizhirgi, west peak Russia 16,170 4,932 13 Mizhirgi, east peak Russia 16,140 4,923 14 Kundyum-Mizhirgi Russia 16,010 4,880 15 Gestola Georgia, Russia 15,930 4,860 16 Tetnuld Georgia, Russia 15,920 4,850 17 Mont Blanc, main peak France, Italy 15,772 4,810 18 Dzhimariy Georgia 15,680 4,780 19 Adish Georgia, Russia 15,570 4,749 20 Courmayer (Mont Blanc) France, Italy 15,577 4,748 21 Ushba Georgia 15,450 4,710 North America 1 McKinley (Denali), south peak U.S.A. 20,323 6,194 2 Logan, central peak Canada 19,550 5,959 3 Logan, west peak Canada 19,470 5,930 4 McKinley (Denali), north peak U.S.A. 19,470 5,930 5 Logan, east peak Canada 19,420 5,920 6 Pico de Orizaba Mexico 18,701 5,700 [continued] Mountain peaks by height and continent All measurements are approximate. Note that many mountains have multiple peaks, which will appear separately in the table. Rank Name Country Elevation (ft) Elevation (m) 7 Logan, north peak Canada 18,270 5,570 8 Saint Elias U.S.A., Canada 18,010 5,490 9 Popocatepetl Mexico 17,887 5,452 10 Foraker U.S.A. 17,400 5,300 11 Ixtacihuatl Mexico 17,342 5,286 12 Queen Canada 17,300 5,270 13 Lucania Canada 17,150 5,230 14 King Canada 16,970 5,170 15 Steele Canada 16,640 5,070 16 Bona U.S.A. 16,500 5,033 17 Blackburn, highest peak U.S.A. 16,390 5,000 18 Blackburn, southeast peak U.S.A. 16,290 4,968 19 Sanford U.S.A. 16,240 4,950 20 Wood Canada 15,880 4,840 Oceania 1 Puncak Jaya Indonesia 16,503 5,033 2 Daam Indonesia 16,150 4,926 3 Pilimsit Indonesia 15,750 4,800 4 Trikora Indonesia 15,580 4,752 5 Mandala Indonesia 15,420 4,700 6 Wisnumurti Indonesia 15,080 4,590 7 Yamin Indonesia 14,860 4,530 8 Wilhelm Papua New Guinea 14,793 4,509 9 Kubor Papua New Guinea 14,300 4,360 10 Herbert Papua New Guinea 14,000 4,270 South America 1 Aconcagua Argentina 22,835 6,960 2 Ojos del Salado, southeast peak Argentina, Chile 22,573 6,880 3 Bonete Argentina 22,550 6,870 4 Pissis Argentina 22,240 6,780 5 Mercedario Argentina 22,210 6,770 6 Huascarán, south peak Peru 22,204 6,768 7 Llullaillaco Argentina, Chile 22,100 6,730 8 Libertador Argentina 22,050 6,720 9 Ojos del Salado, northwest peak Argentina, Chile 22,050 6,720 10 Tupungato Argentina, Chile 21,900 6,670 11 Gonzalez, highest peak Argentina, Chile 21,850 6,664 12 Huascarán, north peak Peru 21,840 6,661 13 Muerto Argentina, Chile 21,820 6,655 14 Yerupaja, north peak Peru 21,760 6,630 15 Incahuasi Argentina, Chile 21,700 6,610 16 Galan Argentina 21,650 6,600 17 Tres Cruces Argentina, Chile 21,540 6,560 18 Gonzalez, north peak Argentina, Chile 21,490 6,550 19 Sajama Bolivia 21,463 6,542 20 Yerupaja, south peak Peru 21,380 6,510 21 Chimborazo Ecuador 20,681 6,267 Volcanoes by height All measurements are approximate. Rank Name Continent Country Elevation (ft) Elevation (m) 1 Tupungato S. America Chile 22,310 6,800 2 Tipas S. America Argentina 21,845 6,660 3 Cerro el Condor S. America Argentina 21,425 6,532 4 Antofallo S. America Argentina 20,008 6,100 5 Guallatiri S. America Chile 19,882 6,060 6 Lascar S. America Chile 19,652 5,990 7 Cotopaxi S. America Ecuador 19,344 5,896 8 Kilimanjaro Africa Tanzania 19,341 5,895 9 El Misti S. America Peru 19,031 5,801 10 Pico de Orizaba N. America Mexico 18,702 5,700 11 Tolima S. America Colombia 18,425 5,616 12 Popocatépetl N. America Mexico 17,887 5,450 13 Yucamani S. America Peru 17,860 5,444 14 Sangay S. America Ecuador 17,159 5,230 15 Tungurahua S. America Ecuador 16,684 5,085 16 Cotacachi S. America Ecuador 16,250 4,939 17 Purace S. America Colombia 15,604 4,756 [continued] Mountain peaks by height and continent All measurements are approximate. Note that many mountains have multiple peaks, which will appear separately in the table. Rank Name Country Elevation (ft) Elevation (m) Geodata.book Page 620 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 13. GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA 621 Worl d R ankin gs A ppend ix WorldRankings 18 Klyuchevskaya Asia Russia 15,584 4,750 19 Kronotskaya Asia Russia 15,580 4,749 20 Shiveluch Asia Russia 15,580 4,749 21 Pichincha S. America Ecuador 15,173 4,625 22 Karasimbi Africa Dem. Rep. of the Congo 14,873 4,507 23 Rainier N. America USA 14,410 4,395 24 Wrangell N. America USA (Alaska) 14,163 4,317 25 Colima N. America Mexico 13,993 4,265 26 Tajumulco N. America Guatemala 13,845 4,220 27 Mauna Kea Oceania USA (Hawaii) 13,796 4,205 28 Mauna Loa Oceania USA (Hawaii) 13,680 4,170 29 Cameroon Africa Cameroon 13,353 4,070 30 Tacana N. America Guatemala 13,300 4,053 31 Kerintji Asia Indonesia 12,483 3,805 32 Erebus Antarctica Antarctica 12,448 3,794 33 Fuji Asia Japan 12,388 3,776 34 Fuego N. America Guatemala 12,346 3,763 35 Agua N. America Guatemala 12,307 3,751 36 Rindjani Asia Indonesia 12,224 3,726 37 Pico de Teide Africa Spain (Canary Is.) 12,198 3,718 38 Tolbachik Asia Russia 12,077 3,682 39 Semeru Asia Indonesia 12,060 3,676 40 Ichinskaya Asia Russia 11,800 3,621 41 Atitlan N. America Guatemala 11,650 3,551 42 Torbert N. America USA (Alaska) 11,450 3,480 43 Nyirangongo Africa Dem. Rep. of the Congo 11,365 3,465 44 Kroyakskaya Asia Russia 11,336 3,456 45 Irazu S. America Costa Rica 11,260 3,432 46 Slamet Asia Indonesia 11,247 3,428 47 Spurr N. America USA (Alaska) 11,137 3,385 48 Lautaro S. America Chile 11,120 3,380 49 Sumbing Asia Indonesia 11,060 3,371 50 Raung Asia Indonesia 10,932 3,332 51 Etna Europe Italy 10,902 3,323 52 Baker N. America USA 10,778 3,285 53 Lassen N. America USA 10,492 3,187 54 Dempo Asia Indonesia 10,390 3,158 55 Sundoro Asia Indonesia 10,367 3,151 56 Agung Asia Indonesia 10,337 3,142 57 Prahu Asia Indonesia 10,285 3,137 58 Llaima S. America Chile 10,245 3,125 59 Redoubt N. America USA (Alaska) 10,197 3,108 60 Tjiremai Asia Indonesia 10,098 3,078 61 One-Take Asia Japan 10,056 3,067 62 Nyamulagira Africa Dem. Rep. of the Congo 10,026 3,056 63 Iliamna N. America USA (Alaska) 10,016 3,053 64 Ardjuno-Welirang Asia Indonesia 9,968 3,038 65 San Pedro N. America Guatemala 9,902 3,020 66 Gede Asia Indonesia 9,705 2,958 67 Zhupanovsky Asia Russia 9,705 2,958 68 Apo Asia Philippines 9,692 2,954 69 Merapi Asia Indonesia 9,551 2,911 70 Marapi Asia Indonesia 9,479 2,891 71 Geureudong Asia Indonesia 9,459 2,885 72 Bezymianny Asia Russia 9,449 2,882 73 Shishaldin N. America USA (Alaska) 9,372 2,856 74 Tambora Asia Indonesia 9,350 2,850 75 Villarrica S. America Chile 9,318 2,840 76 Fogo Africa Cape Verde 9,281 2,829 77 Ruapehu Oceania New Zealand 9,175 2,796 78 Peuetsagoe Asia Indonesia 9,115 2,780 79 Paricutin N. America Mexico 9,100 2,775 80 Big Ben Antarctica Heard Island (dependency of Australia) 9,006 2,745 81 Balbi Oceania Papua New Guinea 8,999 2,743 82 Avachinskaya Asia Russia 8,987 2,741 83 Melbourne Antarctica Antarctica 8,957 2,732 84 Poas N. America Costa Rica 8,872 2,704 85 Papandajan Asia Indonesia 8,744 2,665 86 Piton de la Faournaise Africa Reunion (dependency of France) 8,626 2,631 [continued] Volcanoes by height All measurements are approximate. Rank Name Continent Country Elevation (ft) Elevation (m) 87 Pacaya N. America Guatemala 8,367 2,552 88 Mt. St. Helens N. America USA 8,366 2,550 89 Asama Asia Japan 8,300 2,530 90 Pavlof N. America USA (Alaska) 8,261 2,518 91 Veniaminof N. America USA (Alaska) 8,220 2,507 92 Mayon Asia Philippines 8,077 2,462 93 Sinabung Asia Indonesia 8,066 2,460 94 Yake Dake Asia Japan 8,049 2,455 95 Tandikat Asia Indonesia 7,993 2,438 96 Canalaon Asia Philippines 7,984 2,435 97 Shoshuenco S. America Chile 7,941 2,422 98 Idjen Asia Indonesia 7,823 2,386 99 Izalco N. America El Salvador 7,828 2,386 100 Karthala Africa Comoros 7,746 2,361 101 Alaid Asia Russia 7,669 2,339 102 Bromo Asia Indonesia 7,636 2,329 103 Griggs N. America USA (Alaska) 7,597 2,317 104 Ulawun Oceania Papua New Guinea 7,546 2,300 105 Sibajak Asia Indonesia 7,541 2,300 106 Ngauruhoe Oceania New Zealand 7,515 2,291 107 Beerenberg Europe Jan Mayen Is. (dependency of Norway) 7,470 2,277 108 Guntur Asia Indonesia 7,377 2,249 109 Bamus Oceania Papua New Guinea 7,338 2,248 110 Puyehue S. America Chile 7,331 2,236 111 Chokai Asia Japan 7,314 2,229 112 Butak Petarangan Asia Indonesia 7,285 2,222 113 Galunggung Asia Indonesia 7,113 2,168 114 Mageik N. America USA (Alaska) 7,098 2,165 115 Douglas N. America USA (Alaska) 7,016 2,140 116 Amburombu Asia Indonesia 6,964 2,124 117 San Miguel N. America El Salvador 6,957 2,120 118 Tokachi Asia Japan 6,814 2,077 119 Chiginagak N. America USA (Alaska) 6,777 2,067 120 Azuma Asia Japan 6,775 2,065 121 Queen Mary's Peak Africa Tristan da Cunha (dependency of the United Kingdom) 6,760 2,060 122 Katmai N. America USA (Alaska) 6,715 2,047 123 Kukak N. America USA (Alaska) 6,688 2,040 124 Makushin N. America USA (Alaska) 6,678 2,035 125 Calbuco S. America Chile 6,567 2,003 126 Pogromni N. America USA (Alaska) 6,564 2,002 127 Niigata Yakeyama Asia Japan 6,557 2,000 128 Tongariro Oceania New Zealand 6,516 1,986 129 Zheltovskaya Asia Russia 6,403 1,953 130 Kaba Asia Indonesia 6,400 1,952 131 Sangeang Api Asia Indonesia 6,390 1,949 132 Nasu Asia Japan 6,289 1,917 133 Rincon de la Vieja S. America Costa Rica 6,282 1,916 134 Hudson S. America Chile 6,246 1,905 135 Trident N. America USA (Alaska) 6,111 1,864 136 Awu Asia Indonesia 6,102 1,860 137 Martin N. America USA (Alaska) 6,098 1,860 138 Soputan Asia Indonesia 5,994 1,827 139 Tiatia Asia Russia 5,964 1,819 140 Manam Oceania Papua New Guinea 5,925 1,807 141 Tanaga N. America USA (Alaska) 5,921 1,806 142 Siau Asia Indonesia 5,830 1,778 143 El Viejo (San Cristobal) N. America Nicaragua 5,721 1,745 144 Great Sitkin N. America USA (Alaska) 5,705 1,740 145 Kelud Asia Indonesia 5,679 1,731 146 Cleveland N. America USA (Alaska) 5,672 1,730 147 Batur Asia Indonesia 5,630 1,717 148 Askja Europe Iceland 4,954 1,510 149 La Soufriere N. America Guadeloupe (dependency of France) 4,813 1,467 150 Lopevi Oceania Vanuatu 4,744 1,447 151 Pelée N. America Martinique (dependency of France) 4,583 1,397 [continued] Volcanoes by height All measurements are approximate. Rank Name Continent Country Elevation (ft) Elevation (m) Geodata.book Page 621 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 14. GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA622 World Ra nking s Ap pendi x 152 Catarman Asia Philippines 4,367 1,332 153 Vesuvius Europe Italy 4,190 1,277 154 Soufrière S. America St. Vincent and the Grenadines 4,048 1,234 Waterfalls by height All measurements are approximate. If a waterfall has multiple cascades they are listed separately. Rank Name Continent Country Height (ft) Height (m) 1 Angel (upper falls) S. America Venezuela 2,648 807 2 Utigord Europe Norway 2,625 800 3 Monge Europe Norway 2,539 774 4 Mtarazi (Mutarazi) Africa Mozambique, Zimbabwe 2,500 760 5 Itatinga S. America Brazil 2,060 628 6 Cuquenán (Kukenaam) S. America Guyana, Venezuela 2,000 610 7 Kahiwa N. America U.S.A. (Hawaii) 1,750 533 8 Tysse (Tusse) Europe Norway 1,749 533 9 Maradalsfos Europe Norway 1,696 517 10 Ribbon N. America U.S.A. 1,612 491 11 Roraima S. America Guyana 1,500 457 12 Della N. America Canada 1,445 440 13 Yosemite, Upper N. America U.S.A. 1,430 436 14 Gavarnie Europe France 1,385 422 15 Tugela (highest falls in chain) Africa South Africa 1,350 411 16 Krimml Europe Austria 1,250 380 17 Silver Strand N. America U.S.A. 1,170 357 18 Basaseachic N. America Mexico 1,020 311 19 Staubbach Europe Switzerland 980 299 20 Vettis Europe Norway 902 275 21 King George VI S. America Guyana 850 260 22 Wallaman Oceania Australia 850 260 23 Takakkaw N. America Canada 838 254 24 Hunlen N. America Canada 830 253 25 Jog (Gersoppa) Asia India 830 253 26 Skykje Europe Norway 820 250 27 Sutherland, Upper Oceania New Zealand 815 248 28 Sutherland, Middle Oceania New Zealand 751 229 29 Kaieteur S. America Guyana 741 226 30 Wollomombi Oceania Australia 726 220 31 Kalambo Africa Tanzania, Zambia 704 215 32 Fairy N. America U.S.A. 700 213 33 Feather N. America U.S.A. 640 195 34 Maletsunyane Africa Lesotho 630 192 35 Bridalveil N. America U.S.A. 620 189 36 Multnomah N. America U.S.A. 620 189 37 Panther N. America Canada 600 183 38 Voringfoss Europe Norway 597 182 39 Nevada N. America U.S.A. 594 181 40 Angel, Lower S. America Venezuela 564 172 41 Augrabies (Aughrabies) Africa South Africa 480 146 42 Tully Oceania Australia 450 137 43 Helmcken N. America Canada 450 137 44 Nachi Asia Japan 430 131 45 Tequendama S. America Colombia 427 130 46 Bridal Veil N. America Canada 400 122 47 Illilouette N. America U.S.A. 370 113 48 Yosemite, Lower N. America U.S.A. 320 98 49 Twin N. America Canada 260 80 Volcanoes by height All measurements are approximate. Rank Name Continent Country Elevation (ft) Elevation (m) Countries and selected dependencies, by area Rank Country Continent Area (sq mi) Area (sq km) Percent of world land area 1 Russia Asia/Europe 6,592,735 17,075,200 11 2 Antarctica Antarctica 5,405,000 14,000,000 9.4 3 Canada N. America 3,851,788 9,976,140 6.7 4 U.S.A. N. America 3,717,792 9,629,091 6.4 5 China Asia 3,705,386 9,596,960 6.4 6 Brazil S. America 3,286,470 8,511,965 5.7 7 Australia Australia 2,967,893 7,686,850 5.1 8 India Asia 1,269,338 3,287,590 2.3 9 Argentina S. America 1,072,157 2,776,890 1.9 10 Kazakhstan Asia 1,049,150 2,717,300 1.8 11 Sudan Africa 967,493 2,505,810 1.7 12 Algeria Africa 919,590 2,381,740 1.6 13 Congo, Dem. Rep. of the Africa 905,563 2,345,410 1.6 14 Greenland N. America 840,000 2,175,600 1.5 15 Mexico N. America 761,606 1,972,550 1.3 16 Saudi Arabia Asia 756,984 1,960,582 1.3 17 Indonesia Asia 741,096 1,919,440 1.3 18 Libya Africa 679,358 1,759,540 1.2 19 Iran Asia 636,293 1,648,000 1.1 20 Mongolia Asia 604,247 1,565,000 1.0 21 Peru S. America 496,223 1,285,220 0.9 22 Chad Africa 495,755 1,284,000 0.9 23 Niger Africa 489,189 1,267,000 0.8 24 Angola Africa 481,350 1,246,700 0.8 25 Mali Africa 478,764 1,240,000 0.8 26 South Africa Africa 471,008 1,219,912 0.8 27 Colombia S. America 439,733 1,138,910 0.8 28 Ethiopia Africa 435,184 1,127,127 0.8 29 Bolivia S. America 424,162 1,098,580 0.7 30 Mauritania Africa 397,953 1,030,700 0.7 31 Egypt Africa 386,660 1,001,450 0.7 32 Tanzania Africa 364,879 945,037 0.6 33 Nigeria Africa 356,667 923,768 0.6 34 Venezuela S. America 352,143 912,050 0.6 35 Namibia Africa 318,694 825,418 0.6 36 Pakistan Asia 310,401 803,940 0.5 37 Mozambique Africa 309,494 801,590 0.5 38 Turkey Asia 301,382 780,580 0.5 39 Chile S. America 292,258 756,950 0.5 40 Zambia Africa 290,584 752,614 0.5 41 Myanmar Asia 261,969 678,500 0.5 42 Afghanistan Asia 250,000 647,500 0.4 43 Somalia Africa 246,199 637,657 0.4 44 Central African Republic Africa 240,534 622,984 0.4 45 Ukraine Europe 233,089 603,700 0.4 46 Botswana Africa 231,803 600,370 0.4 47 Madagascar Africa 226,656 587,040 0.4 48 Kenya Africa 224,961 582,650 0.4 49 France Europe 211,208 547,030 0.4 50 Yemen Asia 203,849 527,970 0.4 51 Thailand Asia 198,455 514,000 0.3 52 Spain Europe 194,896 504,782 0.3 53 Turkmenistan Asia 188,455 488,100 0.3 54 Cameroon Africa 183,567 475,440 0.3 55 Papua New Guinea Oceania 178,703 462,840 0.3 56 Sweden Europe 173,731 449,964 0.3 57 Uzbekistan Asia 172,741 447,400 0.3 58 Morocco Africa 172,413 446,550 0.3 59 Iraq Asia 168,753 437,072 0.3 60 Paraguay S. America 157,046 406,750 0.3 61 Zimbabwe Africa 150,803 390,580 0.3 62 Japan Asia 145,882 377,835 0.3 63 Germany Europe 137,846 357,021 0.2 64 Congo, Rep. of Africa 132,047 342,000 0.2 65 Finland Europe 130,127 337,030 0.2 66 Malaysia Asia 127,316 329,750 0.2 67 Vietnam Asia 127,243 329,560 0.2 68 Norway Europe 125,181 324,220 0.2 69 Côte d’Ivoire Africa 124,502 322,460 0.2 70 Poland Europe 120,728 312,685 0.2 71 Italy Europe 116,305 301,230 0.2 72 Philippines Asia 115,830 300,000 0.2 73 Ecuador S. America 109,483 283,560 0.2 74 Burkina Faso Africa 105,869 274,200 0.2 75 New Zealand Oceania 103,737 268,680 0.2 76 Gabon Africa 103,347 267,667 0.2 [continued] Geodata.book Page 622 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 15. GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA 623 Worl d R ankin gs A ppend ix WorldRankings 77 Guinea Africa 94,926 245,857 0.2 78 United Kingdom Europe 94,525 244,820 0.2 79 Ghana Africa 92,100 238,540 0.2 80 Romania Europe 91,699 237,500 0.2 81 Laos Asia 91,428 236,800 0.2 82 Uganda Africa 91,135 236,040 0.2 83 Guyana S. America 83,000 214,970 0.1 84 Oman Asia 82,031 212,460 0.1 85 Belarus Europe 80,154 207,600 0.1 86 Kyrgyzstan Asia 76,640 198,500 0.1 87 Senegal Africa 75,749 196,190 0.1 88 Syria Asia 71,498 185,180 0.1 89 Cambodia Asia 69,900 181,040 0.1 90 Uruguay S. America 68,039 176,220 0.1 91 Tunisia Africa 63,170 163,610 0.1 92 Suriname S. America 63,039 163,270 0.1 93 Bangladesh Asia 55,598 144,000 0.1 94 Tajikistan Asia 55,251 143,100 0.1 95 Nepal Asia 54,363 140,800 0.1 96 Greece Europe 50,942 131,940 0.1 97 Nicaragua N. America 49,998 129,494 0.1 98 Eritrea Africa 46,842 121,320 0.1 99 Korea, North (Democratic People’s Republic of) Asia 46,540 120,540 0.1 100 Malawi Africa 45,745 118,480 0.1 101 Benin Africa 43,483 112,620 0.1 102 Honduras N. America 43,278 112,090 0.1 103 Liberia Africa 43,000 111,370 0.1 104 Bulgaria Europe 42,822 110,910 0.1 105 Cuba N. America 42,803 110,860 0.1 106 Guatemala N. America 42,042 108,890 0.1 107 Iceland Europe 39,769 103,000 0.1 108 Yugoslavia Europe 39,517 102,350 0.1 109 Korea, South (Republic of) Asia 38,023 98,480 0.1 110 Hungary Europe 35,919 93,030 0.1 111 Portugal Europe 35,672 92,391 0.1 112 Jordan Asia 35,637 92,300 0.1 113 French Guiana S. America 35,135 91,000 0.1 114 Azerbaijan Asia 33,436 86,600 0.1 115 Austria Europe 32,378 83,858 0.1 116 United Arab Emirates Asia 32,000 82,880 0.1 117 Czech Republic Europe 30,450 78,866 0.1 118 Panama N. America 30,193 78,200 0.1 119 Sierra Leone Africa 27,699 71,740 0.05 120 Ireland Europe 27,135 70,280 0.05 121 Georgia Asia 26,911 69,700 0.05 122 Sri Lanka Asia 25,332 65,610 0.04 123 Lithuania Europe 25,174 65,200 0.04 124 Latvia Europe 24,938 64,589 0.04 125 Togo Africa 21,925 56,785 0.04 126 Croatia Europe 21,831 56,542 0.04 127 Bosnia and Herzegovina Europe 19,741 51,129 0.03 128 Costa Rica N. America 19,730 51,100 0.03 129 Slovakia Europe 18,859 48,845 0.03 130 Dominican Republic N. America 18,815 48,730 0.03 131 Bhutan Asia 18,147 47,000 0.03 132 Estonia Europe 17,462 45,226 0.03 133 Denmark Europe 16,638 43,094 0.03 134 Netherlands Europe 16,033 41,526 0.03 135 Switzerland Europe 15,942 41,290 0.03 136 Guinea-Bissau Africa 13,946 36,120 0.02 137 Taiwan Asia 13,892 35,980 0.02 138 Moldova Europe 13,067 33,843 0.02 139 Belgium Europe 11,780 30,510 0.02 140 Lesotho Africa 11,720 30,355 0.02 141 Armenia Asia 11,506 29,800 0.02 142 Albania Europe 11,100 28,748 0.02 143 Solomon Islands Asia 10,985 28,450 0.02 144 Equatorial Guinea Africa 10,831 28,051 0.02 145 Burundi Africa 10,745 27,830 0.02 146 Haiti N. America 10,714 27,750 0.02 147 Rwanda Africa 10,169 26,338 0.02 [continued] Countries and selected dependencies, by area Rank Country Continent Area (sq mi) Area (sq km) Percent of world land area 148 Macedonia Europe 9,781 25,333 0.02 149 Belize N. America 8,867 22,966 0.02 150 Djibouti Africa 8,494 22,000 0.01 151 El Salvador N. America 8,124 21,040 0.01 152 Israel Asia 8,019 20,770 0.01 153 Slovenia Europe 7,820 20,253 0.01 154 Fiji Oceania 7,054 18,270 0.01 155 Kuwait Asia 6,880 17,820 0.01 156 Swaziland Africa 6,704 17,363 0.01 157 East Timor Asia 5,640 14,609 0.01 158 Bahamas N. America 5,382 13,940 0.01 159 Vanuatu Oceania 4,710 12,200 0.01 160 Qatar Asia 4,416 11,437 0.01 161 Gambia, The Africa 4,363 11,300 0.01 162 Jamaica N. America 4,243 10,990 0.01 163 Lebanon Asia 4,015 10,400 0.01 164 Cyprus Asia 3,571 9,250 0.01 165 Puerto Rico N. America 3,515 9,104 0.01 166 Brunei Asia 2,228 5,770 0.004 167 Trinidad and Tobago S. America 1,980 5,128 0.003 168 Cape Verde Africa 1,557 4,033 0.003 169 Samoa Oceania 1,104 2,860 0.002 170 Luxembourg Europe 998 2,586 0.002 171 Comoros Africa 838 2,170 0.001 172 Mauritius Africa 718 1,860 0.001 173 Guadeloupe N. America 687 1,780 0.001 174 Martinique N. America 425 1,100 0.0007 175 São Tomé and Príncipe Africa 386 1,001 0.0007 176 Netherlands Antilles N. America 371 960 0.0006 177 Dominica N. America 291 754 0.0005 178 Tonga Oceania 289 748 0.0005 179 Kiribati Oceania 277 717 0.0005 180 Micronesia Oceania 271 702 0.0005 181 Singapore Asia 250 647.5 0.0004 182 Bahrain Asia 239 620 0.0004 183 St. Lucia N. America 239 620 0.0004 184 Andorra Europe 181 468 0.0003 185 Palau Oceania 177 458 0.0003 186 Seychelles Africa 176 455 0.0003 187 Antigua and Barbuda N. America 171 442 0.0003 188 Barbados N. America 166 430 0.0003 189 Turks & Caicos Islands N. America 166 430 0.0003 190 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines N. America 150 389 0.0003 191 Virgin Islands N. America 136 352 0.0002 192 Grenada N. America 131 340 0.0002 193 Malta Europe 122 316 0.0002 194 Maldives Asia 115 300 0.0002 195 St. Kitts and Nevis N. America 101 261 0.0002 196 Cayman Islands N. America 100 259 0.0002 197 Aruba S. America 75 193 0.0001 198 Marshall Islands Oceania 70 181.3 0.0001 199 Liechtenstein Europe 62 160 0.0001 200 British Virgin Islands N. America 58 150 0.0001 201 Anguilla N. America 35 91 0.0001 202 San Marino Europe 24 61.2 -- 203 Bermuda N. America 23 58.8 -- 204 Tuvalu Oceania 10 26 -- 205 Nauru Oceania 8.1 21 -- 206 Monaco Europe 0.7 1.95 -- 207 Vatican City Europe 0.17 0.44 -- Countries and selected dependencies, by area Rank Country Continent Area (sq mi) Area (sq km) Percent of world land area Geodata.book Page 623 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 16. GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA624 World Ra nking s Ap pendi x Countries and selected dependencies, by population Rank Country Continent Population (July 2001) 1 China Asia 1,273,111,290 2 India Asia 1,029,991,145 3 U.S.A. N. America 278,058,881 4 Indonesia Asia 228,437,870 5 Brazil S. America 174,468,575 6 Russia Asia/Europe 145,470,197 7 Pakistan Asia 144,616,639 8 Bangladesh Asia 131,269,860 9 Japan Asia 126,771,662 10 Nigeria Africa 126,635,626 11 Mexico N. America 101,879,171 12 Germany Europe 83,029,536 13 Philippines Asia 82,841,518 14 Vietnam Asia 79,939,014 15 Egypt Africa 69,536,644 16 Turkey Asia 66,493,970 17 Iran Asia 66,128,965 18 Ethiopia Africa 65,891,874 19 Thailand Asia 61,797,700 20 United Kingdom Europe 59,647,790 21 France Europe 59,551,227 22 Italy Europe 57,679,825 23 Congo, Democratic Republic of the (Zaire) Africa 53,624,718 24 Ukraine Europe 48,760,474 25 Korea, Republic of (South Korea) Asia 47,904,370 26 South Africa Africa 43,586,097 27 Myanmar Asia 41,994,678 28 Colombia S. America 40,349,388 29 Spain Europe 40,037,995 30 Poland Europe 38,633,912 31 Argentina S. America 37,384,816 32 Tanzania Africa 36,232,074 33 Sudan Africa 36,080,373 34 Algeria Africa 31,736,053 35 Canada N. America 31,592,805 36 Kenya Africa 30,765,916 37 Morocco Africa 30,645,305 38 Peru S. America 27,483,864 39 Afghanistan Asia 26,813,057 40 Nepal Asia 25,284,463 41 Uzbekistan Asia 25,155,064 42 Uganda Africa 23,985,712 43 Venezuela S. America 23,916,810 44 Iraq Asia 23,331,985 45 Saudi Arabia Asia 22,757,092 46 Taiwan Asia 22,370,461 47 Romania Europe 22,364,022 48 Malaysia Asia 22,229,040 49 Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of (North Korea) Asia 21,968,228 50 Ghana Africa 19,894,014 51 Sri Lanka Asia 19,408,635 52 Mozambique Africa 19,371,057 53 Australia Australia 19,357,594 54 Yemen Asia 18,078,035 55 Kazakstan Asia 16,731,303 56 Syria Asia 16,728,808 57 Côte d’Ivoire Africa 16,393,221 58 Madagascar Africa 15,982,563 59 Netherlands Europe 15,981,472 60 Cameroon Africa 15,906,500 61 Chile S. America 15,328,467 62 Ecuador S. America 13,183,978 63 Guatemala N. America 12,974,361 64 Cambodia Asia 12,491,501 65 Burkina Faso Africa 12,272,289 66 Zimbabwe Africa 11,365,366 67 Cuba N. America 11,184,023 68 Mali Africa 11,008,518 69 Yugoslavia Europe 10,677,290 70 Greece Europe 10,623,835 71 Malawi Africa 10,548,250 72 Angola Africa 10,366,031 73 Niger Africa 10,355,156 74 Belarus Europe 10,350,194 75 Senegal Africa 10,284,929 76 Czech Republic Europe 10,264,212 77 Belgium Europe 10,258,762 [continued] 78 Hungary Europe 10,106,017 79 Portugal Europe 10,066,253 80 Zambia Africa 9,770,199 81 Tunisia Africa 9,705,102 82 Sweden Europe 8,875,053 83 Dominican Republic N. America 8,581,477 84 Bolivia S. America 8,300,463 85 Austria Europe 8,150,835 86 Azerbaijan Asia 7,771,092 87 Bulgaria Europe 7,707,495 88 Guinea Africa 7,613,870 89 Somalia Africa 7,488,773 90 Rwanda Africa 7,312,756 91 Switzerland Europe 7,283,274 92 Chad Africa 7,114,400 93 Haiti N. America 6,964,549 94 Benin Africa 6,590,782 95 Tajikistan Asia 6,578,681 96 Honduras N. America 6,406,052 97 El Salvador N. America 6,237,662 98 Burundi Africa 6,223,897 99 Israel Asia 5,938,093 100 Paraguay S. America 5,734,139 101 Laos Asia 5,635,967 102 Sierra Leone Africa 5,426,618 103 Slovakia Europe 5,414,937 104 Denmark Europe 5,252,815 105 Libya Africa 5,240,599 106 Finland Europe 5,175,783 107 Jordan Asia 5,153,378 108 Togo Africa 5,153,088 109 Papua New Guinea Oceania 5,049,055 110 Georgia Asia 4,989,285 111 Nicaragua N. America 4,918,393 112 Kyrgyzstan Asia 4,753,003 113 Turkmenistan Asia 4,603,244 114 Norway Europe 4,503,440 115 Moldova Europe 4,431,570 116 Croatia Europe 4,334,142 117 Singapore Asia 4,300,419 118 Eritrea Africa 4,298,269 119 Puerto Rico N. America 3,937,316 120 Bosnia and Herzegovina Europe 3,922,205 121 New Zealand Oceania 3,864,129 122 Ireland Europe 3,840,838 123 Costa Rica N. America 3,773,057 124 Lebanon Asia 3,627,774 125 Lithuania Europe 3,610,535 126 Central African Republic Africa 3,576,884 127 Albania Europe 3,510,484 128 Uruguay S. America 3,360,105 129 Armenia Europe 3,336,100 130 Congo, Republic of the Africa 3,258,400 131 Liberia Africa 3,225,837 132 Panama N. America 2,845,647 133 Mauritania Africa 2,747,312 134 Jamaica N. America 2,665,636 135 Mongolia Asia 2,654,999 136 Oman Asia 2,622,198 137 United Arab Emirates Asia 2,407,460 138 Latvia Europe 2,385,231 139 Lesotho Africa 2,177,062 140 Bhutan Asia 2,049,412 141 Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of Europe 2,046,209 142 Kuwait Asia 2,041,961 143 Slovenia Europe 1,930,132 144 Namibia Africa 1,797,677 145 Botswana Africa 1,586,119 146 Estonia Europe 1,423,316 147 Gambia, The Africa 1,411,205 148 Guinea-Bissau Africa 1,315,822 149 Gabon Africa 1,221,175 150 Mauritius Africa 1,189,825 151 Trinidad and Tobago S. America 1,169,682 152 Swaziland Africa 1,104,343 153 Fiji Oceania 844,330 154 East Timor Asia 779,567 155 Qatar Asia 769,152 [continued] Countries and selected dependencies, by population Rank Country Continent Population (July 2001) Geodata.book Page 624 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 17. GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA 625 Worl d R ankin gs A ppend ix WorldRankings 156 Cyprus Asia 762,887 157 Guyana S. America 697,181 158 Bahrain Asia 645,361 159 Comoros Africa 596,202 160 Equatorial Guinea Africa 486,060 161 Solomon Islands Oceania 480,442 162 Djibouti Africa 460,700 163 Luxembourg Europe 442,972 164 Suriname S. America 433,998 165 Guadeloupe N. America 431,170 166 Martinique N. America 418,454 167 Cape Verde Africa 405,163 168 Malta Europe 394,583 169 Brunei Darussalam Asia 343,653 170 Maldives Asia 310,764 171 Bahamas, The N. America 297,852 172 Iceland Europe 277,906 173 Barbados N. America 275,330 174 Belize N. America 256,062 175 Netherlands Antilles N. America 212,226 176 Vanuatu Oceania 192,910 177 Samoa Oceania 179,058 178 French Guiana S. America 177,562 179 São Tomé and Príncipe Africa 165,034 180 Saint Lucia N. America 158,178 181 Micronesia, Federated States of Oceania 134,597 182 Virgin Islands, U.S. N. America 122,211 183 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines N. America 115,942 184 Tonga Oceania 104,227 185 Kiribati Oceania 94,149 186 Grenada N. America 89,227 187 Seychelles Africa 79,715 188 Marshall Islands Oceania 70,822 189 Dominica N. America 70,786 190 Aruba N. America 70,007 191 Andorra Europe 67,627 192 Antigua and Barbuda N. America 66,970 193 Bermuda N. America 63,503 194 Greenland Europe 56,352 195 Saint Kitts and Nevis N. America 38,756 196 Cayman Islands N. America 35,527 197 Liechtenstein Europe 32,528 198 Monaco Europe 31,842 199 San Marino Europe 27,336 200 British Virgin Islands N. America 20,812 201 Palau Oceania 19,092 202 Turks and Caicos Islands N. America 18,122 203 Anguilla N. America 12,132 204 Nauru Oceania 12,088 205 Tuvalu Oceania 10,991 206 Holy See Europe 890 207 Antarctica Antarctica 0 Countries and selected dependencies, by boundary length Borders plus coastline Rank Name Total boundaries (mi) Total boundaries (km) 1 Canada 156,949 252,684 2 Russia 35,743 57,614 3 Indonesia 35,718 57,490 4 Greenland 27,333 44,087 5 Australia 22,831 36,735 6 China 22,905 36,671 7 Philippines 22,499 36,289 8 United States 19,991 32,172 9 Japan 18,479 29,751 10 Norway 15,156 24,440 11 Brazil 13,752 22,182 12 India 13,084 21,103 13 Antarctica 11,230 17,968 14 New Zealand 9,404 15,134 15 Kazakstan 9,284 14,976 16 Greece 9,250 14,886 [continued] Countries and selected dependencies, by population Rank Country Continent Population (July 2001) 17 Argentina 9,106 14,654 18 Mexico 8,617 13,868 19 United Kingdom 7,720 12,789 20 Chile 7,834 12,606 21 Congo, Democratic Republic of the (Zaire) 6,684 10,781 22 Turkey 6,142 9,827 23 Italy 5,911 9,532 24 Colombia 5,758 9,212 25 Iran 5,355 8,620 26 Sudan 5,306 8,540 27 Venezuela 5,277 8,493 28 Mongolia 5,070 8,161.9 29 Vietnam 5,023 8,083 30 Thailand 5,022 8,082 31 Peru 4,491 7,950 32 Croatia 4,886 7,863 33 Pakistan 4,859 7,820 34 Myanmar 4,840 7,806 35 South Africa 4,686 7,548 36 Denmark 4,587 7,382 37 Malaysia 4,563 7,344 38 Algeria 4,553 7,341 39 Ukraine 4,576 7,340 40 Mali 4,661 7,243 41 Saudi Arabia 4,383 7,055 42 Mozambique 4,373 7,041 43 Spain 4,272 6,881.8 44 Angola 4,215 6,798 45 Bolivia 4,190 6,743 46 Uzbekistan 4,117 6,641 47 France 3,925 6,316 48 Libya 3,823 6,153 49 Micronesia, Federated States of 3,789 6,112 50 Germany 3,732 6,007 51 Papua New Guinea 3,711 5,972 52 Chad 3,700 5,968 53 Mauritania 3,622 5,828 54 Niger 3,540 5,697 55 Congo, Republic of the 3,518 5,673 56 Zambia 3,496 5,627 57 Afghanistan 3,428 5,529 58 Sweden 3,370 5,423 59 Namibia 3,373 5,396 60 Somalia 3,350 5,391 61 Solomon Islands 3,301 5,313 62 Ethiopia 3,300 5,311 63 Central African Republic 3,233 5,203 64 Laos 3,151 5,083 65 Eritrea 3,009 5,015 66 Egypt 3,109 5,014 67 Cameroon 3,095 4,993 68 Iceland 3,098 4,988 69 Nigeria 3,044 4,900 70 Madagascar 3,000 4,828 71 Tanzania 2,997 4,826 72 Bangladesh 2,995 4,820 73 Estonia 2,744 4,427 74 Ecuador 2,556 4,247 75 Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of (North Korea) 2,590 4,168 76 Botswana 2,488 4,013 77 Kenya 2,473 3,982 78 Paraguay 2,436 3,920 79 Kyrgyzstan 2,410 3,878 80 Morocco 2,391 3,852.9 81 Finland 2,327 3,754 82 Turkmenistan 2,322 3,736 83 Cuba 2,316 3,735 84 Guinea 2,311 3,719 85 Iraq 2,291 3,689 86 Yemen 2,270 3,652 87 Tajikistan 2,264 3,651 88 Senegal 2,257 3,632 89 Bahamas, The 2,201 3,542 90 Oman 2,154 3,466 91 Gabon 2,135 3,436 92 Poland 2,099 3,379 [continued] Countries and selected dependencies, by boundary length Borders plus coastline Rank Name Total boundaries (mi) Total boundaries (km) Geodata.book Page 625 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 18. GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA626 World Ra nking s Ap pendi x 93 Burkina Faso 1,983 3,192 94 Belarus 1,925 3,098 95 Zimbabwe 1,905 3,066 96 Honduras 1,894 3,050 97 Panama 1,892 3,045 98 Cambodia 1,873 3,015 99 Portugal 1,868 3,007 100 Nepal 1,818 2,926 101 Guyana 1,811 2,921 102 Malawi 1,789 2,881 103 Azerbaijan 1,751 2,813 104 Romania 1,698 2,733 105 Uganda 1,676 2,698 106 Korea, Republic of (South Korea) 1,656 2,651 107 Ghana 1,635 2,632 108 Tunisia 1,597 2,572 109 Austria 1,588 2,562 110 Vanuatu 1,567 2,528 111 Syria 1,520 2,446 112 Yugoslavia 1,520 2,445 113 Uruguay 1,381 2,224 114 United Arab Emirates 1,355 2,185 115 Liberia 1,345 2,164 116 Bulgaria 1,343 2,162 117 Nicaragua 1,330 2,141 118 Benin 1,308 2,110 119 Suriname 1,297 2,093 120 Haiti 1,268.7 2,046 121 Guatemala 1,251 2,017 122 Hungary 1,248 2,009 123 Costa Rica 1,204 1,929 124 Czech Republic 1,169 1,881 125 Switzerland 1,151 1,852 126 Ireland 1,124 1,808 127 Georgia 1,098 1,771 128 Togo 1,058 1,703 129 Latvia 1,043 1,681 130 Jordan 1,022 1,645 131 Taiwan 973 1,566 132 Dominican Republic 977 1,563 133 French Guiana 970 1,561 134 Palau 944 1,519 135 Bosnia and Herzegovina 919 1,479 136 Netherlands 918 1,478 137 Belgium 900 1,451 138 Moldova 864 1,389 139 Lithuania 850.4 1,372 140 Sierra Leone 250 1,360 141 Slovakia 842 1,355 142 Sri Lanka 833 1,340 143 Israel 795 1,279 144 Armenia 778 1,254 145 Slovenia 753 1,211.6 146 Kiribati 709 1,143 147 Fiji 702 1,129 148 Albania 672 1,082 149 Bhutan 668 1,075 150 Guinea-Bissau 667 1,074 151 Jamaica 634 1,022 152 Burundi 605 974 153 Cape Verde 598 965 154 Kuwait 598 963 155 Lesotho 565 909 156 Belize 559 902 157 Rwanda 555 893 158 El Salvador 530 852 159 Equatorial Guinea 517 835 160 Djibouti 511 822 161 Gambia, The 510 820 162 East Timor 492 792 163 Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of 465 748 164 Lebanon 422 679 165 Cyprus 403 648 166 Maldives 400 644 167 Qatar 387 623 168 Brunei Darussalam 337 541 [continued] Countries and selected dependencies, by boundary length Borders plus coastline Rank Name Total boundaries (mi) Total boundaries (km) 169 Swaziland 332 535 170 Côte d'Ivoire 2,254 515 171 Puerto Rico 311 501 172 Seychelles 305 491 173 Tonga 260 419 174 Samoa 250 403 175 Turks and Caicos Islands 241 389 176 Netherlands Antilles 232.33 374.2 177 Marshall Islands 230 370 178 Trinidad and Tobago 225 362 179 Luxembourg 221 356 180 Martinique 217 350 181 Comoros 211 340 182 Guadeloupe 197.4 316.2 183 Malta 157 253 184 São Tomé and Príncipe 130 209 185 Singapore 120 193 186 Virgin Islands 116.7 188 187 Mauritius 110 177 188 Cayman Islands 100 160 189 Saint Lucia 98 158 190 Antigua and Barbuda 95 153 191 Dominica 92 148 192 Saint Kitts and Nevis 84 135 193 Bahrain 78 126 194 Grenada 75 121 195 Andorra 74.6 120.3 196 Bermuda 64 103 197 Barbados 60 97 198 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 52 84 199 British Virgin Islands 50 80 200 Liechtenstein 47 76 201 Aruba 42.6 68.5 202 Anguilla 38 61 203 San Marino 24 39 204 Nauru 18.6 30 205 Tuvalu 15 24 206 Monaco 5.2 8.5 207 Vatican City 1.2 3.2 Countries and selected dependencies, by boundary length Borders plus coastline Rank Name Total boundaries (mi) Total boundaries (km) Geodata.book Page 626 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 19. GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA 627 Worl d R ankin gs A ppend ix WorldRankings SELECTED SOURCES The World Rankings tables in Geo-Data: The World Geographical Encyclopedia, 3rd ed. were based on a large num- ber of sources. A key source of information for all of these tables are the country entries appearing elsewhere in the book. Each of these entries has its own set of sources, and it would be impossible to list all of them here. However, some sources which cover a large number of tables or were particularly useful are listed below. Altai Republic Territory and Geography. http://www.altai- republic.com/territory/resp_altay_eng.htm (accessed Sep- tember 2002). Atlas of Canada. http://atlas.gc.ca/site/english/ (accessed July– August 2002). AUGLIG: Geoscience Australia: Spatial Information for the Nation. http://www.auslig.gov.au (accessed July–August 2002). CIA World Factbook 2002. http://www.odci.gov/cia/publica- tions/factbook (accessed July–August 2002). Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. Country Stud- ies. http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/cshome.html#toc (accessed July–August 2002). Geo-Data: The World Geographical Encyclopedia, 2nd ed. Detroit: Gale Research, 1989. Hoelzle, M. and W. Haeberli. World Glacier Inventory. World Glacier Monitoring Service and National Snow and Ice Data Center/World Data Center for Glaciology, Boulder, CO, 1999. http://www.nsidc.org/data/glacier_inventory/ (accessed September 2002). Internal Lake Environment Committee. LakeNet. http:// www.worldlakes.org (accessed July–August 2002). The Living Desert: World Desert. http://www.livingdesert.com/ worlddes.htm (accessed July–August 2002). Merriam-Webster's Geographical Dictionary, Third Edition. Springfield, Mass.: Merriam-Webster, Inc., 1997. Munro, David, ed. Oxford Dictionary of the World. New York: Oxford University Press, 1995. Peakware World Mountain Encyclopedia. http://www.peak- ware.com/encyclopedia/index.htm (accessed September 2002). River Systems of the World. http://www.rev.net/~aloe/river (accessed July–August 2002). United States Geological Survey. http://www.usgs.gov/ (accessed September 2002); World Atlas. http://www.graphicmaps.com (accessed July– August 2002). Geodata.book Page 627 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 20. GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA 629 GLOSSARY Aboriginal Someone or something that is the first or earliest known of its type in a country or region. Acid rain Rain (or snow) that has become slightly acid by mixing with industrial air pollution. Alluvium Clay, silt, sand or gravel deposted by running water such as a stream or river. Alluvial plain Flatlands containing deposits of alluvium. Antarctic Relating to the southernmost part of the Earth. Aquatic Of or relating to the water, particularly the animals and plants that live there. Aqueduct A bridge-like structure that carries water over obstacles, usually man-made. Aquifer An underground layer of porous rock, sand, or gravel that holds water. Arable land Land that is naturally suitable for cultivation by plowing and is used for growing crops. Archipelago A group of islands, or a body of water containing many islands. Arctic Relating to the northernmost part of the Earth, or anything that is frigidly and invariably cold. Arid Extremely dry, particularly applied to regions of low rainfall where non-irrigated agriculture is impossible and there is little natural vegetation. Artesian well A type of well where underground pressure forces water to the surface. Asphalt A substance containing high concentrations of hydrocarbons that is found in naturally occurring beds, and is also produced as a by-product of petroleum refinining. Used in road building. Atmosphere The air surrounding the Earth’s surface. Atoll An island consisting of a strip or ring of coral surrounding a central lagoon. Avalanche A swift sliding of an accumulation of snow or ice down a mountain. Badlands Eroded and barren land. Barren land Unproductive land, partly or entirely treeless. Barrier island An island formed by wave and tidal action, oriented parallel to the shore and serving to protect the shore from ocean wave action. Barrier reef A coral reef that lies parallel to the coast, often forming a lagoon along the shore. Basalt Black or nearly black dense rock, usually formed by the solidification or magma or from some other high-temperature geological event. Basin A depression on land or on the ocean floor. Usually relatively broad and gently sloped, as compared to a trench, canyon, or crater. Bay An indented body of water surrounded by land on three sides. Bayou A stagnant or slow-moving body of water. Beach Sediment deposited through the action of waves and the process of erosion along the shoreline of a large body of water. Bedrock Solid rock lying under loose earth. Biosphere All living organisms on Earth. Bluff Elevated area with a broad, steep cliff face. Bog Wet, soft, and spongy ground where the soil is composed mainly of decayed or decaying vegetable matter. Geodata.book Page 629 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 21. GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA630 Gl ossar y Bora A very cold wind blowing from the north in the Adriatic Sea region. Biome Ecological community of an area, such as tropical rainforest or desert. Broadleaf forest A forest composed mainly of broadleaf (deciduous) trees, as opposed to a coniferous forest. Butte An elevated, flat-topped area, similar to but smaller than a plateau or mesa. Caldera A crater formed by the eruption of a volcano. Canal An artificial waterway, either to connect two bodies of water or for irrigation. Canyon A deep gorge cut by a river, usually found in arid regions characterized by plateaus. Cape A projection of land that extends away from a landmass out into a body of water. Catchment Area that collects water. Cave Hollow places in the Earth produced by the combined action of fracture of rock layers and the eroding action of ground water. Cay Low-lying island or reef, also called a Key. Caucasus Region of southeast Europe between the Black and Caspian seas. Channel A narrow body of water that connects two larger areas. An area where water flows through a narrow restricted path. Chapparal Dense, shrubby vegetation that grows in regions with hot, dry summers and cooler winters, such as in the southwest United States and northwest Mexico. Cliff A high, vertical face of rock. Climate Weather conditions pertaining to a specific area. Coastal belt A coastal plain area of lowlands and somewhat higher ridges that run parallel to the coast. Coastal plain A fairly level area of land along the coast of a land mass. Coniferous forest A forest consisting mainly evergreen trees such as pine, fir, and cypress trees. Conifers Plants, mostly evergreen trees and shrubs, that produce cones. Continent One of the seven major land masses of the Earth. Continental climate A climate typical of the interior of a continent. Particulars can vary widely depending on the region, but in general areas with a continental climate have greater variations in temperature, both on a daily and seasonal basis, than in areas with a maritime climate. Continental divide The geographic line separating the drainage basins of a continent. Continental shelf A shallow submarine plain extending from the coast of a continent coast into the sea, and varying in width; typically ends in a steep slope to the ocean floor. Coral reef A ridge in the warm-water areas of the ocean made up of the limestone and calcium deposits of coral animals. Cordillera A continuous ridge, range, or chain of mountains. Crater A bowl-shaped depression on the surface of the Earth, generally with relatively deep, steep, sides. The most common type of crater is a caldera, formed by volcanic eruption. Cultivable land Land that can be prepared by plowing for the production of crops. Cyclone A weather occurrence that involves the wind blowing spirally around and in towards a center, creating a powerful storm. In the northern hemisphere, the cyclonic movement is usually counter-clockwise, and in the southern hemisphere, it is clockwise. Dam A structure built across a river that restricts its flow, causing a reservoir to form behind it. Dams are often used to generate hydropower. Deciduous forest A forest consisting of trees that shed their leaves on a yearly basis (broadleaf) as opposed to those (coniferous) that retain them. Deciduous species Any species of tree or shrub that sheds or casts off a part of itself after a definite period of time, commonly used to describe trees that lose their leaves on a yearly basis. Deforestation The removal or clearing of a forest, usually to enable the land to be used for another purpose, such as agriculture or settlements. Delta Triangular-shaped deposits of soil formed at the mouths of large rivers. They are formed out of the silt carried by the river, and have the effect of forcing the river to split into distributary channels, sometimes over a very wide area. Density Number of units in a specific area. Depression A point on the Earth’s surface that forms a hollow, or that has sunken or fallen in. Any place where the Earth's surface is lower than the surrounding terrain. Desert A dry land area with little precipitation and sparse vegetation. Desertification The process wherby land that supports vegetation gradually becomes desert as a result of climatic changes, land mismanagement, or both. Geodata.book Page 630 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 22. GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA 631 Gl ossar y Glossary Dike An artificial riverbank built up to control the flow of water. Discontiguous Not connected to or sharing a boundary with. Distributary A stream which branches off from a river and never rejoins it, flowing indepdently into another body of water. Doldrums An area near the equator characterized by variable winds and periods of calm. Dormant volcano A volcano that has not exhibited any signs of activity for an extended period of time. Drumlin A rounded, oval hill rarely more than 250 ft (75 m) high or more than a half mile (1 km) long. Dry climate Weather patterns characterized by little rainfall and dramatic temperature differences between day and night. Dune A mound or ridge of loose, wind-blown sand. Earth Fifth-largest planet in the solar system; its orbit is third from the sun, its circumference measured at the equator is 24,900 mi (40,064 km), and measured around the poles is 24,860 mi (40,000 km). The diameter at the equator is 7,926 mi (12,753 km), and from pole to pole, 7,900 mi (12,711 km). Earthquake Shaking or other movement of the earth that is caused by tectonic shifts or volcanic activity. Easterlies Winds or air currents blowing more or less consistently form east to west. Eastern Hemisphere The eastern half of the earth’s surface, as divided by the Prime Meridian and 180th meridian. Ecology The branch of science that studies the relationship between organisms and their environments. Eddy An air or water current that follows a course different from that of the main flow and usually has a swirling circular motion. Enclave A political or cultural unit within a region that is distinct and different from the territories that surround it is an enclave within those territories. An enclave within one country or culture is often an exclave in respect to another country or culture. Endangered species A plant or animal species whose existence as a whole is threatened with extinction. Endemic Anything that is native to or restricted to a specific place, especially if it is unique to or characteristic of that place. Equator An imaginary line running around the middle of the Earth halfway between the North and South Poles, identified as 0° latitude, which divides the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Erosion Changes in the shape of the earth’s surface as a result of wind, water, or ice. Escarpment A steep slope that separates areas of different elevations. Estuary The region where a river and a large lake or sea meet, with their waters gradually blending into each other. Exclave Part of a country that is separated from the larger, main portion of the country by foreign territory. An exclave is considered an enclave in respect to the foreign country or countries that surround it. Fault An area of weakness in the Earth’s crust where the rock formation splits, allowing the opposing sides shift and adjust to relieve stresses, sometimes causing earthquakes. Most commonly found along the boundaries between tectonic plates. Also called a fault line. Fauna Animal life. Fen Wet, soft, and spongy ground where the soil is composed mainly of decayed or decaying vegetable matter and is fed by surrounding soils and groundwater; fens are similar to bogs but have higher nutrient levels. Fjord A relatively narrow arm of the sea that indents deeply into the land, with generally steep slopes or cliffs on each side. Flood The flow of excessive quantities of water over land that is generally above water. Flood plain An area of low-lying land bordering a stream of water where floods, and the resulting deposits of alluvium, occur frequently. Flora Vegetation. Front Weather term describing the point at which two air masses interact. Game reserve An area of land reserved for wild animals that are hunted for sport or for food. Geothermal energy Energy derived from the heat that constantly and naturally radiates out from the center of the Earth. Also used to desrcibe the radiation itself. Geyser A hot spring that periodically erupts through an opening in the surface of the Earth, spewing boiling water and steam. Glacier A large body of permanent ice on the Earth's surface. Geodata.book Page 631 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 23. GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA632 Gl ossar y Gorge A deep ravine with steep, rocky walls, through which a stream flows. Grassland An area where the vegetation is mostly grasses and other grass-like plants, often providing a transition between forests and deserts. Groundwater Water located below the earth’s surface, the source from which wells and springs draw their water. Growler A semi-submerged iceberg that poses a sea hazard. Gulf Inlet of the sea formed by a concave indentation in the coastline. Gulf Stream Warm ocean current flowing from roughly the Gulf of Mexico northeast along the coast of North America, then east toward Europe. Hardpan A layer of hardened clay soil, usually underlying a thin layer of topsoil. Hardwoods Deciduous trees, such as cherry, oak, maple, and mahogany, that produce very hard, durable, and therefore valuable, lumber. Harmattan An intensely dry, dusty wind felt along the coast of Africa between Cape Verde and Cape Lopez. It prevails at intervals during the months of December, January, and February. Headland Slightly elevated land lying along or jutting into a body of water. Headstream Stream that forms the source of a river. Headwater Source of a stream or river. Heath Uncultivated land with low shrubs. Hemisphere Any half of the globe—north, south, east or west—as divided by the Prime Meridian and 180° longitude, or by the equator. Hill A rounded area of elevation rising more or less prominently above the surrounding, flatter landscape. Hill is generally used to describe an elevation of no more than 1,000 ft (300 m) above the surrounding land, but this can vary greatly depending on the region. Humboldt Current A cold ocean current that runs north from Antarctica along the west coast of South America, primarily from June to November. Hurricane A tropical storm with winds over 74 mph. Hydropower Electricty generated by daming rivers and using the water to turn turbines. Also called hydroelectric power. Hydrosphere Pertaining to the area of water along the Earth’s surface. Iceberg A massive block of ice floating independently in water that has broken from a glacier or an ice shelf through a process known as calving. Ice caps Ice sheets covering less than 19,000 sq mi (50,000 sq km). Ice sheets Very large glaciers found in polar and sub-polar regions, generally occupying high and relatively flat regions. Ice shelves Sheets of ice that extend over the sea and float on the water, typically ranging from approximately 500–3,500 ft (200–1000 m) thick. The Arctic Ocean is partly covered by ice shelves, and the continent of Antarctica is almost completely surrounded by them. Inlet A narrow passage through which water from an ocean or other large body passes, usually into a bay or lagoon. International Date Line An arbitrary line at about the 180th meridian that designates where one day begins and another ends. Island Land entirely surrounded by water, of relatively small area compared to the land mass of a continent. Isthmus A narrow strip of land bordered by water on two side and connecting two larger bodies of land on the others, such as two continents, a continent and a peninsula, or two parts of an island. Japan Current A warm current in the Pacific Ocean. Karst Region of limestone characterized by underground streams and caverns. Key A low flat island consisting of coral or sand, coral fragments, shell fragments, and other debris deposited on a coral flat, just above the high water level. Also called a Cay. Labrador Current A North Atlantic current that flows southward from polar waters along the east coast of Canada. Lagoon A shallow body of water, often connected with, or barely separated from, a nearby larger body of water. Lake An inland body of standing water of considerable size. Landlocked country A country that does not have direct access to the sea; it is completely surrounded by other countries. Landslide A flow of muddy soil or loose rock that is usually triggered by heavy rainfall in areas where the terrain is steep. Latitude An imaginary line running around the Earth, parallel to the equator. In geography, another Geodata.book Page 632 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 24. GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA 633 Gl ossar y Glossary name for a parallel. The Earth is divided into two sets of lines of latitude, each of 90 degrees, starting at the equator, 0° latitude, and extending north or south to the poles. Lava Molten rock (magma) that has been poured out on the Earth’s surface, usually through a volcano. Leeward The direction identical to that of the prevailing wind. Littoral The area between the high water and low water marks of a shore or coastal region. Loam Light soil consisting of clay, silt, and sand. Loess A windblown accumulation of fine yellow clay or silt. Longitude An imaginary line that extends along the surface of the Earth directly from one pole to another. Another name for a meridian. The Earth is divided into 360 degrees of longitude, with 0° being designated the Prime Meridian. Maghreb Region in northwest Africa made up of Algeria, Morocco, and Tunisia. Magma Rock beneath the Earth’s surface that has been melted by the heat of the Earth’s interior. When magma breaches the Earth's surface it is known as lava. Mangrove A tree which abounds on tropical shores in both hemispheres. Characterized by its numerous roots which arch out from its trunk and descend from its branches. Mangroves form thick, dense growths along the tidal muds, reaching lengths hundreds of miles long. Marsh An area of soggy land, usually covered wholly or in part by shallow water, and containing aquatic vegetation. Maquis Scrubby, thick underbrush, typical of that found along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea. Marginal land Land that is difficult or unattractive for cultivation. Marine life The life that exists in, or is formed by the sea. Maritime climate The climate and weather conditions typical of areas bordering large bodies of water. Details vary from one region to another, but generally areas close to water have more even temperatures (lower high temperatures and higher low temperatures) than areas with a continental climate. Massif Central part of a mountain, or the dominant part of a range of mountains. Mean temperature The air temperature unit measured by the National Weather Service by adding the maximum and minimum daily temperatures together and diving the sum by 2. Mediterranean climate A wet-winter, dry- summer climate with a moderate annual temperature range, as is typically experienced by countries along the Mediterranean Sea. Meridian See longitude. Mesa An isolated, elevated, flat-topped area of land, typically larger than a butte but smaller than a plateau. Mistral In southern France, a cold, dry, northerly wind. Monsoon Seasonal change in the wind direction of Southeastern Asia, leading to wet and dry seasons. The monsoon develops when there is a significant difference in temperature between the ocean and the land. Monsoon is sometimes used to describe any heavy rainfall. Moor A poorly drained open area containing peat and heath. Moist tropical climate A weather pattern typical to the tropics, known for year-round high temperatures and large amounts of rainfall. Moraine A deposit of rocky earth deposited by a glacier. Mountain A lofty elevation of land, generally at least higher than 1,000 ft (300 m), but varying greatly depending on the surrounding terrain, with little surface area at its peak; commonly formed in a series of ridges or in a single ridge known as a mountain range. Natural harbor A protected portion of a sea or lake along the shore resulting from the natural formations of the land. Nature preserve An area where one or more species of plant and/or animal are protected from harm, injury, or destruction. Nilas A thin sheet of ice on the surface of the sea, such as the sea around Antarctica, that moves with the waves but does not break apart. Northern Hemisphere The northern half of the Earth’s surface, as divided by the equator. Nunatak A mountain that rises above the ice sheet in Antarctica. Oasis Originally, a fertile spot in the Libyan Desert where there is a natural spring or well and vegetation; now refers to any fertile tract in the midst of a wasteland. Ocean The interconnected bodies of saltwater that cover almost three-fourths of the Earth’s surface. Geodata.book Page 633 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 25. GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA634 Gl ossar y Oceania A name used to refer collectively to the islands that lie in the central and south Pacific Ocean—including the islands of Micronesia (Kiribati and Marshall Islands, and neighboring islands), Melanesia (Vanuatu and Fiji, and neighboring islands), and Polynesia (Hawaii, Tonga, Tuvalu, and neighboring islands)—that are located far from any continent. Pampa Grass-covered plain of South America. Panhandle A long narrow strip of land projecting like the handle of a frying pan. Parallel See latitude. Peneplain A flat land surface that has been subjected to severe erosion. Peninsula A body of land surrounded by water on three sides. Permafrost A frozen layer of soil that never thaws. Petroglyph Ancient human carvings on rock, often found in caves. Piedmont The terrain at the base of a mountain or range of mountains. Plain An expansive area free of major elevations and depressions. Plateau A relatively flat area of elevated land. Plate tectonics A set of theories about the Earth's structure used by many geologists to explain why landmasses and oceans are arranged as they are, and why seismic activity occurs. According to plate tectonics the Earth's surface, including the bottoms of the oceans, rests on a number of large tectonic plates. These plates are slowly moving across the interior layers of the Earth. Where they grind against each other, earthquakes and other seismic activity occurs, and the shape of the land gradually changes. Polar circles A circle around the Earth distinguishing the frigid polar zones from the temperate zones. The Earth has two polar circles, the Arctic Circle in the north and the Antarctic Circle in the south. Polar climate A humid, severely cold climate controlled by arctic air masses, with no warm or summer season. Polar regions The areas surrounding the northernmost (north pole) or southernmost (south pole) points on the Earth, marked by extreme, year- round, cold temperatures. Polder Low land recovered from a body of water and protected by dikes or embankments. Pole, geographic The extreme northern and southern points of the Earth’s axis, where the axis intersects the spherical surface. Pole, magnetic Either of two points on the Earth’s surface, close to the geographic north pole and south poles, where the magnetic field is most intense. Pond A small body of still, shallow water. Prairie An area of level grassland that occurs in temperate climate zones. Prime Meridian The meridian designated as zero degrees in longitude that runs through Greenwich, England, site of the Royal Observatory. All other longitudes are measured from this point . Proved reserves The quantity of a recoverable mineral resource (such as oil or natural gas) that is still in the ground. Rainforest Forest of tall trees with a high, leafy canopy where the annual rainfall is at least 100 in (254 cm). Ravine A narrow, deep valley usually forming the channel for a stream. Reef String of rocks or coral formations, usually on a sandy bottom, that are barely submerged. Reforestation Systematically replacing forest trees lost due to fire or logging. Reservoir A lake that was formed artificially by a dam. Ring of Fire Region of seismic activity roughly outlined by a string of volcanoes that encircles the Pacific Ocean. River A substantial stream of water following a clear channel as it flows over the land. Riverine Related to a river or the banks of a river. Roundwood Timber used as poles or in similar ways without being sawn or shaped. Sahel Semi-arid plains region in Africa, bordering the Sahara Desert on the north, stretching approximately from the Atlantic Ocean to the Red Sea. Salinization An accumulation of soluble salts in soil. This condition is common in irrigated areas with desert climates, where water evaporates quickly in poorly drained soil due to high temperatures. Sever salinization renders soil poisonous to most plants. Salt pan An area of land in a sunny region that is periodically submerged in shallow water, usually due to tides or seasonal floods. The sun causes the shallow water to evaporate and leave the salt it contained behind on the ground. Also called a salt flat. Sand bar A deposit of sedimentary material in a river, lake, or other body of water that lies in shallow water. Geodata.book Page 634 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 26. GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA 635 Gl ossar y Glossary Savanna A treeless or near treeless plain of a tropical or subtropical region dominated by drought- resistant grasses. Sea A body of salt water that is connected to (and therefore a part of) the ocean. Season Regular variations in weather patterns that occur at the same times every year. Seasonal Dependant on the season. The flow of rivers and volume of lakes often varies greatly between seasons, as can vegetation. Sedimentary rock Rock, such as sandstone, shale, and limestone, formed from the hardening of material deposits. Seismic activity Relating to or connected with an earthquake or earthquakes in general. Semiarid A climate where water and rainfall is relatively scarce but not so rare as to prohibit the growth of modest vegetation. Semiarid areas are often found around arid deserts, and semiarid land is sometimes called a desert itself. Shoal A shallow area in a stream, lake, or sea, especially a sand bank that lies above water at low tide or during dry periods. Sierra A chain of hills or mountain. Silt Fine gravely inorganic material, between fine sand and coarse clay particles in character, that is carried the flow of a river and deposited along its banks. Silt is generally very fertile soil. Sirocco Hot, sand-laden wind in Algeria. Skerry A rocky island. Slough A marshy pond that occurs in a river inlet. Softwoods Coniferous trees, whose wood density as a whole is relatively softer than the wood of those trees referred to as hardwoods. Sound A wide expanse of water, usually separating mainland from islands or connecting two large bodies of water; often lies parallel to the ocean coastline. Southern Hemisphere The southern half of the Earth’s surface, as divided by the equator. Spring Water flowing from the ground through a natural opening. Stalactites and stalagmites Deposits of calcium carbonite formed in a cavern or cave; stalactites hang down from the ceiling like icicles, and stalagmites rise from the floor. Steppe A flat, mostly treeless, semiarid grassland, marked by extreme seasonal and daily temperature variations. Although sometimes used to describe other areas, the term applies primarily to the plains of southeastern Europe and Central Asia. Strait Narrow body of water connecting two larger bodies of water. Stream Any flowing water that moves generally downhill from elevated areas towards sea level. Subarctic climate A high latitude climate of two types: continental subarctic, which has very cold winters, short, cool summers, light precipitation and moist air; and marine subarctic, a coastal and island climate with polar air masses causing large precipitation and extreme cold. Subcontinent A land mass of great size, but smaller than any of the continents; a large subdivision of a continent. Subtropical climate A middle latitude climate dominated by humid, warm temperatures and heavy rainfall in summer, with cool winters and frequent cyclonic storms. Taiga An area of open forest made up of coniferous trees. Tectonic Relating to the structure of the Earth’s crust. Tectonic plate According to the theory of plate tectonics, the outer layer of the Earth consists of a series of large plates of rock called tectonic plates. The largest plates have entire oceans or continents on their surface. Temperate zone The parts of the Earth lying between the tropics and the polar circles. The northern temperate zone is the area between the tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle. The southern temperate zone is the area between the tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle. Temperate zones are marked by the greatest seasonal variations in temperature. Terraces Successive areas of flat lands. Terrain General characteristics of the Earth’s surface in a region, including its characteristic vegetation. Tidal bore A distinctive type of wave that travels up a shallow river or estuary on the incoming tide. It is a dramatic phenomenon that occurs in few places in the world; the incoming tidal waters are flowing against the river’s current. Tidal wave See Tsunami. Tide The rise and fall of the surface of a body of water caused by the gravitational attraction of the sun and moon. Timber line The point of high elevation on a mountain above which the climate is too sever to support trees. Geodata.book Page 635 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 27. GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA636 Gl ossar y Topography The elevations and depressions of a region are its topography; also, the study of such features. Tornado A violent, whirling wind that form a funnel-shaped cloud that moves in a path over the surface of the Earth. Torrid zone The part of the earth’s surface that lies between the tropics, so named for the warm, humid, character of its climate. Trade winds Winds that consistently blow from the northeast and southeast toward the equator. Transcaucasia Region in southeast Eruope between the Black and Caspian seas and south of the Caucasus Mountains. Trench Steep-sided section of the ocean floor where the water is very deep. Tributary Any stream that flows into another larger stream. Tropic of Cancer A latitudinal line located 23°27’ north of the equator, the northernmost point at which the sun can shine directly overhead. Tropic of Capricorn A latitudinal line located 23°27’ south of the equator, the southernmost point at which the sun can shine directly overhead. Tropical monsoon climate One of the tropical rainy climates; it is sufficiently warm and rainy to produce tropical rainforest vegetation, but also has a winter dry season. Tsunami A powerful, massive, and destructive ocean wave caused by undersea earthquake or volcanic eruption. Tundra A nearly level treeless area whose climate and vegetation are characteristically arctic due to its position near one of the poles; the subsoil is permanently frozen. Typhoon Violent hurricane occurring in the region of the South China Sea, usually in the period from July through October. Valley An elongated depression through which a stream of water usually flows. Vegetation Plants. Veldt In South Africa, an unforested or thinly forested tract of land or region, a grassland. Volcano A hole or opening, usually at the peak of a cone-shaped mountain, through which molten rock and superheated steam erupt from the interior of the Earth. Wadi Dry stream bed, usually in a desert region in southwest Asia or north Africa. Waterfall A steep natural descent of water flowing over a cliff or precipice to a lower level. Watershed An area of shared water drainage, that is, all the rainfall drains into a common river or lake system. Wave The alternate rising and falling of ridges of water, generally produced by the action between the wind and the surface of a body of water. Weather Atmospheric conditions at a given place and time. Western Hemisphere The western half of the earth’s surface divided by the Prime Meridian at 180°. West Indies Islands lying between North America and South America made up of the Greater Antilles (Cuba, Haiti, Dominican Republic, Jamaica, and Puerto Rico) and the Lesser Antilles (Virgin Islands, Trinidad and Tobago, Barbados), and Bahamas. Wildlife sanctuary An area of land set aside for the protection and preservation of animals and plants. Windward Facing into the prevailing wind, or lying closest to the direction from which the wind is blowing. Geodata.book Page 636 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 28. GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA 637 INDEX Page numbers in bold indicate primary treat- ment of a country; those in italics indicate illustrations; and the letter t following a page number denotes a table. The index is sorted word by word. Entries are in natural language order with the exception of country names, which are sorted by their most recognizable name as in the rest of the book (for example: Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of). Vari- ant and abbreviated forms of names are listed as cross references. A Aare River (Switzerland), 519 Abay River. See Blue Nile River Aberdare National Park (Kenya), 290 Aberdare Range (Kenya), 288 Abi-Istada (Afghanistan), 3 Abkhazia (Georgia), 200 Abperon Peninsula (Azerbaijan), 40 Absoraka Range (U.S.), 573 Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates), 562–563 Abu Hamand (Sudan), 509 Abs Msá Island, 257, 563 Acapulco (Mexico), 355 Acarai Mountains (Guyana), 227 Acaray River (Paraguay), 426 Accra plains (Ghana), 208 Achill Island (Ireland), 263 Acid rain, Switzerland, 520 Acklins Island (The Bahamas), 42 Aconcagua River (Chile), 113 Ad Dahna’ Desert (Saudi Arabia), 472–473, 475 Ad Dibdibah (Saudi Arabia), 474 Ad-Dukhan Hill (Bahrain), 43 Adamaoua Plateau. See Adamawa Plateau Adamawa Plateau, 92–94, 402 Adam’s Bridge, 246 Adam’s Peak (Sri Lanka), 502 Addu Atoll (Maldives), 338 Adelaide (Australia), 35 Adelaide Island (Antarctica), 20 Adelie Land. See Southern and Antarctic Lands (France) Adelunga Toghi (Uzbekistan), 584 Aden (Yemen), 599–601 Adgiin Tsagaan Lake (Mongolia), 365 Adige River (Italy), 271, 272 Adirondack Mountains (U.S.), 571, 574 Administrative divisions Côte d’Ivoire, 141t Djibouti, 157t Grenada, 217t Guadeloupe, 219t Haiti, 231t Honduras, 234t Japan, 280t Kiribati, 294t Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of, 296t Laos, 307t Malta, 344t Namibia, 380t Nauru, 382t Papua New Guinea, 423t Portugal, 443t Saint Kitts and Nevis, 462t Saint Lucia, 463t Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, 465t San Marino, 469t São Tomé and Príncipe, 470t Saudi Arabia, 474t Singapore, 484t Solomon Islands, 490t Somalia, 493t Spain, 499t Sri Lanka, 503t Suriname, 512t Admiralty Islands (Papua New Guinea), 422 Adrar des Iforas (Mali), 340 Aegean Islands (Greece), 212–213 Afar Triangle, 156 Affollé Hills (Mauritania), 347 Afghanistan, 1–5, 2, 4t Afobaka Dam (Suriname), 510 Afram Plains (Ghana), 208 African Tectonic Plate Algeria, 8 Benin, 58 Burundi, 87 Cameroon, 92 Central African Republic, 105 Chad, 108 Comoros, 127 Congo, Democratic Republic of, 130 Congo, Republic of, 133 Egypt, 167 Eritrea, 176 Ethiopia, 181 Gambia, 198 Ghana, 207 Greece, 212 Israel, 266 Jordan, 281 Lebanon, 310 Lesotho, 312 Libya, 316 Madagascar, 327 Malta, 343 Mauritania, 347 Mauritius, 350 Mozambique, 370 Namibia, 377 Nigeria, 401 Portugal, 440 Rwanda, 458 Seychelles, 478 Sierra Leone, 480 South Africa, 494 Tunisia, 543 Uganda, 556 Zambia, 605 Zimbabwe, 609 Agadez (Niger), 400 Agalega (Mauritius), 351 Agam Plateau (Indonesia), 250 Aganoa Black Sand Beach (Samoa), 467 Agno River (The Philippines), 434 Geodata.book Page 637 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 29. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA638 Agricultural chemicals Azerbaijan, 40 Indonesia, 250 See also Water pollution Agriculture Albania, 6 Algeria, 10 Antigua, 23 Argentina, 27 Armenia, 29 Austria, 38 Azerbaijan, 40 Bangladesh, 45, 48 Barbados, 49 Belarus, 51 Bermuda, 61 Brazil, 73, 77 Bulgaria, 84 Burundi, 87 Cameroon, 94–95 Colombia, 125, 126 Comoros, 127–128 Congo, Democratic Republic of, 133 Costa Rica, 136–137 Côte d’Ivoire, 142 Cuba, 147, 148 Cyprus, 150 Denmark, 155 Dominica, 158 Dominican Republic, 161 East Timor, 162, 164 Ecuador, 166 Egypt, 170 Equatorial Guinea, 176 Estonia, 180 Fiji, 185 Finland, 188 France, 194 Gabon, 197 Gambia, 199 Georgia, 202 Germany, 204, 206 Ghana, 207 Greece, 213 Grenada, 217 Guadeloupe, 219 Guatemala, 222 Guinea-Bissau, 227 Haiti, 232 Honduras, 234 Hungary, 235, 238 Iceland, 241 India, 248 Indonesia, 253–254 Iran, 254 Israel, 267 Japan, 281 Jordan, 282, 283 Kazakhstan, 286, 288 Kenya, 291, 292 Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of, 296 Korea, Republic of, 298, 299 Kyrgyzstan, 302, 304 Laos, 306–307 Latvia, 307–308, 309 Lebanon, 311 Lesotho, 313 Liberia, 315 Libya, 318 Liechtenstein, 319 Lithuania, 320 Madagascar, 330 Malawi, 331, 333 Malaysia, 334 Malta, 343–344 Martinique, 347 Mauritius, 352 Mexico, 355, 357 Micronesia, 358 Moldova, 361–362 Mongolia, 367 Morocco, 370 Mozambique, 372, 373 Myanmar, 377 Nepal, 386 The Netherlands, 389 Nicaragua, 398 Niger, 400 Norway, 405, 407–408 Pakistan, 415 Panama, 417, 419, 420 Papua New Guinea, 423 The Philippines, 435, 436 Poland, 440 Portugal, 443 Puerto Rico, 444, 445 Romania, 451 Russia, 456, 457 Rwanda, 459 Saint Kitts and Nevis, 462 Saint Lucia, 464 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, 465 Samoa, 468 San Marino, 469 São Tomé and Príncipe, 471 Senegal, 476, 478 Seychelles, 480 Sierra Leone, 482 Somalia, 494 Spain, 502 Sri Lanka, 505 Sudan, 510 Swaziland, 513–514 Tanzania, 533 Thailand, 536 Tonga, 540 Trinidad and Tobago, 542–543 Tunisia, 545 Uganda, 558 Ukraine, 561 United States, 581 Uruguay, 583 Uzbekistan, 585–586 Venezuela, 593 Vietnam, 597 Yemen, 601 Yugoslavia, 605 Zimbabwe, 611 Agua (Guatemala), 220 Aguán River (Honduras), 233 Aguarico River (Ecuador), 165 Agusan Marsh Wildlife Sanctuary (The Philippines), 434 Agusan River (The Philippines), 434, 435 Ahaggar Mountains (Algeria), 8, 10, 399 AIDS, Burkina Faso and, 86 Ailinginae Atoll (Marshall Islands), 344 Ailinglaplap Atoll (Marshall Islands), 344 Aïr Massif (Niger), 399, 400 Air pollution Congo, Republic of, 135 Czech Republic, 152 Indonesia, 249, 253 Iran, 258 Nepal, 386 See also Pollution Airolo (Switzerland), 519 Airports, Japan, 279 Aiviekste River (Latvia), 308 Aja’ Mountains (Saudi Arabia), 472 Ajaria (Georgia), 200 ’Ajman (United Arab Emirates), 562 Akaishi Mountains (Japan), 276 Akan Lowlands (Ghana), 208 Akanyaru River (Rwanda), 459 Akdzhakaya Depression. See Vpadina Akchanaya (Turkmenistan) Akhelóos River (Greece), 212 Akiyoshi-dai Plateau (Japan), 277 Akkeshi-ko (Japan), 278 Akosombo Dam (Ghana), 207, 208 Akrotiri Bay (Cyprus), 149 Akwa-Orlu Uplands (Nigeria), 402, 404 Akwapim-Togo Ranges, 207 Al Ahsa. See Al-Hasa (Saudi Arabia) Al Amar (Saudi Arabia), 475 Al Atrun (Sudan), 509 Al Batinah Plain (Oman), 408 Al Fujayrah (United Arab Emirates), 562 Al Ghab (Syria), 521, 523 Al Guedam Canyon (Yemen), 599 Al Ha ’ar (Saudi Arabia), 475 Al Hajar Ash Sharqi (Oman), 409 Al Hamadah Al Hamra (Libya), 316 Al Hudaydah (Yemen), 600 Al Jafurah Desert (Saudi Arabia), 474 Al Jahrah (Kuwait), 300, 301 Al Kharj (Saudi Arabia), 473 Al Mahra Uplands (Yemen), 599 Al Muharraq (Bahrain), 43–44 Al Qasrayn. See Kasserine Pass (Tunisia) Ala Tau (Kyrgyzstan), 302 Alabama (United States), 571, 574 Al-Ahmadj Ridge (Kuwait), 300 Alai Mountains, 584 Al-’Ajmah Mountains (Egypt), 167 Åland Islands (Finland), 188 Alantika Mountains, 92, 402 Al-’Arab Gulf (Egypt), 169 Al-’Aramah Plateau (Saudi Arabia), 472 Alaska (United States), 571, 573–574, 576–580 Alaska Peninsula (United States), 573, 577, 578 Alaska Range (United States), 574, 576 Al-’Ayn (United Arab Emirates), 562–563 Al-Bahr. See Nile River Ålbæk Bay (Denmark), 154 Albania, 5–7, 6, 7t Albany River (Canada), 98 Albert Canal (Belgium), 52, 53 Albert Nile River, 557 Geodata.book Page 638 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 30. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA 639 Index Albert Peak (DROC), 130 Alberta plain (Canada), 100 Ålborg Bay (Denmark), 154 Al-Burghsth (Syria), 523 Aldabra Group. See Groupe d’Aldabra Atoll (Seychelles) Aldan River (Russia), 454 Aldeyjarfoss (Iceland), 240 Alegranza Island (Spain), 500 Alentejo (Portugal), 441–442, 443 Aleppo (Syria), 524 Aletsch Glacier (Switzerland), 518 Aleutian Islands (United States), 573, 579 Aleutian Range (United States), 574 Aleutian Trench (United States), 573 Alexander Archipelago (United States), 577 Alexander Bay (South Africa), 496 Alexander Island (Antarctica), 20 Algarve (Portugal), 440 Algeria, 7–11, 9, 11t Al-Ghazal River (Sudan), 508 Algoa Bay (South Africa), 496 Al-Hajar Mountains (Oman), 408, 409 Al-Hasa (Saudi Arabia), 472, 473 Al-Hufu˘f (Saudi Arabia), 473 Al-Huqf Depression (Oman), 409 Al-Hursj Al-Aswad Hills (Libya), 316 Aliákman River (Greece), 212 Alice Springs (Australia), 35 Al-Jabal (Sudan), 508 Al-Jafr Basin (Jordan), 283 Al-Jazjrah. See Mesopotamia Al-Khawr (Qatar), 446 Al-Kufrah (Libya), 318 “Allah’s minesweepers,” 3 Allegheny Mountains (United States), 573–574 Allgäuer Mountains (Germany), 202 Allier River (France), 191 Al-Ljtanj River (Lebanon), 310 Almaty (Kazakhstan), 287 Al-Mudawwarah Desert (Jordan), 283 Alofi (Niue), 394 Alpheus River (Greece), 212 Alpine Foothills (Germany), 204 Alpine-Himalayan Mountains, 546 Alps Austrian, 36, 487 Bavarian, 202 Bernese, 518 Carnic, 36, 269–270 Dinaric, 69, 142, 487, 602, 604 French, 190 Glarus, 518 Italian, 269–270 Japanese, 276 Julian, 270, 487 Lepontine, 518 North Albanian, 602 Pennine, 518 Rhaetian, 518 Swiss, 517–521 Transylvanian, 448, 449, 602, 604 Al-qash. See Mareb River Alqueva Reservoir (Portugal), 442 Altai Shan, 116, 284, 363–364, 453 Altay Shan. See Altai Shan Altiplano (Bolivia), 66–67 Al-Wakrah (Qatar), 446, 447 Al-Wusta (Oman), 409 Alzette River (Luxembourg), 323, 324 Al-Zubayr Canal (Iraq), 261 Amadjuak Lake (Canada), 97 Amakusa Island (Japan), 279 Amatique Bay (Guatemala), 221 Amazon rainforests Bolivia, 67 Brazil, 77 Ecuador, 166–167 See also Tropical rainforests Amazon River, 73, 74–76, 77, 124, 428–430 Ambae (Vanuatu), 587 Ambergris Cay (Belize), 56 Ambergris Cay Island (Turks and Caicos Islands), 553 Ambohitra Mountains (Madagascar), 327–328 Ambolesi National Park (Kenya), 290 Ambon (Indonesia), 252 Amboseli National Park (Kenya), 291 Ambrim Island (Vanuatu), 587 Ameland Island (The Netherlands), 388 American Samoa (United States), 571, 577–578 Amerrique Mountains (Nicaragua), 395 Amery Ice Shelf (Antarctica), 19, 21 Amindivi Islands (India), 246 Amirante Isles. See Les Amirantes (Seychelles) Ammer Lake (Germany), 204 Amo Chhu (Bhutan), 63 Amour Mountains (Algeria), 8 Ampangalana Canal (Madagascar), 329 Ampasindava Bay (Madagascar), 329 Amsterdam Island (France), 192 Amsterdam-Rhine River Canal (The Netherlands), 388 Amu Dar’ya River, 3, 528, 550–551, 583–586 Amu River. See Amu Dar’ya River Amu-Bukhara canal (Uzbekistan), 585 Amundsen, Roald, 20 Amundsen Gulf (Canada), 99 Amundsen Sea (Antarctica), 20 Amundsen-Scott (Antarctica), 21 Amur River, 118, 454 An Nupayrjyah Mountains (Syria), 521, 523 Anáfi (Greece), 213 Anai Peak (India), 243 Anai Valley gorge (Indonesia), 250 Anatolia (Turkey), 548–549 Anatolian Plateau (Turkey), 546–547 Andalusian Mountains. See Baetic Cordillera Mountains (Spain) Andalusian Plain (Spain), 501 Andaman Islands (India), 246 Andaman Sea, 335 Andean region (Argentina), 24, 27 Andean spurs, 112 Andes Mountains, 24, 65–66, 111, 112, 164, 589–590 Peru, 428 Andorra, 11, 11–12, 12t Andrews, Roy Chapman, 364 Andringitra Massif (Madagascar), 327 Andros (Greece), 213 Andros Island (The Bahamas), 42 Androy Plateau (Madagascar), 328 Anegada Island (British Virgin Islands), 79 Anegada Passage (British Virgin Islands), 79 Aneityum (Vanuatu), 587 Angara River (Russia), 454 Angaur Island (Palau), 416 Angel, Jimmie, 591 Ángel de la Guarda (Mexico), 355 Angel Falls (Venezuela), 591 Ångerman River (Sweden), 515 Anglo-French Condominium of the New Hebrides. See Vanuatu Angola, 12–16, 14, 15t Angonia Highlands (Mozambique), 370, 372 Anguilla, 16, 16–17, 568 Animal habitats, 385 Angola, 13 Belarus, 51 Belize, 57 Botswana, 72 Brunei, 80 Burkina Faso, 86 Colombia, 124 Côte d’Ivoire, 141 El Salvador, 173 Estonia, 180 France, 192 in Iberá, Argentina, 26 Iceland, 240 Kyrgyzstan, 304 Latvia, 309 Moldova, 361 Nicaragua, 396 Oman, 409 Saint Kitts and Nevis, 461 Samoa, 467 Saudi Arabia, 473 Somalia, 493–494 South Africa, 496 Tajikistan, 528 Tanzania, 530–531 Venezuela, 592–593 Vietnam, 594, 597 Yemen, 601 Zambia, 606, 608 See also Marine mammals; Wildlife habi- tats; specific animals Aniwa (Vanuatu), 587 Anjou (France), 194 Anjouan (Comoros), 127 Anju Plain (DPRK), 296 Ankara (Turkey), 547–549 Ankaratra Massif (Madagascar), 327, 329 Ankaratra Plateau (Madagascar), 328 Ankobra River (Ghana), 208 Ankole District (Uganda), 556 An-Nabj Shu’ayb (Yemen), 599 Annabón (Equatorial Guinea), 174–175 An-Nafu˘d Desert (Saudi Arabia), 472, 475 Annamese Cordillera, 305, 594–595 Annapurna (Nepal), 384 Antanarivo (Madagascar), 330 Antarctic Circle, 21 Antarctic Circumpolar Current, 20 Antarctic Convergence, 20 Antarctic Current. See Benguela Current Antarctic Lands. See Southern and Antarctic Lands (France) Antarctic Peninsula, 18, 19, 21 Geodata.book Page 639 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 31. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA640 Antarctic Treaty, 18 Antarctica, 17–22, 18, 391 Anti-Apennines (Italy), 271, 273 Anti-Atlas Mountains (Morocco), 369 Anticosti Island (Canada), 99 Antigua and Barbuda, 22–23, 23, 23t Anti-Lebanon Mountains, 310, 521–523 Antongil Bay (Madagascar), 329 Antsiranana Bay (Madagascar), 329 Anuta Island (Solomon Islands), 489 Anzali Mordab (Iran), 257 Aozou Strip (Chad), 111 Apa River (Paraguay), 426 Apaporis River (Colombia), 124 Apennines, 269, 270–271 Apere River (Bolivia), 66 Apia (Samoa), 466–468 Apolima Island (Samoa), 466–467 Appalachian Chain (Canada), 97 Appalachian Mountains (United States), 571, 573–574, 576, 579–580 Appalachian Plateaus (United States), 571, 574 Approuague River (French Guiana), 195 Apulia (Italy), 272 Apure River (Venezuela), 591–592, 593 Apurímac River (Peru), 430 Apuseni Mountains (Romania), 449 Aqsu-Zhabaghly Nature Reserve (Kazakhstan), 284 Aquidaban River (Paraguay), 426 Aquitaine (France), 194 Ar Rahad River (Sudan), 508 Ar Rayyan (Qatar), 447 Arabat Spit (Ukraine), 561 Arabian Desert (Egypt), 167, 168, 170 Arabian Gulf. See Persian Gulf Arabian Oryx Reserve (Oman), 409 Arabian Peninsula, 472–473 Arabian Plateau, 599 Arabian Tectonic Plate Eritrea, 176 Iran, 255 Israel, 266 Jordan, 281 Kuwait, 300 Lebanon, 310 Pakistan, 411 Qatar, 446 Saudi Arabia, 472–474 United Arab Emirates, 562 Arafura Sea, 251, 252 Aragats Lerr. See Mount Aragats (Armenia) Arakan Mountains (Myanmar), 375 Arakan Yoma Range (India), 244 Árakhthos River (Greece), 212 Araks River. See Aras River Aral Sea, 584 Kazakhstan, 286 Aran Islands (Ireland), 263 Aras River, 28, 29, 40 Arauca River, 124, 591 Arava (Israel), 268 Aravali Range (India), 244 Arboletes (Colombia), 124 Arbuka Island (Estonia), 180 Archaeology Malaysia, 334 Mongolia, 364 Nigeria, 402 Peru, 430 Archipiélago de Camagüey, 146 Archipiélago de los Canarreos, 146 Archipiélago de los Colorados, 146 Archipiélago de Sabana, 146 Archipiélago Solentiname (Nicaragua), 396 Arctic Archipelago (Canada), 95–96, 99 Arctic Circle, 214–215, 578 Arctic Institute of North America (Canada), 97 Arctic islands, 455 Arctic Ocean, 455 Arctic Slope (United States), 573 Arda River (Bulgaria), 83 Ardennes highlands (Belgium), 52, 54 Ardennes Plateau (France), 190–191 Ardennes region (Luxembourg), 323 Areicas (Guinea-Bissau), 225 Arenal volcano (Costa Rica), 136 Argentina, 23–27, 25, 27t Argep River (Romania), 449 Arghandab River (Afghanistan), 3 Argun River (Russia), 454 Arhus Bay (Denmark), 154 Ari Atoll (Maldives), 338 Arial Khan (Bangladesh), 46 Arizona (United States), 579 Arkananía (Greece), 211 Arkansas (United States), 573 Arkansas River (United States), 576 Arlberg Pass (Austria), 36 Armenia, 28, 28–29, 29t Armenian Plateau, 28, 29 Armorican Massif (France), 191 “Arms of Gold.” See Bras d’Or Lake (Canada) Árnessýsla (Iceland), 238 Arno River (Italy), 271, 272, 273 Arosa Estuary (Spain), 501 Arquipélago dos Bijagós (Guinea-Bissau), 225 Arran (United Kingdom), 566, 568 Ar-Razzazah (Iraq), 259 Artibonite Plain (Haiti), 231–232 Artibonite River (Haiti), 230, 231–232 Artibonito River (Dominican Republic), 160 Aru Islands (Indonesia), 252 Aruba, 29–31, 30, 390 Arun River (Nepal), 385 Arunachal Pradesh (India), 247 Aruvi Aru River (Sri Lanka), 503–504 Aruwimi River (DROC), 131 Asan Bay (Korea, Republic of), 298 Asau (Samoa), 467 Ascension (United Kingdom), 568 Ash Shariqah (United Arab Emirates), 562–563 Ashanti Uplands (Ghana), 207–208 Ashmore Island (Australia), 31, 34 Ashqelon-Ashdod (Israel), 268 Ash-Shaqaya Peak (Kuwait), 300 ‘Asir Mountains (Saudi Arabia), 472–473, 475 Ašmena Highland (Lithuania), 320 Asphalt in Trinidad and Tobago, 542 As-Summan Plateau (Saudi Arabia), 472 Astana (Kazakhstan), 288 Astola (Pakistan), 413 Astrolabe Bay (Papua New Guinea), 422 Asunción (Paraguay), 425, 427 Asveja Lake (Lithuania), 320 Aswa River (Uganda), 557 Aswan Dam, 508 Aswan High Dam, 168 Atacama Desert, 112, 114, 431 Atacama Plateau (Argentina), 25 Atakora Mountains (Benin), 58 Atar (Mauritania), 348 Atatürk Reservoir (Turkey), 548 Atauro Island (East Timor), 163 Atbara River, 182, 506, 508–509 Atetsu Plateau (Japan), 277 Athabasca River (Canada), 98 Atlantic Lowlands (Colombia), 124, 125 Atlantic Lowlands (Nicaragua), 395–398 Atlantic provinces (Canada), 96 Atlantic Right Whale, 26 Atlas Mountains, 8, 367, 368–369, 543 Atoll de Cosmoldeo (Seychelles), 479–480 Atoll de Farhuhar (Seychelles), 480 Atoll Island (United States), 577 Atrai River (Bangladesh), 46 Ätran River (Sweden), 515 Atrato River (Colombia), 124 Atrato swamp (Colombia), 124 Atrek River, 256, 550 Attersee (Austria), 37 Attica (Greece), 211, 213 Attock Gorge (Pakistan), 413 Atuel River (Argentina), 26 Atyras (Kazakhstan), 286–287 Auckland (New Zealand), 393, 394 Aunuu Island (United States), 578 Ausa River (San Marino), 469 Australia, 31–35, 32, 35t Australian Alps, 32 Australian Antarctic Territory, 31 Australian Capital Territory, 31 Australian Tectonic Plate Australia, 31 Fiji, 184 Indonesia, 249, 251 New Zealand, 391 Papua New Guinea, 420 Solomon Islands, 489 Austria, 36–39, 37, 38t Auyán Tepuy (Venezuela), 591 Avalanches Kyrgyzstan, 302 Switzerland, 518 Avarua (Cook Islands), 394 Aveiro Lagoon (Portugal), 442 Avenue of the Volcanoes. See Inter-Andean Lane (Ecuador) Aves Island (Venezuela), 592 Aveyron River (France), 191 Avon River (United Kingdom), 566 Awaji Island (Japan), 279 Awash River (Ethiopia), 182 Axar Fjord (Iceland), 241 Ayapel Mountains (Colombia), 122 Aydin Mountains (Turkey), 546 Ayers Rock. See Uluru Rock (Australia) Ayeyarwady River. See Irrawaddy River (Myanmar) Ayrag Nuur Lake (Mongolia), 365 Az Zawr (Kuwait), 300 Geodata.book Page 640 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 32. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA 641 Index Azerbaijan, 39, 39–41, 40t Azores (Portugal), 440, 442 Azov Upland (Ukraine), 559 Azraq Oasis (Jordan), 282 Aztec Empire, 354 Azuero Peninsula (Panama), 419 Azul River (Guatemala), 221 B Ba River (Fiji), 184 Baba Mountains (Afghanistan), 2–3 Babelthuap (Palau), 415–416 Babuyan (The Philippines), 434 Bâc River (Moldova), 361 Bactiara River Canyon (Iran), 255 Badanjilin Shamo (China), 120 Badigeru Swamp (Sudan), 508 Badiyat ash Sham Plateau (Saudi Arabia), 472 Badly Beacon (Belize), 56 Baetic Cordillera Mountains (Spain), 500–501 Baffin Bay, 99, 215 Baffin Island (Canada), 99 Bafing River (Mali), 341 Bagirmi. See Chari-Baguirmi (Chad) Bah el Arab River (Sudan), 508 The Bahamas, 41–43, 42 Bahariya Oasis (Egypt), 170 Bahía de Campeche (Mexico), 355 Bahía de Monte Cristi. See Bay of Monte Cristi (Dominican Republic) Bahía de Neiba. See Bay of Neiba (Dominican Republic) Bahía de Paita (Peru), 430 Bahía de Samaná. See Bay of Samaná (Dominican Republic) Bahía de Sechura (Peru), 430 Bahktegan Lake (Iran), 256 Bahr Al-Jabal. See White Nile (Sudan) Bahr el Ghazal (Chad), 109 Bahr Salamat (Chad), 109 Bahrain, 43, 43–44, 44t Baie de Lévrier (Mauritania), 348 Baie du Marin (Martinique), 346 Baiyangdian Lake (China), 118 Baja California Peninsula (Mexico), 352–356 Bajuni Islands (Somalia), 492 Bakassi Peninsula (Cameroon), 92 Baker Island (United States), 577 Bakhuis Mountains (Suriname), 510 Bakir River (Turkey), 549 Bakony Mountains (Hungary), 235, 237–238 Bakoye River (Mali), 341 Baku (Azerbaijan), 40, 41 Bal Ghutah Oasis (Syria), 523 Balabac Strait, 335 Balbi (Papua New Guinea), 421 Balboa (Panama), 419 Balearic Islands (Spain), 500 Bali (Indonesia), 249, 252 Bali Sea, 251 Baljkh River (Syria), 522 Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria), 82, 84 Ballon de Guebwiller (France), 191 Balsam Coast. See Costa de Bálsamo (El Salvador) Balsas Depression (Mexico), 356 Balsas River (Mexico), 352, 355 Baltic Highlands (Lithuania), 320 Baltic states Estonia, 178–180 Latvia, 307–309 Lithuania, 320–322 Baltoro (Pakistan), 411 Baluchistan Plateau (Pakistan), 411–414 Bamako (Mali), 341 Bamenda Highlands (Nigeria), 402, 403 Bamingui River (Central African Republic), 105 Banaba Island (Kiribati), 292, 293 Banados del Este y Franja Costers (Uruguay), 582 Banana Bay (Saint Kitts and Nevis), 461 Banana Islands (Sierra Leone), 481 Bananal Island (Brazil), 76 Banat (Romania), 448 Banat Mountains (Romania), 449 Banc d’Arguin National Park (Mauritania), 348 Banda Sea, 251 Bandai-Asahi National Park (Japan), 278 Bandai Plateau (Japan), 277 Bandama River (Côte d’Ivoire), 139 Bandarban Hill Tract (Bangladesh), 45 Bandar-e Anzali (Iran), 257 Bandar-e Lengeh (Iran), 257 Bandar-e Torkeman Lagoon (Iran), 257 Band-e Amir (Afghanistan), 3 Bandiagara Plateau (Mali), 340 Bandon River (Ireland), 263 Bangfai River (Laos), 306 Banggi Island (Malaysia), 335 Banghiang River (Laos), 306 Bangka (Indonesia), 252 Bangkok (Thailand), 535 Bangla State (India), 242 Bangladesh, 45–48, 46, 47t, 242 Bango Faros (Gambia), 198 Bangweulu Swamp (Zambia), 607 Bani River (Mali), 341 Banjarmasin River (Indonesia), 250 Banjul (Gambia), 198–199 Bank Islands (Vanuatu), 587 Banks Island (Canada), 99 Banks Peninsula (New Zealand), 393 Bantry Bay (Ireland), 263 Bantu (Zambia), 608 Banyas River (Israel), 267 Baobab trees, Madagascar, 330 Bara Issa River (Mali), 341 Barada River (Syria), 523 Barail Range (India), 244 Baraka River, 177, 508 Barba volcano (Costa Rica), 136 Barbados, 48–49, 49, 49t Barents Island, 406 Barents Sea, 405, 455 Bargushat River (Armenia), 29 Barisan Mountains (Indonesia), 249 Barito River (Indonesia), 251 Barlavento (Cape Verde), 102 Barlett Deep (Cayman Islands), 104 Baro River (Ethiopia), 182 Barra (Mozambique), 373 Barranca del Cobre (Mexico), 354 Barrancas. See Canyons Barrier Dam (The Netherlands), 388 Barrier reefs Belize, 56 Martinique, 346 Mexico, 355 Micronesia, 358, 359 Palau, 416 Turks and Caicos Islands, 552–553 See also Coral reefs Barro Colorado wildlife refuge (Panama), 418 Barrow River (Ireland), 263 Bartlett Trough, 146, 274 Basalt Desert. See Black Desert Basawakkulan Reservoir (Sri Lanka), 503 Basel (Switzerland), 519–520 Basilan (The Philippines), 435 Bass Strait (Australia), 33, 34 Bassas da India (France), 192 Basse-Terre island (Guadeloupe), 218–219 Bassenthwaite Lake (England), 566 Basseterre (Saint Kitts and Nevis), 461 Bassin Blanc (Mauritius), 351 Bataan Peninsula (The Philippines), 435 Batan (The Philippines), 434 Batanghari River (Indonesia), 251 Batéké Plateau (Republic of the Congo), 134 Batinah Plain (Oman), 409 Bathurst Island (Australia), 34 Batinah Coast (United Arab Emirates), 563 Batticaloa (Sri Lanka), 503 Batumi (Georgia), 201, 202 Baucau (East Timor), 162 Baulai River (Bangladesh), 46 Bauxite Guinea, 224 Guyana, 229 Jamaica, 275 Bavaria (Germany), 204 Bavarian Alps, 202 Bavarian Forest (Germany), 206 Bay Islands. See Islas de la Bahía (Honduras) Bay of Bengal, 47, 245, 376 Bay of Kotor (Yugoslavia), 604 Bay of Monte Cristi (Dominican Republic), 160 Bay of Neiba (Dominican Republic), 159, 160 Bay of Plenty (New Zealand), 393, 394 Bay of Port-au-Prince (Haiti), 231 Bay of Samaná (Dominican Republic), 160 Bay of Wrecks (Kiribati), 293 Bayan Mountains (Afghanistan), 3 Bayanzag Canyon (Mongolia), 364 Bays. See names of specific bays Bazardyuze (Azerbaijan), 40 Bazaruto Archipelago (Mozambique), 373 Bazaruto Island (Mozambique), 373 Beaches Anguilla, 16 Antigua, 22 Argentina, 26 Aruba, 30 Australia, 34 The Bahamas, 42 Bahrain, 44 Bangladesh, 47 Barbados, 49 Geodata.book Page 641 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 33. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA642 Barbuda, 22 Belgium, 54 Belize, 56 Bermuda, 61 Brazil, 76 British Virgin Islands, 79 Bulgaria, 83 Cameroon, 94 Cape Verde, 102 Cayman Islands, 104 Comoros, 127 Costa Rica, 137 Cuba, 146–147 Cyprus, 149 Djibouti, 156 Dominican Republic, 160 East Timor, 163 Egypt, 169 El Salvador, 172–173 Eritrea, 177 Fiji, 185 France, 192 French Guiana, 195 Gambia, 198, 199 Greece, 213 Grenada, 217 Iceland, 241 Indonesia, 252 Iran, 257 Ireland, 263, 264 Italy, 272 Jamaica, 275 Japan, 279 Jordan, 283 Kenya, 291 Latvia, 309 Libya, 316 Madagascar, 329 Malaysia, 335 Maldives, 338 Malta, 343 Martinique, 346, 347 Mauritius, 351 Mexico, 355, 357 Monaco, 362 Mozambique, 373 Nauru, 381, 382 Pakistan, 413 Palau, 416 Puerto Rico, 445 Romania, 450 Saint Kitts and Nevis, 461 Saint Lucia, 463 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, 464 Samoa, 467 São Tomé and Príncipe, 471 Seychelles, 479 Slovenia, 488 Somalia, 492–493 South Africa, 496 Spain, 501 Sri Lanka, 504 Tanzania, 532 Togo, 538 Tonga, 539 Trinidad and Tobago, 541–542 Turkey, 548 Turks and Caicos Islands, 553 United States, 578 Vanuatu, 587 Venezuela, 592 Yemen, 600–601 Yugoslavia, 604 Beachy Head (United Kingdom), 569 Beardmore Glacier (Antarctica), 19 Beas River, 244, 413 Beata Island (Dominican Republic), 160 Beau Bassin/Rose Hill (Mauritius), 351 Beaufort Sea (Canada), 99 Beerenberg volcano (Norway), 407 Beeshazar Tal (Nepal), 385 Bei Heng Shan (China), 117 Bei River (China), 118 Beirut (Lebanon), 311 Beitbridge (Zimbabwe), 610 Bejaï Plain (Algeria), 10 Bekáa Valley (Lebanon), 310, 311 Bekambeushi-shitsugen (Japan), 278 Belait District (Brunei), 80 Belait River (Brunei), 80 Belarus, 50, 50–52, 51t Belau. See Palau Belém (Brazil), 76 Belgian Lorraine, 52 Belgium, 52–55, 53, 54t Belian Cave (Slovakia), 485 Belitung (Indonesia), 252 Belize, 55, 55–57, 57t Belize Barrier Reef, 56 Belize River, 55–57, 221 Belle Sound (Turks and Caicos Islands), 553 Belle-Île-En-Mer (France), 192 Bellevue de l’Inini (French Guiana), 195 Bellingshausen, Fabian von, 20 Bellingshausen Sea (Antarctica), 20 Bellona Island (Solomon Islands), 489 Bell’s Beach (Australia), 34 Belorussian Ridge (Belarus), 50 Belovezhskaya Pushcha Reserve (Belarus), 51 Belvedere Park (Vatican City), 588 Ben Nevis (Scotland), 566 Benelux countries Belgium, 52–55 Luxembourg, 322–324 The Netherlands, 386–389 Bengal tigers, 245 Benghazi (Libya), 316 Benguela Current, 14–15, 134–135, 197, 379 Benguerra Island (Mozambique), 373 Beni River (Bolivia), 66 Benin, 57–59, 58, 59t “Benin window,” 59 Bénoué River (Cameroon), 94 Bentley Subglacial Trench (Antarctica), 19 Benue River (Nigeria), 401, 402–403 Bequia Island (Saint Vincent and the Grenadines), 464 Berbak National Park (Indonesia), 251 Berbice River (Guyana), 227–228, 229 Berchtesgaden (Germany), 202 Berezina River, 50–51, 560 Bergslagen (Sweden), 517 Bering Coast Uplands (United States), 573 Bering Sea, 455 Bering Strait, 455 Berkner Island (Antarctica), 20 Berlin (Germany), 206 Berlin Wall, 206 Bermejito River (Argentina), 26 Bermejo River (Argentina), 26 Bermuda, 59–61, 60, 61t, 568 Bermuda Triangle, 60 Bernese Alps (Switzerland), 518 Beskid Mountains, 485 Betanza Estuary (Spain), 501 Betpaqdala (Kazakhstan), 287 Betruit (Malaysia), 335 Betsiboka River (Madagascar), 329 Bette Peak. See Bjkks Bjttj (Libya) Bhanrer Hills (India), 244 Bhubanswar. See Arial Khan (Bangladesh) Bhumiphol Reservoir (Thailand), 534 Bhutan, 61–64, 62 Bicol Peninsula (The Philippines), 433 Bié Plateau (Angola), 13 Bíelé Karpaty Mountains, 485 Big Sand Cay Island (Turks and Caicos Islands), 553 Bighorn Range (United States), 573 Bighorn River (United States), 576 Bight of Benin, 58, 403 Bight of Biafra, 175, 403 Bihor Mountains (Romania), 448–449 Bikini Atoll (Marshall Islands), 344, 345 Bjkks Bjttj (Libya), 316, 318 Bilauktaung Range (Thailand), 533–534 Bíle Karpaty Mountains (Czech Republic), 151 Biltine highland (Chad), 108 Bilugyun Island (Myanmar), 376 Binacka Morava River (Macedonia), 326 Bintimani. See Mount Loma Mansa (Sierra Leone) Bío-Bío River (Chile), 113 Biosphere Reserve of the Upper Orinoco- Casiquiare (Venezuela), 593 Biosphere reserves El Salvador, 173 Nicaragua, 398 Sri Lanka, 504 Uruguay, 582 Venezuela, 593 Bir Maqsur (Yemen), 599 Bird Island (South Africa), 496 Birds, 341, 385 Argentina, 26 Belize, 56 India, 245 Iran, 257 Ireland, 263, 264 Mauritania, 348 Namibia, 379 The Netherlands, 388 New Zealand, 393 Oman, 409 Pakistan, 413 Panama, 418 Papua New Guinea, 421, 423 The Philippines, 434 Sierre Leone, 482 Sri Lanka, 504 Thailand, 534–535 Geodata.book Page 642 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 34. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA 643 Index Turkey, 548 Venezuela, 592–593 Zambia, 606–607 Bird’s Head Peninsula (Indonesia), 252 Birket Qarsn (Egypt), 169 Birkirkara (Malta), 343 Birth control, Albania, 7 Bishkek (Kyrgyzstan), 304 Bismarck Archipelago (Papua New Guinea), 422 Bismarck Range (Papua New Guinea), 420 Bismarck Sea, 422 Bissau (Guinea-Bissau), 225–226 Bitterroot Range (United States), 573 Biu Plateau (Nigeria), 402 Black Desert, 283 Black Forest (Germany), 204, 206 Black Hills (United States), 571, 575 Black Mountain Range (Bhutan), 62 Black Mountains (Wales), 566 Black River (Jamaica), 274 Black River (Vietnam), 595 Black River Range (Mauritius), 350–351 Black Volta River, 84–85, 208 Blacksod Bay (Ireland), 263 Blackwater River (Ireland), 263 Blanca Bay (Argentina), 26 Blantyre (Malawi), 331, 333 Bloemfontein (South Africa), 498 Blue Hills (Turks and Caicos Islands), 552 Blue Lagoon (Malta), 343 Blue Lagoon (Nauru). See Buada Lagoon (Nauru) Blue Mountain Peak (Jamaica), 274 Blue Mountains (DROC), 130 Blue Mountains (Jamaica), 274, 275 Blue Nile River, 182, 506–509 Blue poppies, Bhutan, 63 Blue Ridge Mountains (United States), 571, 573–574 Blue Stack Mountains (Ireland), 262 The Bluff (Cayman Islands), 103 Bo Hai (China), 119 Boa Vista (Cape Verde), 102 Boaz Island (Bermuda), 60 Bobotov Kuk (Yugoslavia), 602 Boby Peak (Madagascar), 327 Bocas del Toro Archipelago (Panama), 418, 419 Bodele Depression (Chad), 110 Bodensee. See Lake Constance Boeotia (Greece), 211 Bogdaš (Yugoslavia), 602 Boggy Peak (Antigua), 22 Bogland. See Wetlands Bohemia (Czech Republic), 150–152 Bohemian Forest, 151, 206 Bohemian highlands (Austria), 36, 37 Bohemian-Moravian highlands (Czech Republic), 151 Bohol (The Philippines), 433, 434 Boiling Lake (Dominica), 157, 158 Bojana River (Yugoslavia), 604 Bokn Fjord (Norway), 407 Bolama (Guinea-Bissau), 225 Bolívar Peak (Venezuela), 590 Bolivia, 64–68, 65, 68t Bolovens Plateau (Laos), 305, 306 Boma National Park (Sudan), 508 Boma Plateau (Sudan), 507 Bombay. See Mumbai (India) Bombetoka Bay (Madagascar), 329 Bombom Island (São Tomé and Príncipe), 471 Bon Pays. See Gutland (Luxembourg) Bonaire (Netherlands Antilles), 390 Bondi Beach (Australia), 34 Bondoc Peninsula (The Philippines), 435 Bone Gulf, 252 Bong Range (Liberia), 314 Bongo Mountains (Central African Republic), 105 Bonin Islands (Japan), 279 Bonthe (Sierra Leone), 481 Booby Island (Saint Kitts and Nevis), 461 Book of Revelation (St. John), 213 Boon Tsagaan Lake (Mongolia), 365 Border disputes. See Territorial disputes Boreal forests, Canada, 100 Borena plain (Ethiopia), 183 Borgo Maggiore (San Marino), 469 Borneo, 248, 252, 333–336 Bornholm Island (Denmark), 154 Bosawás Biosphere Reserve (Nicaragua), 398 Boshavica River (Macedonia), 325 Bosna River (Bosnia and Herzegovina), 69 Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBH), 68–70, 69, 70t Bmsm Peninsula (Japan), 279 Bosque El Imposible (El Salvador), 173–174 Boston (United States), 578 Botanical medicines. See Medicinal plants Boteti River (Botswana), 72 Botev (Bulgaria), 82 Bothnian Coast (Sweden), 516 Botswana, 70–73, 71, 72t Bougainville (Papua New Guinea), 422, 423 Boundary disputes. See Territorial disputes Bouregreg River (Morocco), 369 Bournemouth (England), 570 Bouvet Island (Norway), 407 Boyacá plateau (Colombia), 123 Boyne River (Ireland), 263 Boyoma Falls (DROC), 131 Brac Island (Croatia), 143 Bradano River (Italy), 271 Brahmaputra River, 45, 46, 63, 244, 245 Brakna (Mauritania), 348 Bran Castle (Romania), 449 Branco River (Brazil), 74 Brandberg Massif (Namibia), 378 Branfield Rift (Antarctica), 21 Brantas River (Indonesia), 251 Bras d’Or Lake (Canada), 98 Brassey Range (Malaysia), 334 Bratislava (Slovakia), 485 Bratsk Reservoir (Russia), 454 Brava (Cape Verde), 102 Brazil, 73–78, 75, 77t Brazilian Highlands, 73–74 Breaksea Sound (New Zealand), 393 Brecon Beacons (Wales), 566 Bregalnica River (Macedonia), 326 Breidamerkurjökull (Iceland), 240 Breidha Fjord (Iceland), 241 Brenner Pass, 36 Bridgetown (Barbados), 49 Brienzersee (Switzerland), 519 Brindisi (Italy), 272 Brisbane (Australia), 35 Bristol Bay (United States), 578 Bristol Channel (United Kingdom), 569 Britain. See Great Britain (United Kingdom) British Honduras. See Belize British Indian Ocean Territory (United Kingdom), 568 British Isles (United Kingdom), 564, 567–568 British Virgin Islands, 78–80, 79, 568 Brittany (France), 192 Brocken Peak (Germany), 204 Brooks Range (United States), 574 Brothers Islands (Yemen), 600 Brugge-Zeebrugge Canal (Belgium), 53 Brunei, 80–81, 81, 81t, 248 Brunei Bay, 336 Brunei River (Brunei), 80 Brussels (Belgium), 52 Bryce Canyon (United States), 575 Bsharrj (Lebanon), 311 Buada Lagoon (Nauru), 382 Bubaque (Guinea-Bissau), 225 Bsbiyan (Kuwait), 301 Buccoo Reef (Trinidad and Tobago), 541 Bucharest (Romania), 450 Budapest (Hungary), 236–237, 238 Buddhism, sacred mountain peaks, 117 Buenaventura (Colombia), 125 Buenë River (Albania), 6 Buenos Aires (Argentina), 26, 27 Bug River, 51, 438, 559–561 Bugti Hills (Pakistan), 412 Buhayrat al Assad. See Lake Al-Asad (Syria) Buir Lake (Mongolia), 365 Buka (Papua New Guinea), 422 Bukidnon-Lanao Plateau (The Philippines), 433, 434, 435 Bukit Timah Nature Reserve (Singapore), 484 Bukovina (Romania), 450 Bulawayo (Zimbabwe), 611 Bulgan River (Mongolia), 365 Bulgaria, 82–84, 83, 84t Bumtang River (Bhutan), 63 Bundala National Park (Sri Lanka), 504 Bung Khong Long (Thailand), 535 Bung Nong Han (Thailand), 534 Bur Sudan. See Port Sudan (Sudan) Buraydah (Saudi Arabia), 473 Burgaski Zaliv (Bulgaria), 83 Buri Peninsula (Eritrea), 177 Burica Peninsula (Panama), 419 Burkina Faso, 84–86, 85, 86t Burma. See Myanmar Burnt Island. See Islas Quemadas (El Salvador) Burnt Mountain (Namibia), 379 The Burren (Ireland), 264 Bursa (Turkey), 547 Buru (Indonesia), 252 Burundi, 86–89, 87, 88t Buruntuma (Guinea-Bissau), 225 Busanga Swamp (Zambia), 607 Bush Cay Island (Turks and Caicos Islands), 553 Bsshehr (Iran), 257 Bsshehr Bay, 257 Geodata.book Page 643 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 35. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA644 Bushveld (South Africa), 494–495 Buško Blato (Bosnia and Herzegovina), 69 Buttermere Lake (England), 566 Butuan Bay, 435 Buurgplaatz (Luxembourg), 323 Büyükmenderes River (Turkey), 548 Buyyk Agri Dagi. See Mount Ararat (Turkey) Búzi River (Mozambique), 372 C Ca Mau Peninsula. See Mui Bai Bung (Vietnam) Cabeza de Duende (El Salvador), 172 Cabina (Angola), 13 Cablake (East Timor), 162 Cabo de Gata. See Cape Gata (Spain) Cabo de la Nao. See Cape Nao (Spain) Cabo de Sines (Portugal), 442 Cabot Strait (Canada), 99 Cabrera Island (Spain), 500 Cacheu River (Guinea-Bissau), 225 Cacine River (Guinea-Bissau), 225 Cagayan River (The Philippines), 433, 434 Cagayan Valley (The Philippines), 435 Caha Mountains (Ireland), 262 Cahora Bassa Dam (Mozambique), 372, 374 Caicos Passage, 41–42, 553 Caille Island (Grenada), 217 Cairngorm Mountains (Scotland), 566 Cairngorm Plateau (Scotland), 566 Cajone Cays (Honduras), 233 Calabria Peninsula (Italy), 271, 272 Calabrian-Sicilian earthquake (Italy), 269 Calalien Pass (Marshall Islands), 344 Calamian Group (The Philippines), 434 Calcutta. See Kolkata (India) Caledon River (Lesotho), 312 Caledonian Canal (Scotland), 567 Cali (Colombia), 122 California (United States), 578, 579 Callejón Interandino. See Inter-Andean Lane (Ecuador) Calving, icebergs and, 20 Camargue (France), 192 Camayenne Peninsula (Guinea), 224 Cambembe Dam (Angola), 14 Cambodia, 89–92, 90, 91t Cambrian Mountains (Wales), 564, 566 Cameron Highlands (Malaysia), 334 Cameroon, 92–95, 93, 95t Cameroon Mountains, 92 Cameroun. See Cameroon Cammon Plateau (Laos), 305, 306 Camotes Sea, 434 Campania (Italy), 272 Campine. See Kempenland (Belgium) Campo River (Cameroon), 94 Campobello Island (Canada), 99 Camps Bay Beach (South Africa), 496 Canada, 95–101, 96, 100t Canada Basin, 99 Canadian River (United States), 576 Canadian Rockies, 96–97 Canadian Shield, 96–100, 573 Canaima (Venezuela), 591 Canaima National Park (Venezuela), 592–593 Canal du Midi (France), 192 Canal du Nivernais (France), 192 Canals Belarus, 51 Belgium, 53 China, 119 Egypt, 169–170 France, 192 Germany, 205 Iran, 255 Kazakhstan, 286 Madagascar, 329 The Netherlands, 388 Panama, 417 Sri Lanka, 503 Turkmenistan, 551 United Kingdom, 566–567 Uzbekistan, 585 See also names of specific canals Canaries River (Saint Lucia), 462 Canary Islands (Spain), 500 Cancún (Mexico), 355 Candaba Swamp (The Philippines), 434 Canelles River (Saint Lucia), 462 Cango Caves (South Africa), 495 Cañon del Colca (Peru), 428 Cañon del Cotahuasi (Peru), 428 Canouan Island (Saint Vincent and the Grenadines), 464 Cantabrian Mountains (Spain), 441, 499–501 Canterbury Bight (New Zealand), 393 Canterbury Plains (New Zealand), 391, 394 Canyonlands (United States), 575 Canyons Bosnia and Herzegovina, 69 Burkina Faso, 85 China, 117 Czech Republic, 151 Ethiopia, 182 Guatemala, 220 Honduras, 233 India, 244 Indonesia, 250 Iran, 255 Japan, 278 Laos, 306 Macedonia, 325 Mexico, 354 Mongolia, 364 Myanmar, 375 Namibia, 379 Nepal, 384 Nicaragua, 396 Pakistan, 413 Panama, 417 Papua New Guinea, 421 Peru, 428 The Philippines, 433 Slovenia, 488 Somalia, 491 Sri Lanka, 503 Thailand, 534 Turkey, 547 United States, 574–575 Venezuela, 591 Yemen, 599 Yugoslavia, 602 See also names of specific canyons Cao, Diogo, 380 Cap Blanc Peninsula (Mauritania), 348 Cap Point (Saint Lucia), 463 Cap Timiris (Mauritania), 348 Cap Vert Peninsula (Senegal), 476–477 Cape Adare (Antarctica), 21 Cape Agulhas (South Africa), 496 Cape Andreas (Cyprus), 148, 149 Cape Arnauti (Cyprus), 149 Cape Belle Tete (Saint Kitts and Nevis), 461 Cape Bon (Tunisia), 543 Cape Breton Island (Canada), 99 Cape Brett (New Zealand), 393 Cape Carvoeiro (Portugal), 442 Cape Changgi (Korea, Republic of), 298 Cape Chelyuskin (Russia), 455 Cape Cod (United States), 578 Cape Codera (Venezuela), 590 Cape Comorin (India), 246 Cape Corrientes (Colombia), 125 Cape Corrientes (Mexico), 355 Cape Cross (Namibia), 380 Cape Darbat ’Alj (Oman), 410 Cape Datu (Indonesia), 252 Cape Delgado (Mozambique), 373 Cape Disappointment (United States), 578 Cape Elea (Cyprus), 149 Cape Emine (Bulgaria), 83 Cape Erimo (Japan), 279 Cape Espichel (Portugal), 442 Cape Farewell (Greenland). See Uummannarsuaq (Greenland) Cape Farewell (New Zealand), 393 Cape Francés Viejo (Dominican Republic), 160 Cape fur seals, 380 Cape Gata (Cyprus), 149 Cape Gata (Spain), 501 Cape Gracias a Dios, 234, 397 Cape Greco (Cyprus), 149 Cape Guardafui. See Ras Caseyr (Somalia) Cape Kamui (Japan), 279 Cape Kidnappers (New Zealand), 393 Cape Kormakiti (Cyprus), 149 Cape Lara (Cyprus), 149 Cape Lopez (Gabon), 197 Cape Madonna (Slovenia), 488 Cape Mesurado (Liberia), 315 Cape Moem (Papua New Guinea), 422 Cape Morris Jessup (Greenland), 215 Cape Moule à Chique (Saint Lucia), 463 Cape Mount (Liberia), 315 Cape Nag’s Head (Saint Kitts and Nevis), 461 Cape Nao (Spain), 500, 501 Cape Negrais (Myanmar), 376 Cape Nelson (Papua New Guinea), 422 Cape of Good Hope (South Africa), 496 Cape Palliser (New Zealand), 393 Cape Palmas (Liberia), 315 Cape Palos (Spain), 501 Cape Reinga (New Zealand), 393 Cape Reykjanes (Iceland), 241 Cape Ristna (Estonia), 179 Cape St. Vicente (Portugal), 442 Cape San Agustin (The Philippines), 435 Cape Santa Clara (Gabon), 197 Geodata.book Page 644 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 36. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA 645 Index Cape Santa Maria (Portugal), 442 Cape São Roque (Brazil), 76 Cape São Tomé (Brazil), 76 Cape Shiretoko-Masakai (Japan), 279 Cape Smya (Japan), 279 Cape Town (South Africa), 494, 496–498 Cape Tres Puntas (Argentina), 26 Cape Verde, 101–103, 102, 103t Cape Verga (Guinea), 224 Cape Vilanandro (Madagascar), 329 Cape Ward Hunt (Papua New Guinea), 422 Cape Wrath (United Kingdom), 569 Cape York Peninsula (Australia), 34, 35 Capernaum Valley (Israel), 266 Capri (Italy), 272 Caprivi Strip (Namibia), 377, 380 Caquetá River (Colombia), 124 Caracas (Venezuela), 590–591 Caravéla (Guinea-Bissau), 225 Caraxe (Guinea-Bissau), 225 Carbet (Martinique), 346 Carcarañá River (Argentina), 26 Cardamom. See Krâvanh Range (Cambodia) Cardigan Bay (Wales), 569 Cargados Carajos Shoals (Mauritius), 351 Caribbean Coastal Plain (Dominican Republic), 161 Caribbean Islands. See specific islands Caribbean Tectonic Plate Aruba, 30 Barbados, 48 Cayman Islands, 103 Cuba, 145 Dominica, 157 El Salvador, 171 Guadeloupe, 218 Guatemala, 219–220 Honduras, 232 Jamaica, 274 Martinique, 346 Nicaragua, 395 Panama, 417 Puerto Rico, 444 Saint Kitts and Nevis, 460 Saint Lucia, 462 Cariboo Range (Canada), 97 Carinthia (Austria), 37 Carlingford Lough (Northern Ireland), 569 Carlisle Bay (Barbados), 48 Carney Island (Antarctica), 20 Carnic Alps, 36, 269–270 Carnsore Point (Ireland), 263 Carolinas (United States), 576 Caroline Islands archipelago, 358, 415–416 Caroni Plain (Trinidad and Tobago), 542 Caroni River (Trinidad and Tobago), 541 Caroni Swamp (Trinidad and Tobago), 541 Carpathian Basin, 235–238 Carpathian Mountains, 235, 437, 447–448, 450, 559–561 Carriacou (Grenada), 217 Carson Sink (United States), 575 Carstenz Pyramid. See Puncak Jaya (Indonesia) Cartago basin (Costa Rica), 137 Carthage (Tunisia), 543 Cartier Island (Australia), 31, 34 Casablanca (Morocco), 369 Casamance River (Senegal), 476–477 Cascade Range (United States), 574 Casiquiare Channel (Venezuela), 591 Caspian Depression, 285 Caspian Sea Azerbaijan, 40 Iran, 257–258 Kazakhstan, 286–287 Russia, 453–454 wetlands, 257 Cassiar Range (Canada), 97 Castle Harbor (Bermuda), 60 Castles (administrative divisions). See Administrative divisions Castries (Saint Lucia), 463 Cat Ba Island (Vietnam), 595, 597 Cat Island (The Bahamas), 41, 42 Catalonia (Spain), 502 Cataratas Iguaçu. See Iguazú Falls Cattle ranching. See Ranching and grazing Cauca River (Colombia), 124 Cauca Valley (Colombia), 126 Caucasus Mountains (Russia), 453 Caura River (Venezuela), 592 Cauto River (Cuba), 146 Cavalla River, 139, 314 Cave paintings, El Salvador, 172 Cave Sandstone Foothills (Lesotho), 312, 313 Caves Bulgaria, 82 El Salvador, 172 Germany, 204 Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of, 295 Korea, Republic of, 298 Macedonia, 325 Malaysia, 334 Morocco, 369 Myanmar, 375 Slovakia, 485 Slovenia, 488 South Africa, 495 Cayman Bank, 104 Cayman Brac, 103–104 Cayman Islands, 103–105, 104, 104t, 568 Cayman Ridge, 103, 146, 355 Cayman Trough, 104, 355 Cayon River (Saint Kitts and Nevis), 460, 461 Cays Belize, 56 Cuba, 146–147 Jamaica, 275 See also specific cays Cébaco Island (Panama), 419 Cebu (The Philippines), 434–435 Celebes. See Sulawesi (Indonesia) Celebes Sea. See Sulawesi Sea Celtic Sea, 263 Census divisions. See Administrative divisions Central African Republic, 105–107, 106, 107t Central Alps (Italy), 269–270 Central American Cordillera, 233 Central Brahui Range (Pakistan), 412 Central Depression (Papua New Guinea), 421 Central Fiji. See Lomaiviti (Fiji) Central Highlands (Afghanistan), 1, 2 Central Highlands (Brazil), 74–75 Central Highlands (Colombia), 122, 124 Central Highlands (Nicaragua), 395–398 Central Highlands (Republic of the Congo), 134 Central Highlands (Vietnam), 594–597 Central Hindu Kush (Afghanistan), 2–3 Central Karroo. See Great Karroo Plateau (South Africa) Central Lowlands (Germany), 205 Central Lowlands (Paraguay), 424–427 Central Lowlands (Scotland), 564, 570 Central Luzon Plain (The Philippines), 434 Central Mesa. See Meseta Central (Spain) Central Mexico, 352 Central Midlands (England), 566 Central Mountains (Cuba), 145 Central Pampas (Argentina), 24, 27 Central Plains (Australia), 31, 35 Central Plateau (Haiti), 230 Central Plateau (Mexico), 352–357 Central Plateau (Rwanda), 458–459 Central Plateau (Switzerland). See Mittleland Central Plateau (Tanzania), 531 Central Range (Taiwan), 525 Central Range (Trinidad and Tobago), 541– 542 Central Siberian Plateau (Russia), 451, 454, 457 Central Suriname Wilderness Nature Reservation (Suriname), 511 Central Uplands (Germany), 203–206 Central Valley (Chile), 112–113, 114 Central Valley (United States), 574, 579 Cephalonia (Greece), 212 Ceram (Indonesia), 249, 252 Ceram Sea, 251 Cerknica (Slovenia), 488 Cerro Aconcagua (Argentina), 24 Cerro Catedral (Uruguay), 581 Cerro Colorado (Panama), 420 Cerro de Punta (Puerto Rico), 444 Cerro del Aripo. See Mount Aripo (Trinidad and Tobago) Cerro El Pital (El Salvador), 172 Cerro Fitz Roy (Argentina), 25 Cerro Jyamy (Peru), 428 Cerro Las Minas (Honduras), 233 Cerro Mercedario (Argentina), 24 Cerro Pináculo (Argentina), 25 Cerro Torre (Argentina), 25 Cerro Verde National Park (El Salvador), 172 Cestos River (Liberia), 314 Ceuta, 368, 499 Ceyhan River (Turkey), 548 Chaabahar Bay (Iran), 257 Chacachacare Island (Trinidad and Tobago), 541 Chaco Boreal. See Chaco region Chaco region, 27, 424–427 Chad, 107–111, 109, 110t Chaem River (Thailand), 534 Chaeryo˘ng Plain (DPRK), 296 Chagai Hills (Pakistan), 412 Chagos Archipelago (United Kingdom), 568 Chagres River (Panama), 418 Chaillu Massif (Gabon), 196 Chaine de Mateaux (Haiti), 230 Chalbi Desert (Kenya), 291 Geodata.book Page 645 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 37. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA646 Chalcidice Peninsula (Greece), 212, 213 Chalkidhiki Peninsula. See Chalcidice Peninsula (Greece) Chalky Inlet (New Zealand), 393 Chambri Lakes (Papua New Guinea), 421–422 Chamelecón River (Honduras), 233 Chang Jiang River (China), 117, 118, 119 Changane River (Mozambique), 372 Changbai Shan (China), 117 Changjin River (DPRK), 295 Changsan Cape (DPRK), 296 Changuinola River (Panama), 418 Channel Country (Australia), 33 Channel Islands (United Kingdom), 568 Channel Tunnel (United Kingdom), 567 Chanthaburi Range (Thailand), 534 Chao Phraya River (Thailand), 533–535 Chao Phraya Valley (Thailand), 533 Chaparé River (Bolivia), 66 Chaparral. See Grasslands Chapman’s Peak Drive (South Africa), 496 Chappal Waddi (Nigeria), 402 Charcot Island (Antarctica), 20 Chari-Baguirmi (Chad), 108 Chari River, 94, 105, 108, 109 Charleroi-Brussels Canal (Belgium), 53 Chars. See Islands Chashma Barrage (Pakistan), 413 Chatham Islands (New Zealand), 393 Chatyr-Kul (Kyrgyzstan), 303 Cheduba Island (Myanmar), 376 Cheju Do (Korea, Republic of), 297–298, 298 Cheju Island. See Cheju Do (Korea, Republic of) Cheleken Peninsula (Turkmenistan), 551 Chelif River (Algeria), 9 Chemama (Mauritania), 348 Chenab River, 244, 413 Chennai (India), 242, 245, 246 Chepo River (Panama), 418 Cherangai Hills (Kenya), 289 Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station (Ukraine), 560 Chernozem, 361 Cherrapunji (India), 246 Cherskiy Range (Russia), 453 Chesapeake Bay (United States), 577–578 Cheviot Hills (United Kingdom), 566 Chi River (Thailand), 534 Chiang Mai (Thailand), 534 Chiang Saen Lake. See Nong Bong Kai (Thailand) Chiapas (Mexico), 354 Chiapas Highlands (Mexico), 354, 356 Chibchas Indians, 126 Chicama River (Peru), 428 Chico River (Argentina), 26 Chilas-Gilgit (Pakistan), 414 Chile, 111–115, 112, 114t Chilka Lake (India), 244, 245 Chiloé Island (Chile), 113 Chiltepe peninsula (Nicaragua), 396 Chimanimani Mountains, 371 Chimborazo (Ecuador), 164 Ch’i-Mei Yü Island (Taiwan), 525 Chin Hills (Myanmar), 375 Ch’in Ling Shan. See Qinling Shandi (China) China, 115–121, 116, 120t, 121t, 242, 524 Chincha Islands (Peru), 430 Chindwin River (Myanmar), 375 Chinko River (Central African Republic), 105 Chios (Greece), 212 Chipya region, 608 Chiquimulilla Canal (Guatemala), 221 Chiquinquirá plateau (Colombia), 123 Chirac, Jacques, 223 Chiredzi (Zimbabwe), 610 Chiriquí (Panama), 417 Chiriquí Lagoon (Panama), 419 Chiriquí Viejo River (Panama), 418 Chiri-san (Korea, Republic of), 297 Chirripó Grande (Costa Rica), 136 Chisina˘u (Moldova), 360 Chitral Hills (Pakistan), 412 Chittagong (Bangladesh), 45, 47 Chobe River, 72, 379 Chocó Plug. See Tapón del Chocó (Colombia) Chocolate Hills (The Philippines), 433 Choiseul Island (Solomon Islands), 489–490 Cholistan Desert. See Thar Desert Choluteca River (Honduras), 233 Chomlungma. See Mount Everest Chomo Lhari (Bhutan), 62 Ch’o˘ngch’o˘n River (DPRK), 295 Chonos Archipelago (Chile), 113 Cho’onji Lake (DPRK), 295 Choshui River (Taiwan), 525 Chota Nagpur (India), 244 Chota Nagpur Hills (India), 244 Chott el Djerid (Tunisia), 544 Chott el Gharsa (Tunisia), 544 Chotts. See Salt lakes Christ Church ridge (Barbados), 48 Christchurch (New Zealand), 394 Christmas Island (Australia), 31, 34 Christmas Island (Kiribati). See Kiritimati Island (Kiribati) Christo Rei Beach (East Timor), 163 Chu River (Kyrgyzstan), 303 Chu Valley (Kyrgyzstan), 304 Chubu region (Japan), 279 Chubut River (Argentina), 26 Chucunaque River (Panama), 418 Chugach Mountains (United States), 574 Chugoku region (Japan), 279 Chukchi Peninsula (Russia), 455 Chukchi Sea, 455 Chsgoku Mountains (Japan), 276 Ch’unch’o˘n (Korea, Republic of), 298 Churchill River (Canada), 98 Churia Hills. See Siwalik Hills Churia Range. See Siwalik Hills Chuuk Islands (Micronesia), 358–359 Chyulu Range (Kenya), 290 Ciandra Island (Somalia), 492 Cibao Valley (Dominican Republic), 161, 231 Ciénaga de Los Olivitos (Venezuela), 592 Cimarron River (United States), 576 Ciovai Islands (Somalia), 492 “City of Ghosts.” See Phae Muang Phi (Thailand) Ciudad Bolívar (Venezuela), 591 Ciula Island (Somalia), 492 Civil war Angola, 15 Lebanon, 311 See also Wars Civitavecchia (Italy), 272 Clare Island (Ireland), 263 Clare River (Ireland), 263 Clarence River (New Zealand), 393 Clew Bay (Ireland), 263 Cliff of Angavo (Madagascar), 328 Cliff of Bongolava (Madagascar), 328 Cliffs Denmark, 154–155 France, 192 Germany, 205 Greece, 213 Madagascar, 328 Martinique, 346 Mauritius, 351 Oman, 409 Romania, 450 See also specific cliffs Clifton Beach (South Africa), 496 Climate Afghanistan, 3–4 Albania, 6 Algeria, 10 Andorra, 12 Angola, 15 Anguilla, 17 Antarctica, 21 Antigua, 22 Argentina, 26–27 Armenia, 28, 29 Aruba, 30 Australia, 34 Austria, 38 Azerbaijan, 39–40, 40 The Bahamas, 42 Bahrain, 44 Bangladesh, 47 Barbados, 49 Barbuda, 22 Belarus, 51 Belgium, 54 Belize, 56–57 Benin, 58–59 Bermuda, 61 Bhutan, 63–64 Bolivia, 67 Bosnia and Herzegovina, 70 Botswana, 72 Brazil, 76–78 British Virgin Islands, 79 Brunei, 81 Bulgaria, 83–84 Burkina Faso, 85–86 Burundi, 88 Cambodia, 90–91 Cameroon, 94 Canada, 100 Cape Verde, 102 Cayman Islands, 104 Central African Republic, 106 Chad, 110 Chile, 113–114 China, 119–120 Geodata.book Page 646 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 38. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA 647 Index Colombia, 125–126 Comoros, 127 Congo, Democratic Republic of, 132 Congo, Republic of, 135 Costa Rica, 137–138 Côte d’Ivoire, 140–141 Croatia, 143 Cuba, 147 Cyprus, 149 Czech Republic, 152 Denmark, 155 Djibouti, 156 Dominica, 158 Dominican Republic, 160–161 East Timor, 163 Ecuador, 166 Egypt, 169 El Salvador, 173 Equatorial Guinea, 175 Eritrea, 177–178 Estonia, 180 Ethiopia, 183 Fiji, 185 Finland, 188 France, 193 French Guiana, 195 Gabon, 197 Gambia, 199 Georgia, 201 Germany, 205 Ghana, 209–210 Greece, 213 Greenland, 215–216 Grenada, 217 Guadeloupe, 219 Guatemala, 221 Guinea, 224 Guinea-Bissau, 226 Guyana, 228 Haiti, 231 Honduras, 234 Hungary, 237 Iceland, 241 India, 246 Indonesia, 252 Iran, 257–258 Iraq, 261 Ireland, 264 Israel, 267 Italy, 272 Jamaica, 275 Japan, 280 Jordan, 283 Kazakhstan, 287 Kenya, 291 Kiribati, 293–294 Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of, 296 Korea, Republic of, 299 Kuwait, 301 Kyrgyzstan, 303–304 Laos, 306 Latvia, 309 Lebanon, 311 Lesotho, 313 Liberia, 315 Libya, 317 Liechtenstein, 319 Lithuania, 321 Luxembourg, 323–324 Macedonia, 326 Madagascar, 329 Malawi, 332 Malaysia, 336 Maldives, 338 Mali, 341 Malta, 343 Marshall Islands, 344–345 Martinique, 346 Mauritania, 348 Mauritius, 351 Mexico, 356 Micronesia, 359 Moldova, 361 Monaco, 362–363 Mongolia, 366 Morocco, 369 Mozambique, 373 Myanmar, 376 Namibia, 380 Nauru, 382 Nepal, 385 The Netherlands, 389 Netherlands Antilles, 390 New Zealand, 394 Nicaragua, 397 Niger, 399–400 Nigeria, 403 Norway, 407 Oman, 410 Pakistan, 413–414 Palau, 416 Panama, 419 Papua New Guinea, 422–423 Paraguay, 426 Peru, 431 The Philippines, 435 Poland, 439 Portugal, 442–443 Puerto Rico, 445 Qatar, 447 Romania, 450 Russia, 455–456 Rwanda, 459 Saint Kitts and Nevis, 461 Saint Lucia, 463 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, 464–465 Samoa, 467–468 San Marino, 469 São Tomé and Príncipe, 471 Saudi Arabia, 474–475 Senegal, 477 Seychelles, 479 Sierra Leone, 481–482 Singapore, 483–484 Slovakia, 486 Slovenia, 488 Solomon Islands, 490 Somalia, 493 South Africa, 497 Spain, 501 Sri Lanka, 504 Sudan, 508–509 Suriname, 511 Swaziland, 513 Sweden, 516 Switzerland, 519–520 Syria, 523 Taiwan, 526 Tajikistan, 528 Tanzania, 532 Thailand, 535 Togo, 538–539 Tonga, 539–540 Trinidad and Tobago, 542 Tunisia, 544 Turkey, 548–549 Turkmenistan, 551 Turks and Caicos Islands, 553 Tuvalu, 554–555 Uganda, 558 Ukraine, 561 United Arab Emirates, 563 United Kingdom, 569 United States, 578–579 Uruguay, 582 Uzbekistan, 585 Vanuatu, 587–588 Vatican City, 589 Venezuela, 592 Vietnam, 596 Virgin Islands, 598 Yemen, 601 Yugoslavia, 604 Zambia, 607–608 Zimbabwe, 610–611 Cloud forests. See Forests Clutha River (New Zealand), 393 Clyde River (Dominica), 157 Coal Bangladesh, 48 Belgium, 54–55 Czech Republic, 152 Germany, 206 Iran, 258 Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of, 297 Korea, Republic of, 299 Mozambique, 374 Nigeria, 404 Poland, 440 Russia, 453, 457 Coast of Light. See Costa de la Luz (Spain) Coast Ranges (United States), 574 Coastal Lowlands. See Costa (Ecuador) Coasts Albania, 6 Algeria, 10 Angola, 14–15 Anguilla, 16 Antarctica, 21 Argentina, 26 Australia, 34 Azerbaijan, 40 Bahrain, 44 Bangladesh, 47 Barbados, 48–49 Barbuda, 22 Belgium, 54 Belize, 56 Benin, 58 Bermuda, 60–61 Bosnia and Herzegovina, 69 Geodata.book Page 647 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 39. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA648 Brazil, 76 Brunei, 80–81 Bulgaria, 83 Cambodia, 90 Cameroon, 94 Canada, 99 China, 119 Colombia, 125 Congo, Republic of, 134–135 Costa Rica, 137 Côte d’Ivoire, 140 Croatia, 142 Cuba, 146–147 Cyprus, 149 Denmark, 154–155 Djibouti, 156 Dominican Republic, 160 East Timor, 163 Ecuador, 166 Egypt, 169 El Salvador, 172–173 Equatorial Guinea, 175 Estonia, 179 Fiji, 185 Finland, 188 France, 192 Gabon, 197 Gambia, 198 Georgia, 201 Germany, 205 Ghana, 208–209 Greece, 213 Greenland, 215 Grenada, 217 Guatemala, 221 Guinea, 224 Guinea-Bissau, 225–226 Guyana, 228 Haiti, 231 Honduras, 233–234 Iceland, 241 India, 246 Indonesia, 252 Iran, 257 Iraq, 261 Ireland, 263 Israel, 267 Italy, 272 Jamaica, 275 Japan, 279 Jordan, 283 Kazakhstan, 286–287 Kenya, 290–291 Kiribati, 293 Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of, 296 Korea, Republic of, 298 Kuwait, 301 Latvia, 308–309 Lebanon, 311 Liberia, 315 Libya, 316 Lithuania, 321 Madagascar, 329 Malaysia, 335–336 Martinique, 346 Mauritania, 348 Mauritius, 351 Mexico, 355–356 Micronesia, 359 Monaco, 362 Morocco, 369 Mozambique, 373 Myanmar, 376 Namibia, 380 The Netherlands, 388–389 New Zealand, 393 Nicaragua, 397 Nigeria, 403 Norway, 404, 407 Oman, 409–410 Pakistan, 413 Palau, 416 Panama, 419 Papua New Guinea, 422 Peru, 430 The Philippines, 435 Poland, 438–439 Portugal, 442 Puerto Rico, 445 Qatar, 446 Romania, 450 Russia, 455 Saint Kitts and Nevis, 461 Saint Lucia, 463 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, 464 Samoa, 467 São Tomé and Príncipe, 471 Saudi Arabia, 474 Senegal, 477 Sierra Leone, 481 Singapore, 483 Slovenia, 488 Somalia, 492–493 South Africa, 496 Spain, 501 Sri Lanka, 504 Sudan, 508 Suriname, 511 Taiwan, 525–526 Tanzania, 532 Thailand, 535 Togo, 538 Trinidad and Tobago, 541–542 Tunisia, 544 Turkey, 548 Turks and Caicos Islands, 553 Tuvalu, 554 Ukraine, 560–561 United Arab Emirates, 563 United Kingdom, 568–569 United States, 578 Uruguay, 582 Venezuela, 592 Vietnam, 596 Virgin Islands, 598 Yemen, 600–601 Yugoslavia, 604 Cobourg Peninsula (Australia), 34 Cochabamba-Santa Cruz highway (Bolivia), 68 Cochin (India), 245 Cockburn Harbor (Turks and Caicos Islands), 553 Cockburn Town (Turks and Caicos Islands), 553 Cockpit Country (Jamaica), 274 Cockscomb Mountains (Belize), 56, 57 Coco-de-mer palm, 479 Coco Island (Costa Rica), 137 Coco River (Honduras), 233 Cocos Islands (Australia), 31, 34 Cocos Tectonic Plate Costa Rica, 136 El Salvador, 171 Mexico, 352 Nicaragua, 395 Panama, 417 Codri Hills (Moldova), 360 Coetivy Island (Seychelles), 480 Coffee East Timor, 162 El Salvador, 174 Nicaragua, 395, 398 Panama, 417 Coiama Island (Somalia), 492 Coiba Island (Panama), 419 Cold Canary Current (Cape Verde), 102 Colombia, 122–126, 123, 125t Colombia Peninsula. See La Guajira Peninsula (Venezuela) Colombo (Sri Lanka), 504 Colón (Panama), 419 Colonia (Micronesia), 359 Colorado Piedmont (United States), 571 Colorado Plateau (United States), 574–576, 579 Colorado River, 355, 573–576 Colorado River (Argentina), 26 Colossus of Rhodes, 212 Columbia Plateau (United States), 574–575 Columbia River, 98, 574–575, 578 Columbus, Christopher The Bahamas and, 42 Saint Kitts and Nevis and, 460 Columbus Passage. See Turks Island Passage (Turks and Caicos Islands) Columbus Reef (Belize), 56 Coma Pedrosa Peak. See Pic de Coma Pederos (Andorra) Comeragh Mountains (Ireland), 262 Comino (Malta), 343–344 Cominotto (Malta), 343 Commerce and industry Belarus, 51 Denmark, 155 Estonia, 180 France, 194 Greece, 214 Japan, 281 Liechtenstein, 319 Luxembourg, 324 The Netherlands, 389 Russia, 457 Singapore, 484 Taiwan, 526 United Kingdom, 570 See also Manufacturing Commewijne River (Suriname), 511 Commonwealth of Australia. See Australia Commonwealth of the Bahamas. See The Bahamas Communism Peak. See Qullai Ismoili Somoni (Tajikistan) Geodata.book Page 648 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 40. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA 649 Index Como (Guinea-Bissau), 225 Comoros, 126–128, 127, 127t Compagna (Italy), 272 Comté River (French Guiana), 195 Conakry (Guinea), 224 Concepción (Paraguay), 426, 427 Conchos River (Mexico), 354 Congo, Democratic Republic of the (DROC), 128–133, 129, 132t Congo, Republic of the 133–136, 134, 135t Congo Basin, 128–129, 134–135 Congo River, 13, 105, 128–131, 134 Congo-Nile Ridge (Rwanda), 458 Coniston Lake (England), 566 Connecticut River (United States), 576 Connetables (French Guiana), 195 Conservation. See Environmental protection Constantinople. See Kstambul (Turkey) Contador River (São Tomé and Príncipe), 470 Contadora Island (Panama), 419 Continental Divide (United States), 571 Cook Inlet (United States), 577 Cook Islands, 391, 393–394 Cook Strait (New Zealand), 391, 393 Cooper’s Creek (Australia), 33 Copacabana (Brazil), 76 Copiapó (Chile), 114 Copiapó River (Chile), 113 Coppename River (Suriname), 511 Copper Cyprus, 149 Panama, 420 “Copper Belt” (Africa), 133 Copperbelt Mountains (Zambia), 605 Coquimbo (Chile), 114 Coquimbo River (Chile), 113 Coral Lake (Taiwan), 525 Coral reefs Antigua, 22 Australia, 33 The Bahamas, 42 Barbados, 48 Barbuda, 22 Belize, 56 Bermuda, 60–61 British Virgin Islands, 79 Colombia, 124 Cuba, 146–147 Djibouti, 156 Dominica, 158 Dominican Republic, 160 East Timor, 163 Fiji, 185 Grenada, 217 Guinea-Bissau, 225 Haiti, 231 Honduras, 233 India, 246 Indonesia, 251 Iran, 257 Jamaica, 275 Japan, 279 Kenya, 290 Kiribati, 293 Madagascar, 329 Malaysia, 336 Maldives, 337 Marshall Islands, 344 Martinique, 346 Mauritius, 350, 351 Mexico, 355 Micronesia, 358–359 Mozambique, 372, 373 Myanmar, 376 Nauru, 382 Nicaragua, 396 Palau, 416 Panama, 418 Papua New Guinea, 422 The Philippines, 434 Qatar, 446 Saint Kitts and Nevis, 461 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, 464 Samoa, 467 Saudi Arabia, 474 Seychelles, 478–479 Solomon Islands, 489 South Africa, 496 Sri Lanka, 504 Thailand, 535 Togo, 538 Tonga, 539 Trinidad and Tobago, 541 Turks and Caicos Islands, 552–553 Tuvalu, 554 United States, 573–574, 577–578 Venezuela, 592 Vietnam, 595 Virgin Islands, 598 Yemen, 600 Coral Sea, 422, 489 Coral Sea Islands (Australia), 31, 34 Corantjin. See Courantyne River Cordillera Blanca (Peru), 428 Cordillera Cantábrica. See Cantabrian Mountains (Spain) Cordillera Central Colombia, 122 Ecuador, 164–165 Peru, 428 Cordillera Central (Costa Rica), 136 Cordillera Central (Dominican Republic), 159–160 Cordillera Central (The Philippines), 433 Cordillera Central (Puerto Rico), 444 Cordillera Dariense (Nicaragua), 395 Cordillera de Amambay (Paraguay), 424 Cordillera de Caaguazú (Paraguay), 424 Cordillera de Guanacaste (Costa Rica), 136 Cordillera de Guaniguanico (Cuba), 145–146 Cordillera de Mérida Mountains (Venezuela), 590–592 Cordillera de San Blas (Panama), 417 Cordillera de San Rafael (Paraguay), 424 Cordillera de Talamanca (Costa Rica), 136 Cordillera de Tilarán (Costa Rica), 136 Cordillera de Venezuela (Venezuela), 590 Cordillera del Quindío. See Cordillera Central, Colombia Cordillera Huayhuash (Peru), 428 Cordillera Isabella (Nicaragua), 395 Cordillera Los Maribios (Nicaragua), 395 Cordillera Neovolcanica (Mexico), 353 Cordillera Occidental Bolivia, 65–67 Colombia, 122 Ecuador, 164–165 Peru, 428 Cordillera Oriental Bolivia, 65–67 Colombia, 122–123 Dominican Republic, 159–160 Ecuador, 164–165 Peru, 428 Cordillera Real. See Cordillera Oriental, Bolivia Cordillera Septentrional (Dominican Republic), 159 Cordillera Talamanca (Panama), 417 Cordilleras. See Mountains Cordon littoral. See Sandbars Corfu (Greece), 212 Corinth (Greece), 212 Cork (Ireland), 263, 264 Corn Islands (Nicaragua), 396 Cornwall (England), 566, 569 Coromandel Coast (India), 246 Corpus Christi (United States), 578 Corsica (France), 189, 192 Corubal River (Guinea-Bissau), 225 Çoruh River (Turkey), 548 Corvo (Portugal), 442 Cosmoldeo Group. See Atoll de Cosmoldeo (Seychelles) Costa (Ecuador), 164, 166 Costa Blanca (Spain), 501 Costa de Bálsamo (El Salvador), 173 Costa de la Luz (Spain), 501 Costa de Prata (Portugal), 442 Costa del Sol (Spain), 501 Costa Rica, 136–138, 137, 138t Costa Verde (Portugal), 442 Cotabato Basin (The Philippines), 435 Cotabato Lowland (The Philippines), 433 Cotachi-Cayapas Ecological Reserve (Ecuador), 165 Côte d’Azur (France), 192 Côte d’Ivoire, 139–142, 140, 141t Côte Sauvage (France), 192 Côtentin Peninsula (France), 192 Cotonou Lagoon (Benin), 58 Cotopaxi (Ecuador), 164 Cotswolds (England), 566 Cotton, 398 Courantyne River, 227–228, 511 Courland Lagoon. See Kuršiu Marios (Lithuania) Courland River (Trinidad and Tobago), 541–542 Cousteau, Jacques, 355 Cozumel (Mexico), 355 Crater Lake (United States), 575 Cres Island (Croatia), 143 Crete (Greece), 212, 213 Cricamola River (Panama), 418 Crimea. See Crimean Peninsula (Ukraine) Crimean Mountains (Ukraine), 559 Crimean Peninsula (Ukraine), 559, 561 Cristóbal (Panama), 419 Crna River (Macedonia), 326 Crni Drim River (Macedonia), 326 Geodata.book Page 649 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 41. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA650 Crni Vrh (Yugoslavia), 602 Croatia, 142–144, 143, 144t Crocker Mountains (Malaysia), 333, 334 Crocodile habitats, 160 Crocus Hill (Anguilla), 16 Crooked Island (The Bahamas), 42 Cross River (Angola), 403 Crown Mountain (Virgin Islands), 598 Crozet (France), 192 Crude oil. See Petroleum Crummock Lake (England), 566 Crystal Mountains, 130, 134, 175, 196 Cuango. See Congo River Cuanza River (Angola), 13–14 Cuare (Venezuela), 592 Cuba, 144–148, 145, 148t Cubango. See Okavango River Cuchillas de Toa (Cuba), 145 Cuicocha Volcano lagoon (Ecuador), 165 Cul-de-Sac (Haiti), 230, 232 Cul de Sac River (Saint Lucia), 462, 463 Culebra Island (Puerto Rico), 444 Culiacán River (Mexico), 355 Cumana Highlands (Venezuela), 590 Cumberland Plateau (United States), 574 Cumbrian Mountains (England), 564, 566 Cunene River (Namibia), 379 Curaçao (Netherlands Antilles), 390 Curaray River (Ecuador), 165 Curepipe (Mauritius), 351 Curupayty River (Paraguay), 426 Cuvelai River (Namibia), 379 Cuyuni River (Guyana), 228 Cyclades Islands (Greece), 213 Cyclones Bangladesh, 47 Fiji, 185 India, 246 Mozambique, 372 Taiwan, 526 Vanuatu, 588 Cyprus, 148–150, 149, 150t Cyrenaica (Libya), 316, 317 Czech Republic, 150–152, 151, 152t D Da Hinggan Ling (China), 117 Da Lat (Vietnam), 595–596 Dac Lac Plateau (Vietnam), 595 Dadu River (China), 119 Dahlak Archipelago (Eritrea), 177 Dahlak Kebir (Eritrea), 176 Dahomey. See Benin Daisetsu Mountains (Japan), 276, 279 Dakar (Senegal), 476–477 Dakhla Oasis (Egypt), 170 Dakigaeri Gorge (Japan), 278 Dal River (Sweden), 514–515 Dalmatia (Croatia), 143 Damascus (Syria), 522–524 Damietta Channel (Egypt), 169 Dâmrei Range (Cambodia), 89 Dams Angola, 14 Australia, 33 China, 118 Egypt, 168 El Salvador, 172 Ghana, 207 Guinea, 223 Indonesia, 251 Japan, 278 Laos, 305, 306 Latvia, 308 Mexico, 355 Mozambique, 372, 374 The Netherlands, 387, 388 Nigeria, 402 Pakistan, 413 Panama, 418 Paraguay, 425, 427 Romania, 449 Sudan, 508 Suriname, 510 United States, 576 Uruguay, 581 Dan River (Golan Heights), 267 Danakil Depression, 176, 178, 181–183 Danau Sentarium (Indonesia), 251 Dangrek Mountains, 89, 91, 533–534 Danish West Indies. See Virgin Islands Danube River Austria, 36, 37 Bulgaria, 82 Germany, 204–205 Hungary, 236 Romania, 449, 450 Slovakia, 484 Ukraine, 560 Yugoslavia, 602–603 Danubian Plain (Bulgaria), 82, 84 Dao Phu Quoc Island (Vietnam), 595 Dar es Salaam (Tanzania), 531–532 Daracas Island (Somalia), 492 Dardanelles (Turkey), 548 Darién (Panama), 417 Darién Mountains (Panama), 417 Darién National Park (Panama), 419 Dark Caves. See Gua Kelam (Malaysia) Darling River (Australia), 33 Darling Scarp (Australia), 33 Darnah (Libya), 316 Daror River (Somalia), 491 Dartmoor (England), 566 Darvel Bay (Malaysia), 336 Darwin, Charles, 165 Das Island (United Arab Emirates), 563 Dasht-e Arjan marsh (Iran), 257 Dasht-e-Kavjr (Iran), 255, 258 Dasht-e-Lst (Iran), 255, 258 Dasht River (Pakistan), 413 Dassen Island (South Africa), 496 Datu Bay (Malaysia), 335 Daugava River, 308 Daugavpils (Latvia), 309 Daule River (Ecuador), 165 Dauphiné Alps (France), 190 Davao-Agusan Trough (The Philippines), 434 Davao Gulf (The Philippines), 435 Davis Strait, 99, 215 Dawhat Salwah (Qatar), 446 Dawna Range (Thailand), 533 Dayun He. See Grand Canal (China) De origine et situ Germanorum (Tacitus), 439 Dead Sea, 266, 267, 268, 281–283 Dead Sea Scrolls, 267 Death Valley (United States), 575, 579 Debed River (Argentina), 28, 29 Deccan Plateau (India), 244 Deception Island (Antarctica), 20–21 Deduru River (Sri Lanka), 504 Dedza Mountain (Malawi), 331 Dee River (United Kingdom), 565–566 Deep-sea fishing. See Fish and fishing Deer Cave (Malaysia), 334 Defoe, Daniel, 113 Deforestation Algeria, 10 Angola, 15 Bangladesh, 47, 48 Brazil, 77–78 Bulgaria, 84 Burkina Faso, 86 Burundi, 88 Cambodia, 91 Cameroon, 95 Comoros, 127, 128 Congo, Republic of, 135 Costa Rica, 138 Côte d’Ivoire, 141 East Timor, 163 El Salvador, 173 Ethiopia, 183 Gambia, 199 Ghana, 210 Grenada, 217 India, 247 Indonesia, 249, 252, 253 Iran, 258 Israel, 268 Kenya, 291 Korea, Republic of, 299 Kyrgyzstan, 302 Laos, 306 Madagascar, 329, 330 Mexico, 356 Mongolia, 367 Myanmar, 376 Nepal, 386 Pakistan, 414 Panama, 419 Papua New Guinea, 423 Paraguay, 427 The Philippines, 434, 436 Saint Kitts and Nevis, 461 Solomon Islands, 490 Thailand, 536 Venezuela, 593 Delagoa Bay (Mozambique), 373 Delaware Bay (United States), 578 Delft Island (Sri Lanka), 504 Delhi (India), 248 Delos (Greece), 213 Deltas del Estero Real (Nicaragua), 396 Demerara River (Guyana), 227–228 Demilitarized zone (DMZ), Korea, 294, 297 Demir Kapija canyon (Macedonia), 325 Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. See Korea, Democractic People’s Republic of, (DPRK) Geodata.book Page 650 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 42. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA 651 Index Democratic Republic of the Congo. See Congo, Democratic Republic of the (DROC) Denali. See Mount McKinley (United States) Dender River (Belgium), 53 Denmark, 152–155, 153, 155t Denmark Strait, 240 Dennery River (Saint Lucia), 462 Dense Forest Region (Côte d’Ivoire), 139, 141 D’Entrecasteaux Islands (Papua New Guinea), 422 Deosai Plateau (Pakistan), 413 Depressions. See names of specific depressions Derryveagh Range (Ireland), 262 Derven canyon (Macedonia), 325 Derwent Lake (England), 566 Desaguadero River (Argentina), 26 Desaguadero River (Bolivia), 66 Deseado River (Argentina), 26 Desembarco del Granma National Park (Cuba), 147 Desertas islet (Portugal), 442 Desertification Chad, 111 China, 120 El Salvador, 173 Gambia, 199 India, 248 Indonesia, 253 Iran, 258 Kazakhstan, 287 Mali, 341–342 Pakistan, 414 Somalia, 493 Uzbekistan, 584 See also Deforestation Deserts Afghanistan, 3, 4 Algeria, 8, 10 Angola, 15 Argentina, 27 Australia, 34, 35 Bahrain, 44 Botswana, 71, 72 Cape Verde, 102 Central African Republic, 107 Chad, 110 Chile, 114 China, 120 Comoros, 127 Djibouti, 156–157 East Timor, 163 Egypt, 167, 170 El Salvador, 173 Eritrea, 178 Ethiopia, 183 India, 247 Iran, 255, 258 Iraq, 261 Israel, 267–268 Jordan, 281, 283 Kazakhstan, 287 Kenya, 291 Kuwait, 301 Libya, 316, 317–318 Madagascar, 330 Mali, 342 Mauritania, 349 Mexico, 356 Mongolia, 366–367 Morocco, 369 Mozambique, 373 Myanmar, 376 Namibia, 380 Niger, 400 Oman, 408, 410 Pakistan, 414 Peru, 428, 431 Qatar, 447 Saudi Arabia, 472–475 Somalia, 493 South Africa, 497 Spain, 501 Sudan, 506, 508–509 Syria, 523 Tunisia, 545 Turkmenistan, 551 United Arab Emirates, 563 United States, 579 Uzbekistan, 585–586 Yemen, 601 See also names of individual deserts Desna River (Ukraine), 560 Dettifoss (Iceland), 240 Devil’s Canyon (Venezuela), 591 Devil’s Hole, 567 Devil’s Island. See Île du Diable (French Guiana) Devil’s Triangle. See Bermuda Triangle Devoke Water Lake (England), 566 Dez River (Iran), 256 Dhahira (Oman), 410 Dhaleswari River (Bangladesh), 46 Dhaulagiri (Nepal), 384 Dhíkti Mountains (Crete), 212 Dhobbah (Yemen), 601 Dhofar Plain (Oman), 408, 410 Diamante River (Argentina), 26 Diamond industry Angola, 15 Belgium, 55 Central African Republic, 107 Namibia, 380, 381 Sierra Leone, 482 South Africa, 498 Swaziland, 514 Diamond Island (Grenada), 217 Diamond Mountains. See Ku˘mgang-san (DPRK) Diaoyutai Islands, 119 Dibamba River (Cameroon), 94 Dicle. See Tigris River Didinga Hills (Sudan), 507 Diego Garcia (United Kingdom), 568 Diego Ramírez Islands (Chile), 113 Dieng Plateau (Indonesia), 250 Dikes Belgium, 52 Denmark, 154 See also Dams Dîmbovit¸a River (Romania), 449 Dinaric Alps, 69, 142, 487, 602, 604 Dindar River (Sudan), 508 Dingalan Bay, 435 Dingle Bay (Ireland), 263 Disko Bay (Greenland), 215 Distilled water, Kuwait, 300 District of Columbia (United States), 571 Districts. See Administrative divisions Diuata Mountains (The Philippines), 433 Diyala River (Iraq), 260 Djado Plateau (Niger), 399 Djambi River (Indonesia), 250 Djebel Libnan. See Lebanon Mountains Djibouti, 155–157, 156, 157t Djonovica (Macedonia), 325 Djourab Depression. See Bodele Depression (Chad) Djursland Peninsula (Denmark), 154 DMZ. See Demilitarized zone (DMZ) Dnieper Lowlands (Ukraine), 561 Dnieper River, 50, 454, 559–561 Dnieper Upland (Ukraine), 559 Dniester Basin (Ukraine), 560 Dniester River, 360–361, 559–561 Dnipro River. See Dnieper River Dniprodzerzhynsk Reservoir (Ukraine), 559 Dnistrovskyy Lyman (Ukraine), 560 Dobruja (Romania), 448, 449, 450 Dodecanese Archipelago (Greece), 213 Dodoma (Tanzania), 531 Dog Island (Anguilla), 16 Doha (Qatar), 446, 447 Doi Inthanon (Thailand), 533 Doi Luang Range (Thailand), 533 Dolomites (Italy), 270 Dolosbage Mountains (Sri Lanka), 503 Dolphins, 413 Dolpo (Nepal), 384 Dom (Switzerland), 518 Dominica, 157–159, 158, 158t Dominica Passage, 218 Dominican Republic, 159, 159–162, 161t Don Hai Lot (Thailand), 535 Don River (Russia), 454 Dôn River (Laos), 306 Donau River. See Danube River Dondra Head (Sri Lanka), 504 Donegal Bay (Ireland), 263 Donets Basin (Ukraine), 560–562 Donets Hills (Ukraine), 559 Donets River (Ukraine), 559–560 Dong Hai. See East China Sea Donga range (Bhutan), 62 Donga River (Nigeria), 402 Dongotona Mountains (Sudan), 507, 509 Dongting Hu (China), 118 Dopeth-Okok River (Uganda), 557 Dordogne River (France), 191 Doree River (Saint Lucia), 462 Dörgön Lake (Mongolia), 365 Dornoch Firth (Scotland), 569 Doro Range (Zimbabwe), 609 Dorsale Range (Tunisia), 543–545 Dortmund-Ems Canal (Germany), 205 Doubs River (France), 191 Douro River (Portugal), 440, 442 Dover (England), 567, 569 Dovrefjell (Norway), 405 DPRK. See Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of, (DPRK) Drâa River (Morocco), 369 Geodata.book Page 651 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 43. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA652 Dracula (Stoker), 449 Drake Passage, 21, 113 Drakensberg Mountains, 312, 494 Dramselva River (Norway), 405 Drangajökull (Iceland), 240 Drangme Chhu. See Drangme River (Bhutan) Drangme River (Bhutan), 63 Drangme River Basin (Bhutan), 63 Drau River Valley (Austria), 36, 37 Drava River, 36, 37, 143, 236, 488 Drava River Valley. See Drau River Valley (Austria) Drigh Lake (Pakistan), 413 Drin River (Albania), 6, 7 Drina River, 69, 604 DROC. See Congo, Democratic Republic of the (DROC) 132t Drohobych (Ukraine), 560 Droughts Australia, 34–35 Bahrain, 44 Burundi, 88 Cape Verde, 102 Hungary, 237 Iran, 255–256, 257, 258 Kiribati, 294 Mali, 341, 342 Mauritania, 348 Namibia, 380 Russia, 456 Somalia, 493 Drumlins, United Kingdom, 566 Duars Plains (Bhutan), 62–64 Dubayy (United Arab Emirates), 562–563 Dublin (Ireland), 264 Duero River (Spain), 500 Duff Island (Solomon Islands), 489 Dufourspitze (Switzerland), 518 Dukhan anticline (Qatar), 446, 447 Dulce River (Argentina), 26 Dumbara Mountains (Sri Lanka), 503 Dunany Point (Ireland), 263 Dunav River. See Danube River Dundalk Bay (Ireland), 263 Dundee (Scotland), 567 Dunedin (New Zealand), 394 Dunes. See Sand dunes Dungeness (United Kingdom), 569 Durand Line, 1 Dursey Head (Ireland), 263 D’Urville Island (New Zealand), 393 Dushanbe (Tajikistan), 528–529 Dust storms Bahrain, 44 India, 246 Iran, 258 Dyfi National Nature Reserve (Wales), 567 Dzanga-Sangha nature reserve (Central African Republic), 106 Dzavhan River (Mongolia), 365 Dzerzhinskaya Mountain (Belarus), 50 E Earthquakes Afghanistan, 2 Albania, 5 Algeria, 8 Argentina, 24 Armenia, 28 Barbados, 48 Bolivia, 66 Bosnia and Herzegovina, 69 Bulgaria, 82 Burundi, 87 Chile, 112 China, 115 Colombia, 122 Congo, Democratic Republic of, 130 Costa Rica, 136 Cuba, 145 Djibouti, 156 Ecuador, 164 Georgia, 200 Greece, 212 Guatemala, 220 Honduras, 232 Iceland, 239 India, 242 Indonesia, 250, 251 Iran, 255 Italy, 269 Jamaica, 274 Japan, 276, 278 Kazakhstan, 284 Kyrgyzstan, 302 Macedonia, 325 Mexico, 352–353 Myanmar, 374 New Zealand, 391 Nicaragua, 395 Pakistan, 411 Panama, 417 Papua New Guinea, 422 Peru, 428 Portugal, 441 Puerto Rico, 444 Russia, 453 Saint Kitts and Nevis, 460 Solomon Islands, 489 Taiwan, 524 Tajikistan, 527 Turkey, 546 Turkmenistan, 550 United States, 573 Uzbekistan, 584 Venezuela, 590 East African Rift. See Great Rift Valley East Anglia (United Kingdom), 567 East Antarctica, 18–19, 21 East Caicos Island, 553 East Cape (New Zealand), 393 East China Sea, 119, 278 East Country (Norway), 405, 407 East Falkland (United Kingdom), 568 East Frisian Islands (Germany), 205 East Germany, 206 East Gotland. See Öster Gotland (Sweden) East Latvian Lowlands, 309 East Malaysia, 333–336 East Siberian Sea, 455 East Timor, 162, 162–163, 163t, 248 Easter Island (Chile), 112, 113 Eastern Alps (Italy), 270 Eastern Channel, 298 Eastern Coastal Plain (Australia), 31 Eastern Desert. See Arabian Desert (Egypt) Eastern Ghats (India), 243 Eastern Group. See Ratak Group (Marshall Islands) Eastern Hajar. See Hajar al-Shargi (Oman) Eastern Heights Plateau (Jordan), 281 Eastern Highlands (Australia), 31–35 Eastern Highlands (Venezuela). See Cumana Highlands (Venezuela) Eastern Hindu Kush (Afghanistan), 2 Eastern lowlands (Austria), 36 Eastern Lowveld (South Africa), 495, 497 Eastern Mountains (Nepal), 384 Eastern Paraguay, 424 Eastern Plains (Colombia), 126 Eastern Plateau (Papua New Guinea), 422 Eastern Plateau (Tanzania), 531 Eastern Plateau Region (Kenya), 290 Eastern Region (Ecuador), 164–167 Eastern Rift Valley, 530–531 Eastern Uplands (South Africa), 495, 497 ’Eau Island (Tonga), 539 Ebino Plateau (Japan), 277 Ebon Atoll (Marshall Islands), 344 Ebro Basin (Spain), 501 Ebro River (Spain), 500 Ecosystems Amazon rainforests, 77 Brunei, 80 Indonesia, 252–253 Mongolia, 364–365 Okavango Delta, 72 See also Rainforests; specific ecosystems Ecotourism Brunei, 81 India, 248 Madagascar, 327 Ecuador, 164–167, 165, 166t Edge Island (Norway), 406 Éfaté (Vanuatu), 587 Eger River (Hungary), 236 Egmont Peak (New Zealand), 391 Egypt, 167–170, 168, 170t, 266 Eilerts de Haan Mountains (Suriname), 510 Ekuma River (Namibia), 379 El Djouf (Mauritania), 349 El Faiyum Oasis (Egypt), 168, 170 El Fashar (Sudan), 507 El Niño, Peru and, 431 El Petén (Guatemala), 219–221 El Salvador, 170–174, 171, 173t El Santuario Plateau (Panama), 417 El Trifinio International Biosphere Reserve (El Salvador), 173 El Valle Sagrado (Peru), 430 El Viejo. See Volcán San Cristóbal (Nicaragua) El Yunque National Forest (Puerto Rico), 445 Elat (Israel), 267, 268 Elat Mountains (Israel), 268 Elba Island (Italy), 272 Elbe River, 151, 204 Elburz Range (Iran), 255 Elephant Range. See Dâmrei Range (Cambodia) Eleuthera Island (The Bahamas), 42 Geodata.book Page 652 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 44. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA 653 Index Elgeyo Escarpment (Kenya), 289 Eli Malk Island (Palau), 416 El-Jem Colosseum (Tunisia), 543 Ellenborough Waterfall (Australia), 33 Ellesmere Island (Canada), 99 Ellice Islands. See Tuvalu Ellsworth Mountains (Antarctica), 19 Elobey Islands (Equatorial Guinea), 174–175 Elphinstone (Oman), 409 Ema River (Estonia), 179 Emba River (Kazakhstan), 286 Embalse Cerrón Grande (El Salvador), 172 Embalse del Río Negro (Uruguay), 581 Emden Deep. See Philippine Trough Emei Shan (China), 117 Emerald cuckoos, 482 Emilia-Romagna (Italy), 271 Emme River (Switzerland), 519 Empty Quarter. See Rub’ al-Khali Ems River (Germany), 204 Endangered species Angola, 13 Belize, 57 Congo, Republic of, 135 Nicaragua, 396 Pakistan, 414 yaks, 384 See also Wildlife protection Enewetok Atoll (Marshall Islands), 344 England (United Kingdom), 564, 566–570 English Channel (United Kingdom), 567, 569 Ennedi highland (Chad), 108 Ennerdale Lake (England), 566 Enns River (Austria), 37 Entebee (Uganda), 558 Enugu (Nigeria), 404 Environmental problems Angola, 13 Cameroon, 94, 95 Chad, 111 India, 244 Kazakhstan, 286 Kiribati, 293 Lithuania, 322 Nauru, 382 Uzbekistan, 584 See also specific environmental problems Environmental protection Austria, 39 Brunei, 81 China, 119 Côte d’Ivoire, 141 East Timor, 162, 163 El Salvador, 173–174 India, 247 Indonesia, 251 Japan, 279 Kenya, 291 Malaysia, 335 Mongolia, 363, 365 Papua New Guinea, 423 Epi (Vanuatu), 587 Epidemics, Bangladesh, 48 Epirus (Greece), 211 Episkopi Bay (Cyprus), 149 Epupa Falls (Namibia), 379 Equatorial Channel (Maldives), 337 Equatorial Guinea, 174, 174–176, 175t Er Rif Mountains (Morocco), 367, 369 Erg Chech (Mali), 342 Ergene Plain (Turkey), 548 Ergs Algeria, 10 Libya, 318 Mali, 342 Niger, 400 See also Sand dunes Erhai Lake (China), 118 Erie Canal (United States), 576 Eriksfjiord. See Tunulliarfik (Greenland) Eritrea, 176–178, 177, 178t Erne River (Northern Ireland), 566–567 Erongo Mountains (Namibia), 378 Eros Mountains (Namibia), 378 Erosion. See Soil erosion Erromango (Vanuatu), 587 Erzgebirge Mountains. See Ore Mountains Erzincan (Turkey), 546 Esan (Japan), 279 Escambray Mountains (Cuba), 145 Escarpada Point (The Philippines), 435 Escaut River. See Schelde River Eschnerberg (Liechtenstein), 319 Esch-sur-Sûre (Luxembourg), 323 Esdraelon Plain (Israel), 267, 268 Esmeraldas (Ecuador), 166 Espagnol River (Dominica), 157 Española Island (Galápagos), 165 Espíritu Santo (El Salvador), 172 Espíritu Santo (Vanuatu), 587 Essequibo River (Guyana), 227–228 Estany de l’Estanyó (Andorra), 12 Estonia, 178–180, 179, 180t Estrela (Portugal), 441 Etang Saumâtre. See Lake Saumâtre (Haiti) Ethiopia, 176, 180–183, 181, 183t Ethiopian Plateau, 176–177, 181–182 Ethnicities Angola, 15 Belarus, 51 Belgium, 54 Belize, 57 Botswana, 72 British Virgin Islands, 79 Burkina Faso, 86 Cameroon, 94–95 Canada, 101 Chad, 110–111 China, 120 Colombia, 126 Congo, Democratic Republic of, 132 Ecuador, 167 El Salvador, 174 Grenada, 217 Guadeloupe, 219 Guatemala, 222 Guinea, 224 Guinea-Bissau, 226 Honduras, 234 Iceland, 241 Iraq, 261 Kenya, 288 Malaysia, 336 Mali, 340 Mozambique, 373 Nauru, 382 The Netherlands, 389 Nicaragua, 395, 398 Norway, 408 Peru, 432 Poland, 439–440 Sierra Leone, 482 Solomon Islands, 490 South Africa, 497–498 Turks and Caicos Islands, 553 United Kingdom, 570 Zambia, 608 Zimbabwe, 611 Etna (Italy), 269 Etorofu Island, 276 Etosha Pan (Namibia), 379, 380 EU. See European Union EU Blue Flag beaches (Ireland), 263 Eubalaena glacialis. See Atlantic Right Whale Euboea (Greece), 212 Eucumbene Dam (Australia), 33 Euphrates River, 259–261, 521–522, 547–548 Eurasian Tectonic Plate Afghanistan, 2 Albania, 5 Austria, 36 Belgium, 52 Bosnia and Herzegovina, 69 Bulgaria, 82 Cambodia, 89 China, 115 Cyprus, 148 Czech Republic, 150 Estonia, 179 Finland, 186 France, 189 Germany, 202 Greece, 212 Hungary, 235 Indonesia, 249, 251 Iran, 255 Ireland, 262 Italy, 269 Japan, 276 Kazakhstan, 284 Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of, 294 Korea, Republic of, 297 Kyrgyzstan, 302 Laos, 305 Latvia, 308 Liechtenstein, 318 Lithuania, 320 Luxembourg, 323 Macedonia, 325 Myanmar, 374 Nepal, 383 Pakistan, 411 The Philippines, 433 Poland, 437 Portugal, 440 Romania, 447 Russia, 453 San Marino, 469 Singapore, 483 Slovakia, 484 Geodata.book Page 653 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 45. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA654 Switzerland, 517 Taiwan, 524 Tajikistan, 527 Thailand, 533 Turkey, 546 Turkmenistan, 550 Ukraine, 559 Uzbekistan, 584 Vietnam, 594 Yugoslavia, 602 Europa (France), 192 European Union (EU), 52 Evans Strait (Canada), 99 Everglades (United States), 575, 580 Evros River. See Maritsa River Evrótas River (Greece), 212 Exe River (United Kingdom), 566 Exmoor (England), 566 Exmouth Gulf (Australia), 34 Exploration, Antarctica, 20 Exuma Sound (The Bahamas), 42 Eyja Fjord (Iceland), 241 Eyre Peninsula (Australia), 34 F Faakersee (Austria), 37 Fadiffolu Atoll (Maldives), 338 Faeroe Islands (Denmark), 154 Faial (Portugal), 442 Faiyum Depression. See El Faiyum Oasis (Egypt) Fakse Bay (Denmark), 154 Falémé River (Mali), 341 Falkland Islands (United Kingdom), 26, 568 Falster Island (Denmark), 154 Famagusta Bay (Cyprus), 149 Family Islands (The Bahamas), 41 Fanning Island. See Tabuaeran Island (Kiribati) Fan-si-pan (Vietnam), 594 Far Western Mountains (Nepal), 384 Farafra Oasis (Egypt), 170 Faraony River (Madagascar), 329 Farasan al Kabir Island (Saudi Arabia), 473 Farim River. See Cacheu River (Guinea-Bissau) Farquhar Group. See Atoll de Farhuhar (Seychelles) Farur (Iran), 257 Fatala River (Guinea), 224 The Father (Papua New Guinea), 421 Faults Bosnia and Herzegovina, 69 Croatia, 142 El Salvador, 171 Ethiopia, 182 See also specific tectonic plates Faylakah (Kuwait), 301 FBH. See Bosnia and Herzegovina Fedchenko Glacier (Tajikistan), 527–528 Federated States of Micronesia. See Micronesia, Federated States of Fehmarn Island (Germany), 205 Feldberg (Germany), 204 Felidu Atoll (Maldives), 338 Fenkol (Micronesia), 358 Fenno-Scandian Shield (Finland), 186 The Fens (England), 567 Fergana Mountains (Kyrgyzstan), 302 Fergana Valley, 303–304, 527–529, 583–586 Ferlo Savanna (Senegal), 477 Fernandina Island (Galápagos), 165 Fernando de Noronha (Brazil), 76 Fernando Po. See Isla de Bioko (Equatorial Guinea) Fernão Veloso Bay (Mozambique), 373 Fetaka Island (Solomon Islands), 489 Fezzan (Libya), 316, 318 Fianarantsoa (Madagascar), 330 Fiji, 184, 184–186, 185t Filchner Ice Shelf (Antarctica), 20, 21 Filfla (Malta), 343 Finger Lakes (United States), 576 Finisterre Range (Papua New Guinea), 420 Finland, 186–189, 187, 188t Finn River (Ireland), 263 Finnmark Plateau (Norway), 405 Fiordland (New Zealand), 391, 393, 394 Firat River. See Euphrates River Fires Indonesia, 253 Japan, 278 Panama, 419 Firth of Clyde (Scotland), 567, 569 Firth of Forth (Scotland), 567, 569 Firth of Tay (Scotland), 567 Fish and fishing Anguilla, 17 Antigua, 23 Azerbaijan, 41 The Bahamas, 42 Bangladesh, 48 Barbados, 49 Barbuda, 23 Bermuda, 61 Brunei, 80 Cambodia, 89 Canada, 98, 101 Cape Verde, 102, 103 Colombia, 123, 124 Dominican Republic, 161 East Timor, 164 Ecuador, 167 Eritrea, 176 Estonia, 179 French Guiana, 195 Gambia, 199 Germany, 205 Ghana, 209 Greenland, 216 Guinea, 224 Guinea-Bissau, 227 Honduras, 234 Iceland, 240, 241 India, 244, 248 Indonesia, 251 Ireland, 262 Japan, 281 Kuwait, 301 Kyrgyzstan, 303 Malawi, 333 Maldives, 339 Mali, 341 Mauritania, 348, 349 Mauritius, 352 Micronesia, 358, 359 Morocco, 370 Mozambique, 373 Nauru, 382 Norway, 408 Panama, 420 Papua New Guinea, 423 Peru, 432 Portugal, 443 Qatar, 447 Romania, 449, 451 Russia, 455 Saint Kitts and Nevis, 461 Samoa, 468 São Tomé and Príncipe, 471 Senegal, 477–478 Sierra Leone, 482 Singapore, 484 Solomon Islands, 490 Somalia, 492 Sri Lanka, 505 Suriname, 512 Sweden, 515 Thailand, 535, 536 Togo, 538 Tonga, 540 Turks and Caicos Islands, 553 Uganda, 557–558 United Kingdom, 566 Uruguay, 583 Vanuatu, 588 Venezuela, 593 Fish River (Namibia), 379 Fish River Canyon (Namibia), 379 Five Sister Lakes (Austria), 37 Fjords Denmark, 154 Germany, 205 Iceland, 241 Norway, 404–405, 407 Flaming Cliffs (Mongolia), 364 Flanders (Belgium), 54 Flemings (Belgium), 54 Flic-en-Flac (Mauritius), 351 Flightless birds, 393 Flint Island (Kiribati), 292, 293 Flooding Australia, 34 Bangladesh, 45 Burundi, 88 Cambodia, 89–90 Congo, Republic of, 134 Czech Republic, 151 Egypt, 169 France, 191 Guinea, 224 Hungary, 236–237 Iceland, 239 Iraq, 261 Italy, 271 Japan, 280 Kazakhstan, 286–287 Korea, Republic of, 298 Laos, 306 Maldives, 337 Mali, 341 Mozambique, 372 Geodata.book Page 654 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 46. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA 655 Index Nepal, 385 The Netherlands, 387 Papua New Guinea, 423 The Philippines, 434 Russia, 455 Somalia, 491 Sudan, 507–508 Flora. See Vegetation Flores (Indonesia), 248, 250, 252 Flores (Portugal), 442 Flores Sea (Indonesia), 251 Florida (United States), 575–577, 578, 580 Florida Keys (United States), 577 Fly River (Papua New Guinea), 421, 422 Foehn (Switzerland), 520 Fog Namibia, 379 Oman, 410 Foggaras (Algeria), 8 Fogo (Cape Verde), 102 Fohn. See Winds Folgefonn (Norway), 405 Fond River (Saint Lucia), 462 Fontur Point (Iceland), 241 Fontvieille (Monaco), 362 Foothills. See Hills Forcados River (Nigeria), 403 Forest Ecosystem Reserves (Japan), 280 Forest Region (Guinea), 222–224 Forestry products Algeria, 11 Canada, 100 Chile, 114 Finland, 188 Georgia, 202 Guatemala, 222 India, 248 Indonesia, 253 Laos, 307 Macedonia, 326 Malaysia, 336 Mexico, 357 Myanmar, 377 Nepal, 386 Puerto Rico, 445 Romania, 451 Sweden, 517 See also Timber Forests Afghanistan, 4 Albania, 7 Algeria, 10 Angola, 15 Antigua, 23 Argentina, 27 Australia, 35 Austria, 38–39 The Bahamas, 42 Bangladesh, 47 Barbados, 49 Belarus, 51 Belgium, 52, 54 Belize, 57 Benin, 59 Bhutan, 64 Bolivia, 67 Bosnia and Herzegovina, 70 Botswana, 71 Brunei, 80–81 Bulgaria, 84 Burkina Faso, 86 Burundi, 88 Cambodia, 91 Cameroon, 94 Canada, 100–101 Chad, 110 Chile, 114 China, 120 Colombia, 126 Comoros, 128 Congo, Democratic Republic of, 132 Congo, Republic of, 135 Costa Rica, 138 Côte d’Ivoire, 141 Croatia, 143–144 Cuba, 147 Cyprus, 149 Czech Republic, 152 Denmark, 155 Dominica, 158 Dominican Republic, 161 East Timor, 163 Ecuador, 166–167 El Salvador, 173–174 Equatorial Guinea, 175 Estonia, 180 Ethiopia, 183 Fiji, 185 Finland, 186, 188 France, 194 French Guiana, 195 Gabon, 197 Gambia, 199 Germany, 206 Ghana, 210 Greece, 213 Grenada, 217 Guadeloupe, 219 Guatemala, 221 Guinea, 224 Guinea-Bissau, 226 Guyana, 229 Honduras, 234 Hungary, 237–238 India, 247 Indonesia, 252–253 Iran, 258 Ireland, 264 Israel, 268 Italy, 272 Jamaica, 275 Japan, 280 Jordan, 283 Kazakhstan, 287 Kenya, 291 Kiribati, 294 Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of, 296 Korea, Republic of, 299 Kyrgyzstan, 304 Laos, 306–307 Latvia, 309 Lebanon, 311 Liberia, 315 Libya, 318 Liechtenstein, 319 Lithuania, 321 Luxembourg, 324 Macedonia, 326 Madagascar, 330 Malawi, 332 Malaysia, 336 Maldives, 338 Mali, 342 Marshall Islands, 345 Martinique, 346–347 Mauritius, 351 Mexico, 356 Micronesia, 359 Moldova, 361 Mongolia, 367 Morocco, 368 Mozambique, 373 Myanmar, 376 Namibia, 380 Nepal, 386 New Zealand, 394 Nicaragua, 397–398 Nigeria, 403–404 Norway, 408 Pakistan, 414 Palau, 416 Panama, 419 Papua New Guinea, 423 Paraguay, 427 Peru, 431 The Philippines, 436 Poland, 439 Portugal, 443 Puerto Rico, 445 Romania, 450 Russia, 456–457 Rwanda, 459 Saint Kitts and Nevis, 461 Saint Lucia, 463–464 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, 465 Samoa, 468 São Tomé and Príncipe, 471 Senegal, 477 Seychelles, 479 Sierra Leone, 482 Singapore, 484 Slovakia, 486 Slovenia, 488 Solomon Islands, 490 Somalia, 493 South Africa, 497 Spain, 501–502 Sri Lanka, 504 Sudan, 509 Suriname, 510–511 Swaziland, 513 Sweden, 517 Switzerland, 520 Syria, 523 Taiwan, 526 Tajikistan, 528 Tanzania, 532 Thailand, 536 Togo, 538 Tonga, 540 Geodata.book Page 655 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 47. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA656 Trinidad and Tobago, 542 Turkey, 549 Tuvalu, 555 Uganda, 558 Ukraine, 561 United Kingdom, 569–570 United States, 579–580 Vanuatu, 588 Venezuela, 593 Vietnam, 596–597 Virgin Islands, 598 Yemen, 601 Yugoslavia, 604–605 Zambia, 608 Zimbabwe, 611 See also Rainforests Forever White Mountains. See Changbai Shan (China) Formentera Island (Spain), 500 The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. See Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of Formosa (Guinea-Bissau), 225 Fort-de-France (Martinique), 347 Fort-de-France Bay (Martinique), 346 Fortuna (Vanuatu), 587 Fouta Djallon, 222–223, 340, 476 Foveaux Strait (New Zealand), 393 Foyle River (Northern Ireland), 567 France, 189–194, 190, 193t French Guiana, 194–196 Guadeloupe, 218–219 Martinique, 192, 345–347, 346 Franches-Montagnes Plateau (Switzerland), 519 Franconian Alb (Germany), 204 Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake (United States), 576 Franz Josef Land (Russia), 455 Fraser Island (Australia), 34 Fraser River (Canada), 98 Freetown (Sierra Leone), 481–482 French Alps, 190 French Guiana, 189, 194–196, 195 French Polynesia, 193 French Riviera, 192 Fresh Water Lagoons (Kiribati), 293 Friendly Islands. See Tonga Frigate Bay (Saint Kitts and Nevis), 461 Frigate Island (Grenada), 217 Frigate Island (Seychelles), 479 Front Range (United States), 573 Fruit bats (Samoa), 467 FSM (Micronesia, Federated States of), 357– 360, 358 Fua Mulaku Island (Maldives), 338 Fuerte Island (Colombia), 125 Fuerte River (Mexico), 355 Fuerteventura Island (Spain), 500 Fuiloro (East Timor), 162 Fulufjäll (Sweden), 514 Funafuti (Tuvalu), 555 Funafuti Island (Tuvalu), 554 Funf Schwesterseen. See Five Sister Lakes (Austria) Fur seals, Antarctica, 20 Furka Pass (Switzerland), 519 Futuna. See Wallis and Futuna (France) FYROM. See Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of G Gabon, 196–198, 197 Gabon River, 196 Gagil-Tomil (Micronesia), 359 Gahar Lakes (Iran), 255–256 Gaizinkalns (Latvia), 308 Gal Oya National Park (Sri Lanka), 503–504 Gal River (Sri Lanka), 503 Galana River (Kenya), 290 Galápagos Islands (Ecuador), 164–166 Galdhøpiggen (Norway), 405 Galicica National Park (Macedonia), 326 Galilee (Israel), 266, 267 Galion Bay (Martinique), 346 Gallegos River (Argentina), 26 Gallipoli Peninsula (Turkey), 548 Galty Mountains (Ireland), 262 Galway Bay (Ireland), 263 Gamba Protected Area Complex (Gabon), 197 Gambaga Scarp (Ghana), 208 Gambia, 198–200, 199, 199t Gambia River, 198–199, 476 Gambier Island (France), 193 Gamgurtsev mountains (Antarctica), 19 Gamsberg (Namibia), 378 Gan Island (Maldives), 338 Gan River (Sri Lanka), 503–504 Gangdisê Shan (China), 116 Ganges River, 45–46, 244–245 Gangetic Plain, 244–245, 246–247, 385 Garabil Plateau (Turkmenistan), 550 Garabogazkol Gulf. See Kara-Bogaz Gol (Turkmenistan) Garifiri hydroelectric dam (Guinea), 223 Garonne River (France), 191 Gash River. See Mareb River Gatun Lake (Panama), 418 Gau Island (Fiji), 185 Gaua (Vanuatu), 587 Gauja River (Latvia), 308 Gavater Bay (Iran), 257 Gaza Strip, 266, 268 Gdan´sk-Gdynia (Poland), 438 Gêba River (Guinea-Bissau), 225 Gebel Katherina. See Mt. Catherine (Egypt) Gediz River (Turkey), 548–549 Geghama Mountains (Armenia), 28 Gemstones Cambodia, 91 Malawi, 333 Myanmar, 377 Namibia, 381 Thailand, 536 Uruguay, 583 Zambia, 608 See also Diamond industry General Carrera (Argentina), 25 General Valley (Costa Rica), 137 Geneva (Switzerland), 518–520 Gennargentu (Italy), 271 George VI sound (Antarctica), 20 Georgetown (Gambia), 198 Georgetown (Guyana), 228 Georgia, 200–202, 201, 201t Georgia (United States), 573, 576 Georgina River (Australia), 33 Geothermal resources El Salvador, 174 Ethiopia, 183 Hungary, 237 India, 248 Indonesia, 254 Japan, 281 New Zealand, 394 Nicaragua, 396, 398 Papua New Guinea, 423 The Philippines, 436 Géricault, Théodore, 347 Gerlachovsky Peak (Slovakia), 484 Germany, 202–207, 203, 206t Gestro River. See Jubba River Geysers. See Hot springs Ghadamis (Libya), 318 Ghana, 207–210, 209, 210t Ghat (Libya), 318 Ghats (India), 243 Ghibli. See Winds Ghodaghodi Tal (Nepal), 385 Ghubbat al Qamar (Yemen), 601 Giant’s Causeway (Northern Ireland), 569 Gibraltar (United Kingdom), 500, 568–569 Gibson Desert (Australia), 35 Gila River (United States), 576 Gilbert Islands (Kiribati), 292–293 Gilead. See Northern Highlands (Jordan) Gilf Kebir (Egypt), 168 Gils Fjord (Iceland), 241 Gin River (Sri Lanka), 503 Girange Dzong Pass. See Rasua Garhi (Nepal) Gizo Island (Solomon Islands), 489 Glacier National Park. See Parc Nacional Los Glaciares (Argentina) Glaciers Antarctica, 19, 20, 21 Argentina, 24–25 Greenland, 215 Iceland, 238, 239–240 Kazakhstan, 284 Kyrgyzstan, 302 Mongolia, 363 New Zealand, 391 Norway, 404–405, 405 Pakistan, 411 Switzerland, 518 Tajikistan, 527–528 United States, 579 Glåma River (Norway), 405 Glarus Alps (Switzerland), 518 Gletsch (Switzerland), 519 Glettinga Point (Iceland), 241 Glint (Estonia), 179 Global climate, Mongolia and, 365 Global warming ice shelves and, 20, 21 Indonesia and, 249 Japan, 279 Nauru, 382 Nepal and, 385 Glover’s Reef (Belize), 56 Geodata.book Page 656 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 48. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA 657 Index Goascoran River (Honduras), 233 Gobi Desert, 115, 120, 363, 364, 366–367 Gobobose Mountains (Namibia), 378 Godavari River (India), 245 Godesberg Plateau, 528 Godhafoss (Iceland), 240 Godthåb. See Nuuk (Greenland) Goflo de Nicoya. See Golf of Nicoya (Costa Rica) Gökçeada Island (Turkey), 548 Göksu River (Turkey), 548 Gokteik Gorge (Myanmar), 375 Golan Heights, 266–267, 521 Gold Kyrgyzstan, 304 Mozambique, 371 Golden Bay (New Zealand), 393 Golden Horn. See Haliç Estuary (Turkey) Goldfish Lake. See Lake Lanoto’o Golem Korab (Macedonia), 325 Golestan National Park (Iran), 258 Golf of Nicoya (Costa Rica), 137 Golfe de la Gonâve. See Gulf of Gonâve (Haiti) Golfe de Lion (France), 192 Golfo de Fonseca. See Gulf of Fonseca Golfo de Guayaquil. See Gulf of Guayaquil Golfo de Montijo (Panama), 418 Golfo del Darién (Panama), 419 Golfo Dulce (Costa Rica), 137 Gomera Island (Spain), 500 Gonâve Island (Haiti), 231 Gönen (Turkey), 547 Gongola River (Nigeria), 403 Gora Ayribaba (Turkmenistan), 550 Gordon Dam (Australia), 33 Gorgol region (Mauritania), 349 Gorgol River (Mali), 341 Gorgona Island (Colombia), 125 Gorgonilla Cay (Colombia), 125 Gostivar (Macedonia), 326 Göta Canal (Sweden), 515 Göta River (Sweden), 515 Götberg (Sweden), 515 Gotel Mountains (Nigeria), 402 Gotland Island (Sweden), 514, 516–517 Gotm Island (Japan), 279 Gough (United Kingdom), 568 Goulburn River (Australia), 33 Gozo (Malta), 343–344 Grace Bay (Turks and Caicos Islands), 553 Graciosa (Portugal), 442 Graciosa Island (Spain), 500 Grain Coast. See Liberia Grampian Mountains (Scotland), 566 Gran Caldera (Equatorial Guinea), 175 Gran Cararia Island (Spain), 500 Gran Chaco, 24, 65, 427 Gran Paradiso (Italy), 269 Gran Sabana (Venezuela), 591, 592–593 Gran Sasso Range (Italy), 270 Granada (Spain), 500 Grand Bahama, 42 Grand Bassin (Mauritius), 351 Grand Bay River (Dominica), 158 Grand Bonhomme (Saint Vincent and the Grenadines), 464 Grand Canal (China), 119 Grand Canyon (United States), 574–576 Grand Cayman Island, 103–104 Grand Comore (Comoros), 127 Grand Coulee Dam (United States), 576 Grand Erg Occidental (Algeria), 10 Grand Erg Oriental, 10, 545 Grand Etang (Grenada), 216 Grand Lac (Switzerland), 519 Grand Manan Island (Canada), 99 Grand Popo Lagoon (Benin), 58 Grand Port Range (Mauritius), 350 Grand River South East (Mauritius), 351 Grand-Terre Island (Guadeloupe), 218 Grand Turk Island (Turks and Caicos Islands), 552–553 Grand Yaluzangbu Canyon (China), 117 Grande Range (Uruguay), 581 Grande River (Bolivia), 66 Grande Terre. See New Caldonia (France) Grasmer Lake (England), 566 Grasslands Albania, 6 Algeria, 10 Angola, 15 Argentina, 24, 27 Australia, 35 Austria, 38 Belarus, 50, 51 Belgium, 54 Benin, 59 Bhutan, 64 Bolivia, 67 Botswana, 71, 72 Brazil, 77 Bulgaria, 84 Burundi, 88 Cambodia, 91 Cameroon, 94 Canada, 100 Cape Verde, 102 Central African Republic, 107 Chad, 110 Chile, 114 China, 120 Colombia, 126 Comoros, 127 Congo, Democratic Republic of, 132 Congo, Republic of, 135 Costa Rica, 138 Côte d’Ivoire, 141 Cuba, 147 Cyprus, 149 Czech Republic, 152 Dominican Republic, 161 East Timor, 163 Ecuador, 166 El Salvador, 173 Estonia, 180 Ethiopia, 183 Fiji, 185 Finland, 188 France, 193–194 Gambia, 199 Germany, 205 Ghana, 210 Greece, 213 Greenland, 216 Guatemala, 221 Guinea, 224 Guinea-Bissau, 226 Guyana, 228–229 Haiti, 231–232 Honduras, 234 Hungary, 237 India, 246–247 Indonesia, 252 Iran, 258 Ireland, 264 Israel, 267 Italy, 272 Jamaica, 275 Jordan, 283 Kazakhstan, 287 Kenya, 291 Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of, 296 Korea, Republic of, 299 Laos, 306 Latvia, 309 Lesotho, 313 Libya, 317 Liechtenstein, 319 Madagascar, 329 Malawi, 332 Maldives, 338 Mali, 341–342 Mauritania, 348 Mexico, 356 Moldova, 361 Mongolia, 366 Morocco, 368 Mozambique, 373 Myanmar, 376 Namibia, 380 Nauru, 382 Nepal, 385–386 The Netherlands, 389 New Zealand, 394 Niger, 400 Nigeria, 403 Norway, 407–408 Pakistan, 414 Palau, 416 Panama, 419 Papua New Guinea, 423 Paraguay, 427 The Philippines, 435 Poland, 439 Portugal, 443 Puerto Rico, 445 Romania, 450 Rwanda, 459 Saint Kitts and Nevis, 461 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, 465 São Tomé and Príncipe, 471 Sierra Leone, 482 Slovakia, 486 Solomon Islands, 490 Somalia, 493 South Africa, 494–495 Spain, 501 Sri Lanka, 504 Suriname, 511 Swaziland, 513 Geodata.book Page 657 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 49. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA658 Sweden, 516 Syria, 523 Taiwan, 526 Tajikistan, 528 Tanzania, 532 Thailand, 535–536 Togo, 538 Trinidad and Tobago, 542 Tunisia, 544–545 Turkey, 549 Turkmenistan, 551 Uganda, 558 Ukraine, 561 United States, 579 Uruguay, 582 Uzbekistan, 585 Venezuela, 592 Vietnam, 596 Virgin Islands, 598 Yemen, 601 Yugoslavia, 604 Zambia, 608 Zimbabwe, 611 Grauspitz (Liechtenstein), 318 Grazing. See Ranching and grazing Great Abaco Island (The Bahamas), 42 Great Alföld (Hungary), 235, 237, 238 Great Artesian Basin (Australia), 31 Great Astrolabe Reef (Fiji), 185 Great Atlas Mountains. See High Atlas Mountains (Morocco) Great Australian Bight, 33, 34 Great Bahama Bank, 41 Great Barrier Island (New Zealand), 393 Great Barrier Reef, 33, 416 Great Basin (United States), 574–575, 579 Great Bear Lake (Canada), 97 Great Bermuda. See Bermuda Great Bitter Lake (Egypt), 169 Great Britain (United Kingdom), 564, 567–569 Great Cave (Malaysia), 334 Great Channel (Indonesia), 251 Great Cliff. See Cliff of Angavo (Madagascar) Great Corn Island (Nicaragua), 396 Great Dike (Zimbabwe), 609 Great Dike Hills (Zimbabwe), 609 Great Dismal Swamp (United States), 576 Great Dividing Range (Australia), 31–32 Great Eastern Erg. See Grand Erg Oriental Great European Plain, 54, 451, 456, 457 Great Exhibition Bay (New Zealand), 393 Great Exuma (The Bahamas), 42 Great Green Wall of China, 120 Great Himalayas, 62, 242, 383 Great Inagua (The Bahamas), 42 Great Kanto Earthquake (Japan), 278 Great Karas Mountains (Namibia), 378–379 Great Karroo Plateau (South Africa), 495 Great Karroo Range (South Africa), 494 Great Lake (Cambodia). See Tonle Sap (Cambodia) Great Lakes (Africa), 131 Great Lakes (North America), 97, 571, 575– 576, 580 Great Lakes depression (Mongolia), 363, 364– 365 Great Lakes-St. Lawrence Lowlands (Canada), 96 Great Maya Reef (Mexico), 355 Great Mountains. See Krkonoše Mountains (Czech Republic) Great Ouse River (United Kingdom), 566 Great Papuan Plateau (Papua New Guinea), 421 Great Plains (United States), 571, 574–576, 578–580 Great Red Island. See Madagascar Great Rift Valley Burundi, 87 Congo, Democratic Republic of, 129–130, 131 Eritrea, 176 Ethiopia, 181–183 Israel, 266 Jordan, 281 Kenya, 288–290, 291 Lebanon, 310 Malawi, 331 Mozambique, 370 Rwanda, 458 Tanzania, 529, 531 Zambia, 605 Great Ruaha River (Tanzania), 531, 533 Great Rye Island (Slovakia), 485–486 Great Salt Lake (United States), 575 Great Salt Pond (Saint Kitts and Nevis), 460 Great Sandy Desert (Australia), 35 Great Scarcies River (Sierra Leone), 481 Great Sea Reef (Fiji), 185 Great Slave Lake (Canada), 97 Great Smoky Mountains (United States), 573 Great Usutu River (Swaziland), 512 Great Victoria Desert (Australia), 35 Great Wall of China, 118 Great Wall of Malé (Maldives), 337 Great Western Erg. See Grand Erg Occidental (Algeria) Great White Place. See Etosha Pan (Namibia) Great Zab River (Iraq), 260 Greater Antarctica. See East Antarctica Greater Antilles Cuba, 144–148 Hispaniola, 159, 229–232 Jamaica, 273–275 Puerto Rico, 444–445 Greater Barsuki Desert (Kazakhstan), 287 Greater Caucasus Mountains, 40, 200, 201, 453 Greater Kabylie range (Algeria), 8 Greater Khingan Range. See Da Hinggan Ling (China) Greater Sunda Islands (Indonesia), 248, 252 Greater Tunb Island (United Arab Emirates), 563 Greece, 210–214, 211, 214t Greek Macedonia, 211 Green Canyon (Indonesia), 250 Green Island (Grenada), 217 Green Island (Taiwan). See Lü Tao Island (Taiwan) Green Line (Cyprus), 148, 150 Green Mountains (Libya). See Jabal al-Akhdar (Libya) Green Mountains (Oman). See Jabal Akhdar (Oman) Green Mountains (United States), 574 Green River (United States), 576 Greenhouses, in Hungary, 237 Greenland, 154, 214–216, 215 Greenland white-fronted goose, 264 Gregory River (Australia), 33 Grenada, 216–218, 217, 217t The Grenadines, 216, 464–465 Grijalva-Usumacinta River (Mexico), 354 Grímsey Island (Iceland), 241 Grímsvötn (Iceland), 239 Groins (Belgium), 54 Groot Spitzkoppe (Namibia), 378 Groote Eylandt (Australia), 34 Groote-Swartberge Mountains (South Africa), 494–495 Gros Morne National Park (Canada), 98 Gros Piton (Saint Lucia), 462–463 Grossglockner (Austria), 36 Groupe d’Aldabra Atoll (Seychelles), 479–480 Grudnarfjördur wetland (Iceland), 240 Gua Kelam (Malaysia), 334 Guadalcanal Island (Solomon Islands), 489– 490 Guadalquivir River (Spain), 500–501 Guadeloupe, 22, 192, 218, 218–219, 219t Guadiana River, 442, 500–501 Guaira Falls (Paraguay), 426 Guajira Peninsula (Colombia), 123 Guam (United States), 571, 577–578 Guanaja Island (Honduras), 233 Guatemala, 219–222, 220, 222t Guaviare River, 124, 591 Guayaquil (Ecuador), 166 Guayas River (Ecuador), 165 Guban Desert (Somalia), 493 Gudenå River (Denmark), 154 Guemoy Islands (Taiwan), 524–525 Guera Massif (Chad), 108 Guernsey (United Kingdom), 568 Guerrero (Mexico), 354 Guerrero Cays. See Man-of-War Cays (Nicaragua) Guiana Highlands, 74, 589–593 Guimaras (The Philippines), 433 Guinea, 222–224, 223 Guinea-Bissau, 225–227, 226 Guinea Highlands, 223 Gulf Coast, 352, 355, 578 Gulf Coastal Plain (Mexico), 356 Gulf of Anadyr (Russia), 455 Gulf of Anna Maria (Cuba), 146 Gulf of Aqaba, 169, 267, 281, 283 Gulf of Bahrain (Qatar), 446 Gulf of Batabanó (Cuba), 146 Gulf of Boothia (Canada), 99 Gulf of Bothnia (Finland), 187–188 Gulf of Cádiz (Portugal), 442 Gulf of California (Mexico), 355, 357 Gulf of Carpentaria (Australia), 34 Gulf of Chihli. See Bo Hai (China) Gulf of Chiriquí (Panama), 418–419, 420 Gulf of Cupica (Colombia), 125 Gulf of Edrimit (Turkey), 548 Gulf of Finland, 179, 187, 455 Geodata.book Page 658 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 50. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA 659 Index Gulf of Fonseca, 173, 233–234, 397 Gulf of Gaeta (Italy), 272 Gulf of Gdan´sk (Poland), 439 Gulf of Genoa (Italy), 272 Gulf of Gonâve (Haiti), 229–231 Gulf of Guacanayabo (Cuba), 146 Gulf of Guayaquil, 166, 430 Gulf of Guinea, 140, 402, 403 Gulf of Hammamet (Tunisia), 544 Gulf of Honduras, 221 Gulf of Kskenderun (Turkey), 548 Gulf of Kachchh (India), 246 Gulf of Kassándra (Greece), 213 Gulf of Khambhat (India), 246 Gulf of Kotor (Croatia), 143 Gulf of Lion. See Golfe de Lion Gulf of Manfredonia (Italy), 271, 272 Gulf of Mannar (India), 246 Gulf of Martaban (Myanmar), 376 Gulf of Mexico, 355 Gulf of Morrosquillo (Colombia), 125 Gulf of Ob’ (Russia), 455 Gulf of Oman, 257, 409 Gulf of Panama, 418–419, 419 Gulf of Papua, 422 Gulf of Parita (Panama), 419 Gulf of Riga, 179, 307, 308–309 Gulf of St. Lawrence (Canada), 95 Gulf of St. Vincent (Australia), 34 Gulf of Salerno (Italy), 272 Gulf of Salûm (Egypt), 169 Gulf of San Miguel (Panama), 419 Gulf of Sidra (Libya), 316 Gulf of Spezia (Italy), 272 Gulf of Suez (Egypt), 169 Gulf of Tadjoura (Djibouti), 156 Gulf of Taranto (Italy), 271, 272 Gulf of Tehuantepec (Mexico), 355 Gulf of Thémai (Greece), 213 Gulf of Tibugá (Colombia), 125 Gulf of Todo (Indonesia), 252 Gulf of Tonkin, 119, 594–595 Gulf of Urabá (Colombia), 125 Gulf of Venice (Italy), 271, 272 Gullfoss (Iceland), 240 Gumal River (Pakistan), 413 Gunnbjorn Mountain (Greenland), 215 Gunung Agung volcano (Indonesia), 250 Gunung Mulu National Park (Malaysia), 334 Gunung Sewu Plateau (Indonesia), 250 Guri hydroelectric project (Venezuela), 592 Guri Reservoir (Venezuela), 591 Gusan (Yugoslavia), 602 Gutland (Luxembourg), 323, 324 Guyana, 227–229, 228 Gwaai Valley (Zimbabwe), 611 Gweebarra Bay (Ireland), 263 Gyala Pass (Nepal), 384 Gydan Peninsula (Russia), 455 Gyumri (Armenia), 28 H Ha Long Bay (Vietnam), 595 Haanja Uplands (Estonia), 179 Ha’apai Island Group (Tonga), 538–539 Haardt Mountains, 202–203 Habomai Island, 276 Hacha Canyon (Venezuela), 591 Hachimantai Plateau (Japan), 277 Hackleton’s Cliff (Barbados), 48 Haddummati Atoll (Maldives), 338 Hadhramawt (Yemen), 599 Haedo Hills (Uruguay), 581 Haeju Bay (DPRK), 296 Haenam Peninsula (Korea, Republic of), 298 Haft Talar. See Astola (Pakistan) Haho River (Togo), 537 Hai He (China), 119 Hai River (China), 118 Haifa (Israel), 267, 268 Hailstorms Bangladesh, 47 India, 246 Hainan Island (China), 119 Haiphong (Vietnam), 594 Haiphong Harbor (Vietnam), 596 Haiti, 229–232, 230, 231t Hajar al-Gharbi (Oman), 409 Hajar al-Shargi (Oman), 409 Hajar Range (United Arab Emirates), 562 Hakone hills (Japan), 278 Haleji Lake (Pakistan), 413 Half Moon Bay (Saint Kitts and Nevis), 461 Halhïn River (Mongolia), 365 Haliç Estuary (Turkey), 548–549 Halla San (Korea, Republic of), 297–298 Hallinskarvet (Norway), 405 Halls (Micronesia), 358 Halmahera (Indonesia), 249, 252 Haltiatunturi. See Mount Haltia (Finland) Halul (Qatar), 446 Hamad (Syria), 523 Hamdhah (Saudi Arabia), 475 Hamersley Range (Australia), 32 Hamgyo˘ng Range (DPRK), 295 Hamilton (Bermuda), 60 Hamiz River (Algeria), 9 Hammal Lake (Pakistan), 413 Hamsin. See Winds Han Chinese, 120 Han River (Korea, Republic of), 298 Hand of Fatima (Mali), 340 Hangayn Range (Mongolia), 363, 364, 367 Hanjsh Island (Yemen), 600 Hanoi (Vietnam), 595–596 Haochiung Bay (Taiwan), 526 Hapsburg Empire, 36 Har Us Lake (Mongolia), 365 Har Us Nuur National Park (Mongolia), 365 Harare (Zimbabwe), 609, 611 Harau Valley nature reserve (Indonesia), 250 Harbors Brazil, 76 Crete, 213 Cuba, 146–147 Denmark, 154 Greenland, 215 Honduras, 234 Iceland, 241 Italy, 272 Jamaica, 275 Micronesia, 359 Norway, 404 Panama, 419 Poland, 438 Portugal, 442 Turks and Caicos Islands, 553 Tuvalu, 554 Vietnam, 594 Virgin Islands, 598 See also specific harbors Hardanger Fjord (Norway), 407 Hardangervidda Plateau (Norway), 405 Harghita Mountains (Romania), 448 Harike Lake (India), 245 Harjrsd River, 1, 3, 551 Harmattan Burkina Faso, 85–86 Guinea-Bissau, 226 Liberia, 315 Mauritania, 348 Niger, 400 Harra Plateau (Yemen), 599 Harris (United Kingdom), 568 Harupai (East Timor), 162 Harz Mountains (Germany), 205 Hasban River (Golan Heights), 267 Hatohobei Island (Palau), 416 Hatton Plateau (Sri Lanka), 503, 505 Haud, 491, 493 Haulover Creek (Belize), 56 Hauraki Gulf (New Zealand), 393 Haut-Congo. See Upper Congo (DROC) Hawaii (United States), 576, 579 Hawaiian Islands (United States), 573, 574, 577, 579 Hawar Islands (Bahrain), 43–44, 447 Haweswater Lake (England), 566 Hawke Bay (New Zealand), 393, 394 Hawr al-Habbanjyah (Iraq), 259, 261 Hawran Plateau (Syria), 521–523 Hazaribagh Hills (India), 244 Haze. See Air pollution Health resorts, in Armenia, 29 Heard Island (Australia), 31, 32, 34 Heavenly Lake (China). See Tianchi Lake (China) Heavenly Lake (DPRK). See Cho’onji Lake (DPRK) Hebgen Lake (United States), 573 Hebron (Israel), 267 Hecate Strait (Canada), 99 Heilong Jiang. See Amur River (China) Hejaz Mountains (Saudi Arabia), 472 Hekla Volcano (Iceland), 239 Helena, Montana (United States), 573 Hells Canyon (United States), 575 Helmand River (Afghanistan), 1, 3 Hendijan River (Iran), 256 Hendurabi (Iran), 257 Hentiyn Range (Mongolia), 363, 364, 367 Hercynian Massif, 150, 189, 190–191 Hermon Range, 266, 310 Herschel Sea Canyon. See Mackenzie Trough (Canada) Hervideros de San Jacinto (Nicaragua), 396 Herzegovina. See Bosnia and Herzegovina Hesar Range (Afghanistan), 2 “Hessian Corridor” (Germany), 204 Hida Mountains (Japan), 276 Geodata.book Page 659 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 51. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA660 Hidden Valley Falls (Belize), 56 Hierro Island (Spain), 500 High Atlas Mountains (Morocco), 369 High Netherlands, 387 High Plains (United States), 571 High Plains of Hausaland. See Northern High Plains (Nigeria) High Steppes (Tunisia), 544–545 High Tatras Mountains (Slovakia), 484, 486 Highlands (Brazil), 73–74 Highlands (Papua New Guinea), 420–423 Highlands (Scotland), 564, 566 Highveld (South Africa), 494–495, 497 Highveld (Zimbabwe), 609–611 Highways, 68, 124, 414 Hiiumaa Island (Estonia), 179 Hillary, Edmund, 384 Hills Brunei, 80 Chad, 108 China, 117 Comoros, 127 Congo, Republic of, 134 Czech Republic, 151 Denmark, 154 Dominican Republic, 160 Ecuador, 165 Estonia, 179 Finland, 186 France, 191 Ghana, 208 Guadeloupe, 218 Guyana, 227 Hungary, 235 India, 244 Indonesia, 250 Iran, 255 Iraq, 259 Israel, 267 Italy, 271 Japan, 278 Laos, 306 Latvia, 308 Lesotho, 312 Liberia, 314 Liechtenstein, 319 Lithuania, 320 Luxembourg, 323 Malawi, 331 Malaysia, 334 Malta, 343 Mauritania, 347 Mexico, 354 Moldova, 360 Monaco, 362 Mongolia, 364 Mozambique, 371–372 Myanmar, 375 Namibia, 379 Nepal, 384 The Netherlands, 388 New Zealand, 391 Nicaragua, 396 Pakistan, 412 Panama, 417 Papua New Guinea, 421 Paraguay, 424–425 The Philippines, 433 Poland, 437 Portugal, 441–442 Puerto Rico, 444 Qatar, 446 Romania, 449 Russia, 453 Senegal, 476 Singapore, 483 Uruguay, 581 See also Mountains Himalayas Bhutan, 62–64 China, 115, 116 India, 242–243 Myanmar, 375 Nepal, 383–384 Pakistan, 411 Hin Boon River (Laos), 306 Hindenburg Range (Papua New Guinea), 420 Hindu Kush mountains, 1, 2–3, 411 Hinnøya (Norway), 406 Hisor Valley (Tajikistan), 529 Hispaniola Dominican Republic, 159 Haiti, 229–232 Hitadu Island (Maldives), 338 Hkakabo Razi (Myanmar), 375 Ho Chi Minh City (Vietnam), 594, 596 Ho Tay (Vietnam), 595 Hoan Lien Mountains (Vietnam), 594 Hoanib River (Namibia), 379 Hoarusib River (Namibia), 379 Ho˘ch’o˘n River (DPRK), 295 Hobyo Desert (Somalia), 493 Hochfrottspitze (Germany), 202 Hodges River (Dominica), 157 Hodh el Gharbi basin (Mauritania), 348 Hofsjökull (Iceland), 240 Hoggar Mountains (Mali), 340 Hohe Tauern (Austria), 36 Hokianga Harbour (New Zealand), 393 Hokkaidm (Japan), 276–280 Hokuriku (Japan), 279 Holland. See The Netherlands Hollick-Kenyon Plateau (Antarctica), 19 Holy See. See Vatican City Hombori Mountains (Mali), 340 Home Island (Australia), 34 Homer (Greek author), 212, 269 Homs (Syria), 523 Homs Gap (Syria), 521, 523 Hondo River (Belize), 56 Honduras, 232–234, 233, 234t Honolulu (United States), 577 Honshs (Japan), 276–280 Hoosac Mountains (United States), 574 Hormoz (Iran), 257 Hormozgan (Iran), 257 Horns Desert (Syria), 523 Horse Ears Mountain. See Maisan (Korea, Republic of) Horses, in Mongolia, 365 Hortobágy (Hungary), 238 Horton Plains (Sri Lanka), 504 Hospental (Switzerland), 519 Hot springs Dominica, 157 East Timor, 163 Ethiopia, 182 Iceland, 239 Jamaica, 274 Kenya, 290 Mongolia, 364 New Zealand, 391 Nicaragua, 396 United States, 575 See also Thermal resources Hotakadake (Japan), 276 Hövsgöl Lake (Mongolia), 365 Howland Island (United States), 577 Howz Soltan Lake (Iran), 256 Hoy Island (United Kingdom), 568 Hraunfossar (Iceland), 240 Hrazdan River (Armenia), 29 Hrísey Island (Iceland), 241 Hron River (Slovakia), 485 Hrubý Jeseník Mountains (Czech Republic), 150–151 Hsiao Liu-Chiu Yü Island (Taiwan), 525 Hua Shan (China), 117 Huaca Huacani (Peru), 430 Huai He (China), 118, 119 Huallaga River (Peru), 430 Huang He (China), 118, 119 Huang Shan (China), 117 Huapí Mountains (Nicaragua), 395 Huasco River (Chile), 113 Huaura River (Peru), 428 Hudson Bay (Canada), 95, 97 Hudson Bay Company, 97 Hudson River (United States), 574, 576–577, 579 Hudson Strait (Canada), 99 Huiarau Range (New Zealand), 391 Huib-Hoch Plateau (Namibia), 379 Huila Plateau (Angola), 13 Hula Valley (Israel), 266 Hulhumale (Maldives), 337 Human population. See Population Humber River (United Kingdom), 566, 569 Humboldt, Alexander von, 165 Humboldt Current. See Peru Current Humboldt River (United States), 576 Humedales de San Miguelito (Nicaragua), 396 Humuya River (Honduras), 233 Húna Bay (Iceland), 241 Hungary, 235–238, 236, 237t Hunter Island (Vanuatu), 587 Hunting, in Mali, 342 Huon Gulf (Papua New Guinea), 422 Huon Peninsula (Papua New Guinea), 422 Hurricanes Anguilla, 17 The Bahamas, 42 Belize, 57 Bermuda, 61 Cayman Islands, 104 Dominican Republic, 161 El Salvador, 173 Granada, 217 Haiti, 231 Honduras, 234 Geodata.book Page 660 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 52. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA 661 Index Nicaragua, 397 Puerto Rico, 445 Saint Kitts and Nevis, 461 Hustain Nuruu nature reserve (Mongolia), 365 Hutiaojian Canyon (China), 117 Huyten Orgil. See Nayramadlïn Orgil (Mongolia) Hvíta River (Iceland), 240 Hyargas Lake (Mongolia), 365 Hydrocarbon, in Brunei, 80–81 Hydroelectric power Albania, 7 Austria, 39 Benin, 59 Bhutan, 63, 64 Brazil, 78 Cameroon, 95 Canada, 98, 101 Central African Republic, 107 Chile, 113, 114 China, 118, 121 Colombia, 123–124 Congo, Democratic Republic of, 133 Côte d’Ivoire, 142 Dominica, 158 El Salvador, 174 Ethiopia, 182, 183 Fiji, 185 Georgia, 202 Guatemala, 222 Guinea, 224 Honduras, 234 Iceland, 240, 241 India, 248 Italy, 273 Japan, 278, 281 Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of, 295, 297 Kyrgyzstan, 304 Laos, 306, 307 Latvia, 308 Liechtenstein, 319 Luxembourg, 323 Malawi, 333 Mali, 342 Mexico, 355 Mongolia, 365, 367 Mozambique, 372, 374 Nepal, 385, 386 New Zealand, 394 Nicaragua, 398 Nigeria, 402 Norway, 408 Pakistan, 413, 414 Panama, 418, 420 Papua New Guinea, 423 Paraguay, 427 Peru, 432 The Philippines, 436 Puerto Rico, 445 Romania, 449, 451 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, 465 Samoa, 468 São Tomé and Príncipe, 471 Spain, 502 Sri Lanka, 505 Sudan, 510 Suriname, 510, 512 Swaziland, 513–514 Switzerland, 520–521 Syria, 524 Tajikistan, 528–529 Tanzania, 533 Thailand, 536 Three Gorges Dam, 118 Uganda, 558 United States, 581 Uruguay, 583 Venezuela, 592–593 Zambia, 608 Hypersaline lagoons, Mexico, 355 I Ialomit¸a River (Romania), 449 Ialpug River (Moldova), 361 Iberá (Argentina), 26 Iberian Cordillera Mountains (Spain), 500 Iberian Peninsula, 440 Ibiza Island (Spain), 500 Ibo Island (Mozambique), 373 Ica River (Peru), 428 Ice. See Glaciers Ice shelves. See Glaciers Icebergs, 20, 215 See also Glaciers Iceland, 238–241, 239 Ichilo River (Bolivia), 66 ICJ (International Court of Justice), 447 Idaho (United States), 579 Idjwi Island (DROC), 131 Ifugaos, 435 Igala Plateau (Nigeria), 402, 404 Iguazú Falls, 24, 26, 27, 76 Iguazú National Park (Argentina), 27 Iguazú River, 26 Ihavandiffulu Atoll (Maldives), 338 Iii Ileru (Nigeria), 402 IJssel River (The Netherlands), 388 IJsselmeer (The Netherlands), 388 Ilas Elobey (Equatorial Guinea), 174–175 Ile à Morfil Island (Senegal), 477 Île aux Serpents (Mauritania), 351 Ile de Gorée Island (Senegal), 477 Île de la Cité (France), 191 Île de Ré (France), 192 Île Gombo (Rwanda), 459 Île Ridra (Mauritania), 348 Île Ronde (Mauritania), 351 Îles Banks. See Bank Islands (Vanuatu) Iles de la Madeleine (Canada), 99 Îles de la Petite Terre (Guadeloupe), 218 Îles de Los (Guinea), 224 Îles des Saintes (Guadeloupe), 218 Île du Diable (French Guiana), 195 Îles du Salut (French Guiana), 195 Îles Torres. See Torres Islands (Vanuatu) Ilha de Moçambique (Mozambique), 372 Ilhéu Caroço (São Tomé and Príncipe), 470– 471 Ilhéu das Rôlas (São Tomé and Príncipe), 470– 471 Ili River (Kazakhstan), 284, 285, 286 Ili River Valley (Kazakhstan), 286 Iligan Bay (The Philippines), 435 Illampu (Bolivia), 66 Illana Bay (The Philippines), 435 Illimani (Bolivia), 66 Ilulissat (Greenland), 215 Imatong Mountains, 507, 509, 556 Imbo plain (Burundi), 88 Immigration, Austria, 38–39 Impossible Forest. See Bosque El Imposible (El Salvador) Kmroz. See Gökçeada Island (Turkey) Inaccessible Island (United Kingdom), 568 Inambari River (Peru), 430 Inca ruins, Peru, 430 Independence East Timor, 162, 163 Eritrea, 176 India, 45, 241–248, 243, 247t Indian River (Dominica), 157 Indian Tectonic Plate Iran, 255 Nepal, 383 Pakistan, 411 Sri Lanka, 502 Indigo Bay (Mozambique), 373 Indio River (Panama), 418 Indira Ghandi Canal (India), 247 Indo-Australian Tectonic Plate Bhutan, 62 Tonga, 539 Indo-Gangetic Plain. See Gangetic Plain Indonesia, 248–254, 249, 253t Indragiri River (Indonesia), 251 Indus Dolphin Reserve (Pakistan), 413 Indus River, 244, 413 Indus River Plain (Pakistan), 411, 413, 414 Industrial accidents, India, 248 Industrial pollution Indonesia, 250 Moldova, 361 Pakistan, 413 Papua New Guinea, 421, 422 The Philippines, 434 See also Pollution Industry. See Commerce and industry Inguri River (Georgia), 200 Inhaca Island (Mozambique), 373 Inland Sea. See Persian Gulf Inland Sea (Japan), 278, 279 Inland waterways Afghanistan, 3 Albania, 6 Algeria, 9 Angola, 13–14 Antarctica, 19 Argentina, 25–26 Armenia, 28–29 Australia, 33 Austria, 37–38 Azerbaijan, 40 Bangladesh, 45–46 Belarus, 50–51 Belgium, 53–54 Belize, 56 Benin, 58 Bhutan, 63 Bolivia, 66–67 Geodata.book Page 661 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 53. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA662 Bosnia and Herzegovina, 69 Botswana, 71–72 Brazil, 74–76 Brunei, 80 Bulgaria, 82–83 Burkina Faso, 85 Burundi, 87–88 Cambodia, 89–90 Cameroon, 94 Canada, 97–98 Cayman Islands, 104 Chad, 108–110 Chile, 113 China, 117–119 Congo, Democratic Republic of, 130–131 Congo, Republic of, 134 Costa Rica, 137 Côte d’Ivoire, 139 Croatia, 142–143 Cuba, 146 Cyprus, 149 Czech Republic, 151 Denmark, 154 Djibouti, 156 Dominica, 157–158 Dominican Republic, 160 East Timor, 162–163 Ecuador, 165 Egypt, 168–169 El Salvador, 172 Equatorial Guinea, 175 Eritrea, 177 Estonia, 179 Ethiopia, 182–183 Fiji, 184 Finland, 187 France, 191–192 French Guiana, 195 Gabon, 196–197 Gambia, 198 Georgia, 200 Germany, 204–205 Ghana, 208 Greece, 212 Grenada, 216 Guadeloupe, 218 Guatemala, 220–221 Guinea, 223–224 Guinea-Bissau, 225 Guyana, 227–228 Haiti, 230–231 Honduras, 233 Hungary, 235–236 Iceland, 240 India, 244–245 Indonesia, 250–251 Iran, 255–257 Iraq, 259–260 Ireland, 262–263 Israel, 267 Italy, 271 Jamaica, 274 Japan, 278 Jordan, 282–283 Kazakhstan, 285–286 Kenya, 290 Kiribati, 293 Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of, 295 Korea, Republic of, 298 Kyrgyzstan, 303 Laos, 306 Latvia, 308 Lebanon, 310–311 Lesotho, 312 Liberia, 314 Libya, 316 Liechtenstein, 319 Lithuania, 320 Luxembourg, 323 Macedonia, 326 Madagascar, 329 Malawi, 331–332 Malaysia, 334–335 Mali, 341 Mauritania, 348 Mauritius, 351 Mexico, 354–355 Micronesia, 358 Moldova, 360 Mongolia, 364–365 Morocco, 369 Mozambique, 372 Myanmar, 375–376 Namibia, 379 Nauru, 382 Nepal, 384–385 The Netherlands, 388 New Zealand, 392–393 Nicaragua, 396 Niger, 399 Nigeria, 401–403 Norway, 405 Oman, 409 Pakistan, 413 Palau, 415 Panama, 418 Papua New Guinea, 421–422 Paraguay, 425–426 Peru, 428–430 The Philippines, 433–434 Poland, 437–438 Portugal, 442 Puerto Rico, 444 Qatar, 446 Romania, 449 Russia, 453–454 Rwanda, 458–459 Saint Kitts and Nevis, 460–461 Saint Lucia, 462–463 Samoa, 467 São Tomé and Príncipe, 470–471 Saudi Arabia, 473 Senegal, 476 Seychelles, 478 Sierra Leone, 481 Singapore, 483 Slovakia, 485–486 Solomon Islands, 489 Somalia, 491 South Africa, 495–496 Spain, 500 Sri Lanka, 503–504 Sudan, 507–508 Suriname, 510–511 Swaziland, 512–513 Sweden, 515 Switzerland, 519 Syria, 522–523 Taiwan, 525 Tajikistan, 528 Tanzania, 531 Thailand, 534–535 Togo, 538 Tonga, 539 Trinidad and Tobago, 541 Tunisia, 544 Turkey, 547–548 Turkmenistan, 550–551 Turks and Caicos Islands, 552 Tuvalu, 554 Uganda, 556–557 Ukraine, 559–560 United Arab Emirates, 563 United Kingdom, 566–567 United States, 575–576 Uruguay, 581–582 Uzbekistan, 584–585 Venezuela, 591–592 Vietnam, 595 Virgin Islands, 598 Yemen, 599–600 Yugoslavia, 603–604 Zambia, 606–607 Zimbabwe, 609–610 Inle Lake (Myanmar), 375 Inn River, 37, 519 Inner Hebrides (United Kingdom), 568 Inner Himalayas. See Lesser Himalayas Inner Mongolia. See Nei Mongol Plateau (China) Intel Corporation, in Costa Rica, 138 Inter-Andean Lane (Ecuador), 165 Interior Flanders (Belgium), 54 Interior Highlands (United States), 573 Interior Plains (Canada), 96 Intermountane Plateau (United States), 573– 575, 579 International cooperation, in Antarctica, 18 International Court of Justice (ICJ), 447 International Dateline, Tonga, 539 International finance Bermuda, 61 Turks and Caicos Islands, 553 Vanuatu, 588 See also Commerce and industry International Geosphere-Biosphere Program (Mongolia), 365 International Hydrographic Association, 19 International Whaling Commission, 20 Inverness (Scotland), 567 Ionian Islands (Greece), 212 Ionian Sea, 6, 269, 271 Iori Plateau (Georgia), 200 Iori River (Georgia), 200 Ipanema (Brazil), 76 Ipel’ River (Slovakia), 485 Iran, 254–259, 256, 258t Iraq, 259–262, 260, 261t Irazúá volcano (Costa Rica), 136 Irben Strait, 309 Geodata.book Page 662 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 54. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA 663 Index Ireland, 262–265, 263, 265t See also Northern Ireland Ireland Island (Bermuda), 60 Irish Sea, 263, 567 Iron Gate, 449, 603–604 Iron ore Afghanistan, 5 Argentina, 27 Cameroon, 95 Luxembourg, 324 Macedonia, 326 Mauritania, 349 Russia, 457 Ironstone Plateau (Sudan), 507 Irrawaddy River (Myanmar), 374–376 Irrigation Azerbaijan, 40 Bahrain, 44 Ethiopia, 183 Iran, 255 Japan, 278 Kazakhstan, 286 Lake Chad, 108, 110 Lebanon, 311 Mongolia, 366 Pakistan, 413 Syria, 523 Thailand, 535 Turkmenistan, 551 Uzbekistan, 584 Irtysh-Qaraghandy Canal (Kazakhstan), 286 Irtysh River, 286, 454 Ísa Fjord (Iceland), 241 Isabela Island (Galápagos), 165 Ischia (Italy), 272 Ise Bay (Japan), 279 Isfahan (Iran), 256 Ishikari Plain (Japan), 280 Ishikari River (Japan), 278 Ishim River (Kazakhstan), 286 Ishinomaki Bay (Japan), 279 Isiboro River (Bolivia), 66 Isla Amantani (Peru), 430 Isla Bastimentos National Park (Panama), 418 Isla Beata. See Beata Island (Dominican Republic) Isla Cabritos (Dominican Republic), 160 Isla de Bioko (Equatorial Guinea), 174–175 Isla de Corisco (Equatorial Guinea), 174–175 Isla de la Independencia (Peru), 430 Isla de la Juventud (Cuba), 144, 146, 147 Isla de Lobos (Uruguay), 582 Isla de los Estados (Argentina), 26 Isla de Ometepe. See Ometepe Island Isla del Coco. See Coco Island (Costa Rica) Isla del Ray (Panama), 419 Isla Esteves (Peru), 430 Isla Lobos de Tierra (Peru), 430 Isla Malvinas. See Falkland Islands (United Kingdom) Isla Margarita (Venezuela), 591–593 Isla Montecristo (El Salvador), 172 Isla Santiago. See San Salvador Island (Galápagos) Isla Saona. See Saona Island (Dominican Republic) Isla Taquile (Peru), 430 Islamabad (Pakistan), 413 Islamic scholarship, Mali, 341 Islands Antarctica, 20–21 Argentina, 26 Australia, 34 The Bahamas, 41–42 Bahrain, 44 Bangladesh, 47 Belize, 56 Bermuda, 60 Brazil, 76 Brunei, 80 Cambodia, 90 Canada, 99 Cape Verde, 101–103 Cayman, 103–104 Chile, 112, 113 China, 119 Colombia, 124–125 Comoros, 127 Congo, Democratic Republic of, 131 Costa Rica, 137 Croatia, 143 Cuba, 144, 146–147 Denmark, 153, 154 Dominican Republic, 160 East Timor, 162–164 Ecuador, 165 Equatorial Guinea, 174–176 Eritrea, 177 Estonia, 179–180 Fiji, 184–186 Finland, 186, 188 France, 192–193 French Guiana, 195 Gambia, 198 Germany, 205 Greece, 210, 212–213 Greenland, 214–216 Grenada, 216–217 Guadeloupe, 218–219 Guinea, 224 Guinea-Bissau, 225 Haiti, 231 Honduras, 233 Iceland, 238, 240–241 India, 245–246 Indonesia, 248–254 Iran, 257 Ireland, 263 Italy, 272 Jamaica, 275 Japan, 276, 279 Kiribati, 292–294 Korea, Republic of, 298 Kuwait, 301 Madagascar, 329 Malaysia, 335 Maldives, 338 Marshall Islands, 344 Mauritania, 348 Mauritius, 351 Mexico, 355 Micronesia, 358–359 Mozambique, 372–373 Myanmar, 376 Namibia, 379 The Netherlands, 388 Netherlands Antilles, 390 New Zealand, 393–394 Nicaragua, 396–397 Nigeria, 403 Norway, 405–407 Oman, 409 Palau, 416 Panama, 419 Papua New Guinea, 422 Peru, 430 The Philippines, 434–435 Portugal, 442 Puerto Rico, 444 Qatar, 446 Russia, 455 Rwanda, 459 Saint Kitts and Nevis, 460–462 Saint Lucia, 463 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, 464–465 Samoa, 466–468, 468t São Tomé and Príncipe, 471 Saudi Arabia, 473 Senegal, 477 Seychelles, 478–480, 480t Sierra Leone, 481 Singapore, 483 Solomon Islands, 489 Somalia, 492 South Africa, 496 Spain, 500 Sri Lanka, 504 Sweden, 516 Taiwan, 524–525 Tanzania, 531–532 Thailand, 535 Tonga, 539 Trinidad and Tobago, 541 Tunisia, 544 Turkey, 548 Turks and Caicos Islands, 553 Tuvalu, 554, 555t Uganda, 558 United Arab Emirates, 563 United Kingdom, 567–568 United States, 577–578 Uruguay, 582 Vanuatu, 587 Venezuela, 592 Vietnam, 595–596 Yemen, 600 See also names of specific islands Islas Ballestas (Peru), 430 Islas Chafarinas (Spain), 368, 499 Islas de la Bahía (Honduras), 233 Islas de los Uros (Peru), 430 Islas de Sangayán (Peru), 430 Islas Flotantes. See Islas de los Uros (Peru) Islas Lobos de Afuera (Peru), 430 Islas Marías (Mexico), 355 Islas Quemadas (El Salvador), 172 Islay (United Kingdom), 566, 568 Isle of Anglesey (United Kingdom), 568 Isle of Man (United Kingdom), 568 Isle of Pines. See Isla de la Juventud (Cuba) Isle of Springs. See Jamaica Geodata.book Page 663 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 55. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA664 Isle of Wight (United Kingdom), 568–569 Isle Royale (United States), 577 Isles Lagoon (Kiribati), 293 Isles of Scilly (United Kingdom), 566–568 Israel, 265–268, 266, 268t Issa Ber River (Mali), 341 Kstanbul (Turkey), 548–549 Isthmus of Kra (Thailand), 535 Isthmus of Panama, 417 Isthmus of Perekop (Ukraine), 561 Isthmus of Tehuantepec (Mexico), 352, 354, 355 Istria Peninsula (Croatia), 143 Itaimbey River (Paraguay), 426 Itaipu Dam, 76, 425, 426, 427 Itaipu Reservoir (Paraguay), 425, 426 Italian Riviera, 272 Italian Sea. See Tyrrhenian Sea Italy, 268–273, 270, 273t Ithaca (Greece), 212 Itimbiri River (DROC), 131 Ivindo River (Gabon), 196 Ivondro River (Madagascar), 329 Ivory Coast. See Côte d’Ivoire Ivreagh peninsula (Ireland), 262 Iwo Jima (Japan), 279 Kzmit (Turkey), 546 Izola (Slovenia), 488 Izozog Swamps (Bolivia), 67 Iztaccíhuatl (Mexico), 353 Izu Peninsula (Japan), 279 J Jabal Abs Rujmayn (Syria), 522 Jabal Akhdar (Oman), 409 Jabal al-Akhdar (Libya), 316–318 Jabal an Nupsayrjyah. See An Nupayrjyah Mountains (Syria) Jabal ar-Ruwaq (Syria), 522 Jabal ash Shaykh. See Mount Hermon (Syria) Jabal az Zawiyah Range (Syria), 521 Jabal Bishrj (Syria), 522 Jabal Druze (Syria), 521–523 Jabal Ramm (Jordan), 282 Jabal Sawda’ Peak (Saudi Arabia), 472 Jaco Island (East Timor), 163 Jaffna Lagoon (Sri Lanka), 504 Jaffna Peninsula (Sri Lanka), 504 Jagdishpur Reservoir (Nepal), 385 Jaghbub (Libya), 318 Jake Lake. See Tianchi Lake (China) Jakobshavn Glacier (Greenland), 215 Jakupica Mountains (Macedonia), 325 Jalaan (Oman), 410 Jalal-Abad (Kyrgyzstan), 302 Jalapa (Mexico), 356 Jalu (Libya), 318 Jaluit Atoll (Marshall Islands), 344 Jamaica, 273–276, 274, 275t Jamaica Channel, 231 James Bay (Canada), 97 James Island (Gambia), 198 James River (United States), 576 Jammer Bay (Denmark), 154 Jammu, 242 Jamuna River. See Brahmaputra River Jan Mayen Island (Norway), 407 Japan, 276–281, 277, 280t, 281t Japanese Alps, 276 Japurá River (Brazil), 74 Jarahi River (Iran), 256 Jardines de la Reina (Cuba), 147 Jari River (Brazil), 74 Jarvis Island (United States), 577 Jasen National Park (Macedonia), 326 Jasmund National Park (Germany), 205 Java (Indonesia), 248–252 Java Trench (Indonesia), 251 Javorníky Mountains, 151, 485 Jayawijaya. See Puncak Jaya (Indonesia) Jaz Msrjan Desert (Iran), 258 Jebal al Houf (Yemen), 601 Jebal Bura (Yemen), 601 Jebel Adyad Plateau (Sudan), 507 Jejuí Guazú River (Paraguay), 426 Jelep La (India), 243 Jengish Chokusu (Kyrgyzstan), 302 Jerba Island (Tunisia), 544 Jersey (United Kingdom), 568 Jerusalem, 267, 268 Jeta (Guinea-Bissau), 225 Jewish population Israel, 268 Poland, 440 Jezreel Valley (Israel), 266, 267 Jhelum River, 244, 413 Jicarón Island (Panama), 419 Jidda (Bahrain), 43–44 Jidda (Saudi Arabia), 474 Jiddat al-Harasjs (Oman), 409, 410 Jinja (Uganda), 557–558 Jinsha River (China), 118, 119 Jiquilsco Bay (El Salvador), 173 Jiu River (Romania), 449 Jiuhua Shan (China), 117 Jiwani Coastal Wetland (Pakistan), 413 Jizera River (Czech Republic), 151 Johannesburg (South Africa), 495, 497 John Crow Mountains (Jamaica), 274 Johnston Island (United States), 577 Jökulsá á Brú River (Iceland), 240 Jökulsá á Fjöllum River (Iceland), 240 Jolo (The Philippines), 435 Jones Sound (Canada), 99 Jong River (Sierra Leone), 481 Jordan, 266, 281–283, 282 Jordan River, 267, 282–283 Jordan River Valley, 266, 281, 283 Jo-Shin-Etsu National Park (Japan), 277 Jos Plateau (Nigeria), 402–404 Joseph Bonaparte Gulf (Australia), 34 Jost Van Dyke Island (British Virgin Islands), 79 Jostedalsbreen (Norway), 405 Jotunheimen (Norway), 405 Joubert Mountains (Namibia), 378 Jourdain River (Vanuatu), 587 Joyce, James, 264 Juan Fernández Islands (Chile), 113 Jubba River, 182, 491 Júcar River (Spain), 500 Judaea (Israel), 266, 267 Judaean Desert (Israel), 267 Judaean Hills (Israel), 267 Julian Alps, 270, 487 Juliana Canal (The Netherlands), 388 Juliana Top (Suriname), 510 Junggar Basin (China), 117, 120 Jungles. See Rainforests Juozapinh (Lithuania), 320 Jura Mountains, 190, 191, 517–521 Juruá River (Brazil), 74 Jutland peninsula (Denmark), 153–154 Južna Morava River (Yugoslavia), 604 Jylland peninsula. See Jutland peninsula K K2 (Pakistan), 411 Kaamos, in Finland, 188 Kaap Plateau. See Middle Veld (South Africa) Kabalebo River (Suriname), 511 Kabul River, 3, 413 Kabumbé Peak. See Pico Kabumbé (São Tomé and Príncipe) Kabwe River Swamp (Zambia), 607–608 Kaçkar Dagi. See Mt. Kaçkar (Turkey) Kada (Iceland), 239 Kadan Island (Myanmar), 376 Kadavu Island (Fiji), 185 Kadei River (Central African Republic), 105 Kading River (Laos), 306 Kaduna River (Nigeria), 403 Kaema Plateau (DPRK), 295 Kafu River (Uganda), 557 Kafue Flats (Zambia), 608 Kafue River (Zambia), 605, 607–608 Kagera River (Rwanda), 459 Kagoshima Bay (Japan), 279 Kahoolawe (United States), 577 Kai Islands (Indonesia), 252 Kaidu River (China), 119 Kaieteur Falls (Guyana), 227 Kaieteurian Plateau (Guyana), 227 Kailas Mountains. See Gangdisê Shan (China) Kaileuna (Papua New Guinea), 422 Kaimanawa Range (New Zealand), 391 Kaimur Hills (India), 244 Kainji Lake (Nigeria), 402 Kakamega Forest Reserve (Kenya), 291 Kakhovka Reservoir (Ukraine), 559 Kala River (Sri Lanka), 504 Kalahari Desert Botswana, 71, 72 Namibia, 377, 380 South Africa, 497 Kalambo Falls (Zambia), 607 Kalang River (Singapore), 483 Kali Gandak Gorge (Nepal), 384 Kali Gandak River (Nepal), 385 Kalimantan (Indonesia), 248, 250, 252 Kálimnos (Greece), 213 Kaliningrad Oblast (Russia), 453, 455 Kaloum Peninsula. See Camayenne Peninsula (Guinea) Kalpitya Peninsula (Sri Lanka), 504 Kalri Lake. See Kinjhar Lake (Pakistan) Kama River (Russia), 454 Kasn River (Iran), 256, 257 Kasn River Canyon (Iran), 255 Geodata.book Page 664 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 56. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA 665 Index Kamadougou Yobé River (Niger), 399 Kamaran Island (Yemen), 600 Kamchatka Peninsula (Russia), 451, 453, 455 Kamchiya River (Bulgaria), 83 Kame Plješevica peak (Croatia), 142 Kamet (India), 242 Kamjan Marshes (Iran), 257 Kamnik-Savinja Range (Slovenia), 487 Kampala (Uganda), 558 Kampar River (Indonesia), 251 Kâmpóng Saôm. See Kompong Som (Cambodia) Kanchenjunga, 242, 384 Kandla (India), 245 Kandovan hills (Iran), 255 Kandy (Sri Lanka), 503 Kandy Plateau (Sri Lanka), 503 Kangaroo Island (Australia), 34 Kangnam Range (DPRK), 295 Kaniv Reservoir (Ukraine), 559 Kanjli (India), 245 Kano Rift Valley (Kenya), 290 Kansai International Airport (Japan), 279 Kanto Plain (Japan), 279, 280 Kanuku Mountains (Guyana), 227, 229 Kao-hsiung (Taiwan), 526 Kao Island (Tonga), 539 Kao-p’ing River (Taiwan), 525–526 Kaôh Ru˘ng (Cambodia), 90 Kaokoveld Mountains (Namibia), 378, 379 Kaolack (Senegal), 477 Kapingamarangi Islands (Micronesia), 358 Kapos River (Hungary), 236 Kaptai Lake. See Karnaphuli Reservoir (Bangladesh) Kapuas River (Indonesia), 250–251 Kapuzbasi Waterfall (Turkey), 548 Kara River (Togo), 537 Kara Sea, 455 Kara-Bogaz Gol (Turkmenistan), 551 Karachi (Pakistan), 413–414 Karagiye Depression (Kazakhstan), 285 Karagöl Mountains (Turkey), 546 Karakalpakstan. See Qoraqalpogh Autonomous Republic (Uzbekistan) Karakoram Highway, 414 Karakoram Mountains (Pakistan), 411 Karakoram Pass (India), 242–243 Karakoro River (Mali), 341 Kara-Kum Canal, 551 Kara-Kum Desert (Turkmenistan), 550–552 Karamea Bight (New Zealand), 393 Karamoja District (Uganda), 556 Karas Mountain (Namibia), 379 Karatoya River (Bangladesh), 46 Karau Ulun River (East Timor), 163 Karawanken Mountains, 36, 487 Kardiva Channel (Maldives), 337, 338 Karelia (Finland), 186 Karfinigan River (Tajikistan), 528 Karimata Strait (Indonesia), 251 Karisimbi (DROC), 130 Karkar (Papua New Guinea), 422 Karkheh River (Iran), 256 Karkinit Bay (Ukraine), 561 Karnali River (Nepal), 385 Karnaphuli Reservoir (Bangladesh), 45 Karre Mountains (Central African Republic), 105 Karst landscape Cuba, 146 Jamaica, 274 Laos, 306 Puerto Rico, 444 Romania, 449 Kartaliniya Plain (Georgia), 200 Kasa Murgh Range (Afghanistan), 3 Kasaba Bay (Zambia), 607 Kasai River (DROC), 131 Kashmir, 242, 411 Kassala (Sudan), 508 Kasserine Pass (Tunisia), 544 Katano-kamoike (Japan), 278 Kathiwar Peninsula (India), 246 Kathmandu (Nepal), 384 Kathmandu Valley (Nepal), 383–386 Katlanovo Spa (Macedonia), 326 Katonga River (Uganda), 557 Kattegat, 154, 515–516 Kauai (United States), 577, 579 Kauf. See Windstorms Kaufmann Peak. See Lenin Peak Kaukauveld (Namibia), 379 Kaula (United States), 577 Kaunas (Lithuania), 321–322 Kaunas Sea (Lithuania), 320 Kavac Canyon (Venezuela), 591 Kâveri River (India), 245 Kavirs, Iran, 256 Kayangel Atoll (Palau), 416 Kayser Mountains (Suriname), 510 Kayseri (Turkey), 547–548 Kazakhstan, 284–288, 285, 287t Kazan’ (Russia), 454 Kazinga Channel (Uganda), 556 Ke Ga Point (Vietnam), 596 Keban Reservoir (Turkey), 548 Kebnekaise (Sweden), 514 Keeling. See Cocos Islands (Australia) Keelung (Taiwan), 526 Kefallinía. See Cephalonia (Greece) Kegums Reservoir (Latvia), 308 Kelantin River (Malaysia), 335 Kemi River (Finland), 187 Kempenland (Belgium), 54 Kenya, 288–292, 289, 292t Kenya Dome, 288 Kenya Highlands, 288, 290 Kenyir Reservoir (Malaysia), 334–335 Keokradong (Bangladesh), 45 Keoladeo National Park (India), 245 Kerch Peninsula (Ukraine), 561 Kerguélin (France), 192 Kerintji (Indonesia), 249 Kerio River (Kenya), 290 Kerjhar Lake (Pakistan), 413 Kerulen River (Mongolia), 365 Khaark Island (Iran), 257 Khabsr River, 522–523 Kharga Oasis (Egypt), 168, 170 Khamir Harbor (Iran), 257 Khamsin. See Winds Khamsin (United Arab Emirates), 563 Khan Tangiri Shyngy (Kazakhstan), 284 Khangla Deorali (Nepal), 384 Khao Laem Reservoir (Thailand), 534 Khao Yai National Park (Thailand), 536 Khaptad National Park (Nepal), 385–386 Khaptad Plateau (Nepal), 384 Khargah Depression. See Kharga Oasis (Egypt) Khartoum (Sudan), 506–509 Khermiin Tsav Canyon (Mongolia), 364 Khobdo River (Mongolia), 365 Khomas Highlands (Namibia), 378 Khmr al-’Udeid. See Persian Gulf Khorat Plateau (Thailand), 533–534 Khrami River (Georgia), 200 Khrysokhou Bay (Cyprus), 149 Khudzhand (Tajikistan), 529 Khumib River (Namibia), 379 Khunjerab National Park (Pakistan), 414 Khuran Straits (Iran), 257 Khurjya Murjya Bay (Oman), 410 Khyber Pass, 3, 412 Kibo (Tanzania), 530 Kicevo (Macedonia), 326 Kiel Canal. See Nord-Ostsee Canal (Germany) Kiev (Ukraine), 560–561 Kiev Reservoir (Ukraine), 559 Kigezi District (Uganda), 556 Kihnu Island (Estonia), 180 Kii Peninsula (Japan), 279 Kikori River (Papua New Guinea), 422 Killala Bay (Ireland), 263 Killarney National Park (Ireland), 263 Kjrthar Range (Pakistan), 412 Kjsh (Iran), 257 Kinabatangan River (Malaysia), 335 Kinangop Plateau (Kenya), 289 King Fahd Causeway, 44 King George I island (Antarctica), 20 Kingangop Plateau (Kenya), 290 Kingman Reef (United States), 577 Kingston (Jamaica), 274, 275 Kingstown (Saint Vincent and the Grenadines), 465 Kinjhar Lake (Pakistan), 413 Kinki Plain (Japan), 279, 280 Kinmen. See Guemoy Islands (Taiwan) Kinneret. See Sea of Galilee (Israel) Kintyre Peninsula (United Kingdom), 568–569 Kipengere Range (Tanzania), 531 Kiribati, 292–294, 293, 294t Kirishima Yaku (Japan), 277 Kiritappu-shitsugen (Japan), 278 Kiritimati Island (Kiribati), 292, 293 Kiriwina (Papua New Guinea), 422 Kirkuk (Iraq), 261 Kishon River (Israel), 267 Kisite (Kenya), 290 Kiso Mountains (Japan), 276 Kitadake (Japan), 276 Kitami Mountains (Japan), 276 Kitava (Papua New Guinea), 422 Kitzbühel Alps (Austria), 36 Kiwi birds, 393 Kizil River (Turkey), 548 Kizilirmak, Halys. See Kizil River (Turkey) Kjølen Mountains, 405, 514 Klaiphda (Lithuania), 322 Klamath Mountains (United States), 574 Geodata.book Page 665 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 57. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA666 Klamath River (United States), 576 Klar River (Sweden), 515 Klein Spitzkoppe (Namibia), 378 Klidhes (Cyprus), 148 Kluane Lake (Canada), 97 Kluane National Park (Canada), 97 Klyuchevskaya Sopka (Russia), 453 Knockmealdown Mountains (Ireland), 262 Knuckles Mountains. See Dumbara Mountains (Sri Lanka) Knuckles Peak (Sri Lanka), 503 Kobako Canyon (Japan), 278 Kobe (Japan), 278, 279 Kobustan Mountain (Azerbaijan), 40 Kocaeli. See Kzmit (Turkey) Kocevje (Slovenia), 488 Kodari (Nepal), 384 Koddiyar Bay (Sri Lanka), 504 Kodiak Island (United States), 577 Køge Bay (Denmark), 154 Koh Chang Island (Thailand), 535 Koh Lanta Island (Thailand), 535 Koh Phangan Island (Thailand), 535 Koh Phi-Phi Island (Thailand), 535 Koh Samet National Park (Thailand), 535 Koh Samui Island (Thailand), 535 Koh Tao Island (Thailand), 535 Kohung Peninsula (Korea, Republic of), 298 Kokkilai Lagoon (Sri Lanka), 504 Koko Nor. See Qinghai Lake (China) Kola Peninsula (Russia), 455 Kolkata (India), 242, 248 Kolkhida Lowlands (Georgia), 200, 201 Kolombangara Island (Solomon Islands), 489 Kolonia (Micronesia), 359 Kólpos Khaníon (Crete), 213 Kolumadulu Atoll (Maldives), 338 Kolyma Range (Russia), 453 Komadugu Yobe River (Nigeria), 403 Komati River (Swaziland), 512–513 Kometspruit River (Lesotho), 312 Komoé (Côte d’Ivoire), 139 Kompong Som (Cambodia), 90 Kong falls (Laos), 306 Kong River (Laos), 306 Königsstuhl (Germany), 205 Konigstein (Namibia), 378 Konkori Scarp (Ghana), 208 Konkouré River (Guinea), 224 Konqi River (China), 119 Konsen (Japan), 279 Konya (Turkey), 549 Koohestak (Iran), 257 Koper (Slovenia), 488 Kopet-Dag Mountains, 550, 552 Kopjes (Zimbabwe), 609 Korab Mountains (Macedonia), 325 Korbu (Malaysia), 334 Korcula Island (Croatia), 143 Kore La (Nepal), 384 Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of (DPRK, North Korea), 294–297, 295, 296t Korea, Republic of (ROK, South Korea), 297– 299, 298, 299t Korea Bay, 119, 296 Korean Strait, 278–279, 298 Koro Island (Fiji), 185 Körog˘lu Mountains (Turkey), 546 Koror Island (Palau), 416 Körös River (Hungary), 236 Koryak Range (Russia), 453 Kos (Greece), 213 Koshi Tappu (Nepal), 385 Kosi River (Nepal), 385 Kosovo (Yugoslavia), 602 Kosrae (Micronesia), 358–359 Kosudonggul (Korea, Republic of), 298 Kotmale Reservoir (Sri Lanka), 503 Kotto River (Central African Republic), 105 Kouffo River (Benin), 58 Kouilou River (Republic of the Congo), 134 Kouris River (Cyprus), 149 Kourou River (French Guiana), 195 Kowkcheh River (Afghanistan), 3 Koyukuk River (United States), 576 Kozara Mountains (Bosnia and Herzegovina), 69 Kožuf Mountains (Macedonia), 325 Krabi Estuary (Thailand), 535 Krakatau volcano (Indonesia), 250 Krakatoa volcano. See Krakatau volcano (Indonesia) Krakow (Poland), 438 Kranji River (Singapore), 483 Kras Plateau (Slovenia), 487 Krasnovodsk (Turkmenistan), 551 Krâvanh Range (Cambodia), 89 Kremenchuk Reservoir (Ukraine), 559 Krishna River (India), 245 Krivosije (Yugoslavia), 604 Krk Island (Croatia), 143 Krka River, 143, 488 Krkonoše Mountains (Czech Republic), 150 Kro˘ng Kaôh Ko˘ng (Cambodia), 90 Kryvyy Rih (Ukraine), 561 Kryzl Kum Desert (Uzbekistan), 583, 585–586 Ksour Mountains (Algeria), 8 Kuala Belait (Brunei), 81 Kuan Ki Sian (Thailand), 535 Kuanza. See Cuanza River Kücükmenderes River (Turkey), 548–549 Ku˘m River (Korea, Republic of), 298 Ku˘mgang-san (DPRK), 295 Kugitang Range, 550 Kuiseb River (Namibia), 379 Kula Kangri (Bhutan), 62 Kulna Division (Bangladesh), 46 Kumon Range (Myanmar), 375 Kunashir Island, 276 Kundelungu Mountains (DROC), 130 Kunlun Shan (China), 116 Kupa River (Croatia), 143 Kura-Aras lowlands (Azerbaijan), 39–41 Kura River, 40, 200 Küre Mountains (Turkey), 546 Kuril Islands, 453, 455 Kurobe Gorge (Japan), 278 Kuršiu Marios (Lithuania), 321, 322 Kursk Magnetic Anomaly (Russia), 457 Kuruktag Shan (China), 116 Kurzeme Peninsula (Latvia), 308 Kurzeme Uplands (Latvia), 308 Kuscenneti National Park (Turkey), 548 Kushiro-shitsugen (Japan), 278 Kusiyara River (Bangladesh), 46 Kuskokwin River (United States), 576 Kutaisi (Georgia), 201 Kutcharo-ko (Japan), 278 Kuti. See Kodari (Nepal) Kutubdia (Bangladesh), 47 Kuwait, 300, 300–301, 301t Kuwait Bay (Kuwait), 300–301 Kuwait City (Kuwait), 301 Kvaløy (Norway), 406 Kvarner Bay (Croatia), 143 Kwa River (DROC), 131 Kwafe River (Zambia), 607 Kwahu Plateau (Ghana), 207–208 Kwajalein Atoll (Marshall Islands), 344 Kwando River (Namibia), 379 Kwango River (DROC), 131 Kwanmo-bon (DPRK), 295 Kwanza River. See Cuanza River (Angola) Kwilu River (DROC), 131 Kyffhäuser Mountains (Germany), 204 Kyo˘nggi Bay, 296, 298 Kyoto (Japan), 279 Kyparissouvouno peak (Cyprus), 149 Kyrenia Range (Cyprus), 148–149 Kyrgyz Republic. See Kyrgyzstan Kyrgyzstan, 302–304, 303, 304t Kysshs (Japan), 276–280 Kysshs Mountains (Japan), 279 Kyzyl Kum Desert (Kazakhstan), 287 L La Brea (Trinidad and Tobago), 542 La Condamine (Monaco), 362 La Costa (Peru), 428, 431 La Désirade (Guadeloupe), 218–219 La Digue Island (Seychelles), 479 La Guajira Peninsula (Venezuela), 592 La Libertad (El Salvador), 173 La Mancha Plain (Spain), 501 La Nicolière (Mauritius), 351 La Palma Island (Spain), 500 La Paz (Bolivia), 65–67 La Perouse Strait. See Smya Strait La Rochelle (France), 192 La Selva (Peru), 428, 430, 431 La Sierra (Peru), 428, 431 La Tortuga (Venezuela), 592 La Unión Bay (El Salvador), 173 Labe River. See Elbe River Labrador Sea (Canada), 99 Labuan (Malaysia), 335 Labuk Bay (Malaysia), 336 Labwor Hills (Uganda), 556 Lac Assal (Djibouti), 156 Lac de Guiers (Senegal), 476 Lac de Péligre. See Lake Péligre (Haiti) Lac Rose (Senegal), 476 Lacajahuira River (Bolivia), 67 Laccadive Island (India), 246 Lachlan River (Australia), 33 Ladakh (India), 244 Lae (Papua New Guinea), 423 Laga (East Timor), 162 Lagan River (Sweden), 515 Geodata.book Page 666 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 58. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA 667 Index Lagarfljót River (Iceland), 240 Lågen River (Norway), 405 Lago Apoyeque (Nicaragua), 396 Lago Argentino (Argentina), 25 Lago Azuei. See Lake Saumâtre (Haiti) Lago Buenos Aires (Argentina), 25 Lago Colhué Huapí (Argentina), 25 Lago de Coatepeque (El Salvador), 172 Lago de Guija (El Salvador), 172 Lago de Ilopango (El Salvador), 172 Lago de Managua (Nicaragua), 396 Lago de Nicaragua, 396 Lago Enriquillo. See Lake Enriquillo (Dominican Republic) Lago Mar Chiquita (Argentina), 25 Lago San Martín (Argentina), 25 Lago Viedma (Argentina), 25 Lago Xiloá (Nicaragua), 396 Lagoa Dos Patos (Brazil), 76 Lagoa Mirím, 76, 581–582 Lagoon Region (Côte d’Ivoire), 139 Lagoons Barbuda, 22 Belize, 56 Benin, 58 Brazil, 76 Gabon, 197 Ghana, 209 Guatemala, 221 Iran, 257 Italy, 272 Kiribati, 293 Liberia, 315 Lithuania, 320 Madagascar, 329 Maldives, 337–338 Malta, 343 Mauritius, 351 Mexico, 355 Micronesia, 358–359 Myanmar, 376 Nicaragua, 397 Nigeria, 403 Palau, 416 Portugal, 442 South Africa, 496 Spain, 501 Sri Lanka, 504 Tuvalu, 554 United States, 578 Uruguay, 581 Lagos (Nigeria), 403, 404 Lagos Lagoon (Nigeria), 403 Laguna Bismuna (Nicaragua), 397 Laguna Castillos (Uruguay), 582 Laguna de Arenal (Costa Rica), 136, 137 Laguna de Bay (The Philippines), 433 Laguna de Caratasca (Honduras), 233, 234 Laguna de la Restinga (Venezuela), 592 Laguna de Perlas (Nicaragua), 397 Laguna de Tacarigua (Venezuela), 592 Laguna de Tamiahua (Mexico), 355 Laguna de Términos (Mexico), 356 Laguna de Wounta (Nicaragua), 397 Laguna del Jocotal (El Salvador), 172 Laguna Grande de los Verdes (Colombia), 123 Laguna Karatá (Nicaragua), 397 Laguna Madre (Mexico), 355 Laguna Madre (United States), 578 Laguna Merín. See Lagoa Mirím Laguna Negra (Uruguay), 582 Laguna Páhara (Nicaragua), 397 Lagunar de Tisma (Nicaragua), 396 Lahar (mudslides), 250 Lakagígar (Iceland), 239 Lake Abaya (Ethiopia), 182 Lake Abe, 156, 182 Lake Ahémé (Benin), 58 Lake Akpehir (Turkey), 547 Lake Alajuela (Panama), 418 Lake Alakol’ (Kazakhstan), 286 Lake Alaotra (Madagascar), 329 Lake Al-Asad (Syria), 522 Lake Albano (Italy), 271 Lake Albert, 130, 131, 556–558 Lake Alexandrina (Australia), 33 Lake Al-Qadisjyah (Iraq), 259 Lake Amatitlán (Guatemala), 220 Lake Annecy (France), 191 Lake Antoine (Grenada), 216 Lake Aougoundou (Mali), 341 Lake Arenal. See Laguna de Arenal (Costa Rica) Lake Argyle (Australia), 33 Lake Arre (Denmark), 154 Lake Athabasca (Canada), 98 Lake Ath-Tharthar (Iraq), 259 Lake Atitlán (Guatemala), 220 Lake Aydarkul (Uzbekistan), 584 Lake Ba Be (Vietnam), 595 Lake Baikal (Russia), 454 Lake Balaton (Hungary), 235 Lake Balinsasayan (The Philippines), 433 Lake Balkhash (Kazakhstan), 284, 285 Lake Bangweulu (Zambia), 605–607 Lake Baringo (Kenya), 290 Lake Be Malae (East Timor), 162 Lake Benmore (New Zealand), 392 Lake Biwa (Japan), 278 Lake Bolmen (Sweden), 515 Lake Bolsena (Italy), 271 Lake Bonney (Antarctica), 19 Lake Bortles-Orgues (France), 191 Lake Bosten (China), 118 Lake Bosumtwi (Ghana), 208 Lake Bourget (France), 191 Lake Bracciano (Italy), 271 Lake Brownworth (Antarctica), 19 Lake Buada. See Buada Lagoon (Nauru) Lake Buenos Aires. See Lake General Carrera Lake Buluan (The Philippines), 434 Lake Burera (Rwanda), 459 Lake Burtnieks (Latvia), 308 Lake Burullus (Egypt), 169 Lake Buyo (Côte d’Ivoire), 139 Lake Cáceres (Bolivia), 66 Lake Cachí (Costa Rica), 137 Lake Caño Negro (Costa Rica), 137 Lake Cerknišco (Slovenia), 488 Lake Chad, 94, 108, 399, 402 Lake Chamo (Ethiopia), 182 Lake Champlain (United States), 576 Lake Chany (Russia), 454 Lake Chapala (Mexico), 354 Lake Chelan (United States), 575 Lake Chepo (Panama), 418 Lake Ch’ew Bahir (Ethiopia), 182 Lake Chiem (Germany), 204 Lake Chiker (Morocco), 369 Lake Chilwa (Malawi), 332, 333 Lake Chiuta (Mozambique), 372 Lake Cildir (Turkey), 547 Lake Claire (Canada), 98 Lake Cohoha, 87, 459 Lake Comacchio (Italy), 271 Lake Como (Italy), 271 Lake Concepción (Bolivia), 66 Lake Constance, 37, 38, 204, 519 Lake Cuitzeo (Mexico), 354 Lake D’Aleg (Mauritania), 348 Lake Danao (The Philippines), 433 Lake Debo (Mali), 341 Lake District (Argentina), 24, 25, 26 Lake District (Chile), 112, 113 Lake District (England), 564, 566 Lake District (Poland), 437 Lake District National Park (England), 566 Lake Do (Mali), 341 Lake Dojran (Macedonia), 326 Lake Drisvyaty (Belarus), 50 Lake Druksiai (Lithuania), 320 Lake Edward, 130, 131, 556–557 Lake Eg˘ridir (Turkey), 547 Lake Enriquillo (Dominican Republic), 159, 160 Lake Ercek (Turkey), 547 Lake Erie, 575 Lake Eucumbene (Australia), 33 Lake Eyasi (Tanzania), 531 Lake Eyre (Australia), 33 Lake Faguibine (Mali), 341 Lake Fati (Mali), 341 Lake Ferto. See Neusiedler Lake Lake Fianga (Chad), 109 Lake Fitri (Chad), 109 Lake Fluessen (The Netherlands), 388 Lake Fondi (Italy), 271 Lake Fryxell (Antarctica), 19 Lake Fúquene (Colombia), 123 Lake Gaiba (Bolivia), 66 Lake Gairdner (Australia), 33 Lake Garda (Italy), 271 Lake Garou (Mali), 341 Lake General Carrera (Chile), 113 Lake Geneva (Switzerland), 519 Lake George (Uganda), 556–557 Lake Gordon (Australia), 33 Lake Gyaring (China), 118 Lake Hago (Rwanda), 459 Lake Hazar (Turkey), 547 Lake Hazen (Canada), 97 Lake Helmand. See Lake Saberj Lake Hjälmaren (Sweden), 515 Lake Hoare (Antarctica), 19 Lake Hornavan (Sweden), 515 Lake Hula (Israel), 267 Lake Hule (Costa Rica), 137 Lake Huron, 575 Lake Idku (Egypt), 169 Lake Ihema (Rwanda), 459 Lake Inari (Finland), 187 Geodata.book Page 667 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 59. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA668 Lake Inawashiro (Japan), 278 Lake Indawgyi (Myanmar), 375 Lake Iralalaro (East Timor), 162 Lake Iseo (Italy), 271 Lake Issyk-Kul (Kyrgyzstan), 303, 304 Lake Isti (Morocco), 369 Lake Izabal (Guatemala), 220, 221 Lake Iznik (Turkey), 547 Lake Izu-numa (Japan), 278 Lake Karakul. See Ozero Karakul (Tajikistan) Lake Kariba, 607, 609, 611 Lake Kasumiga (Japan), 278 Lake Katwe (Uganda), 558 Lake Khanka (Russia), 454 Lake Kivu, 130, 131, 458–459 Lake Korientze (Mali), 341 Lake Korónia (Greece), 212 Lake Kossou (Côte d’Ivoire), 139 Lake Kummerow (Germany), 204 Lake Kup (Turkey), 547 Lake Kutubu (Papua New Guinea), 421 Lake Kuz (Turkey), 548 Lake Kwania (Uganda), 557 Lake Kyoga (Uganda), 557–558 Lake Ladoga (Russia), 454 Lake Lanao. See Lake Sultan Alonto (The Philippines) Lake Lanoto’o (Samoa), 467 Lake Leman. See Lake Geneva (Switzerland) Lake Lesina (Italy), 271 Lake Limboto (Indonesia), 250 Lake Little Sea. See Lago Mar Chiquita (Argentina) Lake Llanquihue (Chile), 113 Lake Lokan (Finland), 187 Lake Lubana (Latvia), 308 Lake Lugano, 271, 519 Lake Mabesi (Sierra Leone), 481 Lake Mackay (Australia), 33 Lake Madden. See Lake Alajuela (Panama) Lake Magadi (Kenya), 290 Lake Maggiore, 271, 519 Lake Mai-Ndombe (DROC), 131 Lake Mälaren (Sweden), 515 Lake Malawi, 331–332, 333, 372, 531–532 Lake Malawi National Park (Malawi), 333 Lake Malombe (Malawi), 332 Lake Manaro Lakua (Vanuatu), 587 Lake Manaro Ngoro (Vanuatu), 587 Lake Mandioré (Bolivia), 66 Lake Manyara (Tanzania), 530–531 Lake Manzala (Egypt), 169 Lake Mape (Sierra Leone), 481 Lake Mar Chiquita (Argentina), 26 Lake Maracaibo (Venezuela), 591–592 Lake Maryut (Egypt), 169 Lake Massaciuccoli (Italy), 271 Lake Matana (Indonesia), 250 Lake Maubara (East Timor), 162 Lake Mavrovo (Macedonia), 326 Lake Mead (United States), 576 Lake Melville (Canada), 98 Lake Michigan (United States), 575 Lake Mjøsa (Norway), 405 Lake Moero. See Lake Mweru Lake Monoun (Cameroon), 94 Lake Mugesera (Rwanda), 459 Lake Muhazi (Rwanda), 459 Lake Müritz (Germany), 204 Lake Murray (Papua New Guinea), 421 Lake Mweru, 131, 605–607 Lake Mývatn (Iceland), 240 Lake Naivahsa (Kenya), 290 Lake Nakaumi (Japan), 278 Lake Nakuru (Kenya), 290 Lake Narach. See Lake Naroch (Belarus) Lake Naroch (Belarus), 50 Lake Nasser, 168–169, 508 Lake Natron (Tanzania), 530–531 Lake Naujan (The Philippines), 434 Lake Neagh. See Lough Neagh (Northern Ireland) Lake Nemi (Italy), 271 Lake Neuchâtel (Switzerland), 519 Lake Ngami (Botswana), 71 Lake Ngoring (China), 118 Lake Niangay (Mali), 341 Lake Nipigon (Canada), 97 Lake Nubia, 507 Lake Nyasa. See Lake Malawi Lake Nyos (Cameroon), 94 Lake of Lucerne (Switzerland), 519 Lake of the Woods (United States), 575 Lake Ohrid, 5, 6, 326 Lake Okeechobee (United States), 575–576 Lake Onega (Russia), 454 Lake Ontario, 575 Lake Orava (Slovakia), 485 Lake Orbetello (Italy), 271 Lake Orumiyé. See Lake Urmia (Iran) Lake Oskjuvatn Caldera (Iceland), 240 Lake Osveyskoye (Belarus), 50 Lake Oulujärvi (Finland), 187 Lake Päijanne (Finland), 187 Lake Palmar (Uruguay), 581 Lake Peipus, 179, 454 Lake Péligre (Haiti), 230 Lake Petén Itzá (Guatemala), 220 Lake Pielinen (Finland), 187 Lake Plau (Germany), 204 Lake Poopó (Bolivia), 66–67 Lake Popradské (Slovakia), 485 Lake Porttipahdan (Finland), 187 Lake Poso (Indonesia), 250 Lake Powell (United States), 576 Lake Prespa, 6, 212, 326 Lake Pskov (Estonia), 179 Lake Puzak (Afghanistan), 3 Lake Razna (Latvia), 308 Lake Razelm (Romania), 449, 450 Lake Rkiz (Mauritania), 348 Lake Rogoaguado (Bolivia), 66 Lake Rozmberk (Czech Republic), 151 Lake Rudolf. See Lake Turkana Lake Rugwero, 459 Lake Ruhondo (Rwanda), 459 Lake Rukwa (Tanzania), 531 Lake Rwanye (Rwanda), 459 Lake Rwehikama (Rwanda), 459 Lake Rweru (Burundi), 87 Lake Sabai Tsho (Nepal), 385 Lake Saberj, 3, 255, 257 Lake Saimaa (Finland), 187 Lake Salisbury (Uganda), 557–558 Lake Salpi (Italy), 271 Lake Salto Grande (Uruguay), 581 Lake San Luis (Bolivia), 66 Lake Saroma (Japan), 278 Lake Sarrans (France), 191 Lake Sarygamysh, 550, 584 Lake Saumâtre (Haiti), 230, 231 Lake Schwerin (Germany), 204 Lake Scutari, 5, 6, 603–604 Lake Semara (Morocco), 369 Lake Sevan (Armenia), 28–29 Lake Shirwa (Mozambique), 372 Lake Shkodër. See Lake Scutari Lake Sidi Ali (Morocco), 369 Lake Sinoe (Romania), 450 Lake Siwi (Vanuatu), 587 Lake Sloter (The Netherlands), 388 Lake Sonfon (Sierra Leone), 481 Lake Stânca-Costesti (Moldova), 361 Lake Storavan (Sweden), 515 Lake Storsjön (Sweden), 515 Lake Sultan Alonto (The Philippines), 434 Lake Superior, 97, 573, 575, 577 Lake Svityza (Ukraine), 560 Lake Taabo (Côte d’Ivoire), 139 Lake Taal (The Philippines), 433 Lake Tahoe (United States), 575 Lake Tai (China), 118 Lake Tana (Ethiopia), 182 Lake Tanda (Mali), 341 Lake Tandano (Indonesia), 250 Lake Tanganyika, 87–88, 130, 531–532, 605– 607 Lake Taupo (New Zealand), 392 Lake Tauragnas (Lithuania), 320 Lake Taymyr (Russia), 454 Lake Te Anau (New Zealand), 392 Lake Teli (Mali), 341 Lake Tengiz (Kazakhstan), 286 Lake Tibar (East Timor), 162 Lake Tiberias. See Sea of Galilee (Israel) Lake Tigalmamine (Morocco), 369 Lake Tilicho (Nepal), 384–385 Lake Titicaca, 66, 428 Lake Toba (Indonesia), 250 Lake Togo (Togo), 537 Lake Torn Träsk (Sweden), 515 Lake Torrens (Australia), 33 Lake Tota (Colombia), 123 Lake Towuti (Indonesia), 250 Lake Trasimerto (Italy), 271 Lake Trichonis (Greece), 212 Lake Trinidad (Paraguay), 425 Lake Tsimanampetsotsa (Madagascar), 329 Lake Tumba (DROC), 131 Lake Turkana, 182, 290, 292 Lake Tuz (Turkey), 547, 549 Lake Uberaba (Bolivia), 66 Lake Uchi-numa (Japan), 278 Lake Uddjaur (Sweden), 515 Lake Ulubat (Turkey), 547 Lake Upemba (DROC), 131 Lake Urmia (Iran), 255, 256, 257 Lake Usma (Latvia), 308 Lake Valence (Hungary), 235–236 Lake Valencia (Venezuela), 591 Lake Van (Turkey), 546–547, 549 Geodata.book Page 668 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 60. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA 669 Index Lake Vanda (Antarctica), 19 Lake Vänern (Sweden), 514, 515, 517 Lake Varano (Italy), 271 Lake Vättern (Sweden), 515, 517 Lake Verá (Paraguay), 425 Lake Vico (Italy), 271 Lake Victoria, 288, 290, 530–532, 556–558 Lake Vistonis (Thrace), 212 Lake Volta (Ghana), 208 Lake Vólvi (Greece), 212 Lake Võrts (Estonia), 179 Lake Vostok (Antarctica), 19 Lake Voui (Vanuatu), 587 Lake Wakatipu (New Zealand), 392 Lake Winnipeg (Canada), 98 Lake Xau (Botswana), 71 Lake Yalpuh (Ukraine), 559–560 Lake Yojoa (Honduras), 233 Lake Ypacaraí (Paraguay), 425 Lake Ypoá (Paraguay), 425 Lake Zapatosa (Colombia), 123 Lake Zaysan (Kazakhstan), 286 Lake Zorkul (Afghanistan), 3 Lakeba Island (Fiji), 185 Lakes Afghanistan, 3 Albania, 5, 6 Antarctica, 19 Argentina, 24, 25 Armenia, 28–29 Australia, 33 Austria, 37 Azerbaijan, 40 Bangladesh, 45 Belarus, 50 Belgium, 53 Belize, 56 Benin, 58 Bolivia, 66 Bosnia and Herzegovina, 69 Botswana, 71 Brunei, 80 Bulgaria, 82 Burundi, 87 Cambodia, 89 Cameroon, 94 Canada, 97–98 Central African Republic, 105 Chad, 108–109 Chile, 113 China, 117–118 Colombia, 123 Congo, Democratic Republic of, 131 Costa Rica, 137 Côte d’Ivoire, 139 Croatia, 142–143 Czech Republic, 151 Denmark, 154 Djibouti, 156 Dominica, 157 Dominican Republic, 160 East Timor, 162 Ecuador, 165 Egypt, 168–169 El Salvador, 172 Estonia, 179 Ethiopia, 182 Finland, 186, 187 France, 191 Germany, 204 Ghana, 208 Greece, 212 Grenada, 216 Guatemala, 220 Haiti, 230 Honduras, 233 Hungary, 235–236 Iceland, 240 India, 244 Indonesia, 250 Iran, 255–256 Iraq, 259 Ireland, 262–263 Israel, 267 Italy, 271 Japan, 278 Jordan, 282 Kazakhstan, 285–286 Kenya, 290 Kiribati, 293 Kyrgyzstan, 303 Laos, 306 Latvia, 308 Lithuania, 320 Luxembourg, 323 Macedonia, 326 Madagascar, 329 Malawi, 331–332 Malaysia, 334–335 Mali, 341 Mauritania, 348 Mauritius, 351 Mexico, 354 Mongolia, 364–365 Morocco, 369 Mozambique, 372 Myanmar, 375 Namibia, 379 Nauru, 382 Nepal, 384–385 The Netherlands, 388 New Zealand, 392 Nicaragua, 396 Niger, 399 Nigeria, 402 Norway, 405 Pakistan, 413 Panama, 418 Papua New Guinea, 421–422 Paraguay, 425 Peru, 428 The Philippines, 433–434 Poland, 437 Romania, 449 Russia, 454 Rwanda, 458–459 Saint Kitts and Nevis, 460 Samoa, 467 Senegal, 476 Sierra Leone, 481 Singapore, 483 Slovakia, 485 Slovenia, 488 Somalia, 491 South Africa, 495–496 Sri Lanka, 503 Sudan, 507 Suriname, 510–511 Sweden, 515 Switzerland, 519 Syria, 522 Taiwan, 525 Tajikistan, 528 Thailand, 534 Togo, 538 Tonga, 539 Tunisia, 544 Turkey, 547 Uganda, 556–557 Ukraine, 559–560 United Kingdom, 566 United States, 575–576 Uruguay, 581 Uzbekistan, 584 Vanuatu, 587 Venezuela, 591 Vietnam, 595 Yemen, 599–600 Yugoslavia, 603 Zambia, 606–607 Zimbabwe, 609 See also names of specific lakes Lakhya River (Bangladesh), 46 Laklo (East Timor), 162 Laklo River (East Timor), 163 Lakshadweep (India), 246 Lama Marsh (Benin), 58 Lamantin (Martinique), 347 Lambert Glacier (Antarctica), 19 Lamon Bay (The Philippines), 435 Lamu Archipelago (Kenya), 291 Lanai (United States), 577 Lancang River (China), 119 Lancaster Sound (Canada), 99 Land disputes. See Territorial disputes Land of Dry Water. See Etosha Pan (Namibia) Land of Gilead. See Northern Highlands (Jordan) Land of Ten Thousand Hills. See Rwanda Land of volcanoes. See El Salvador Land reclamation Belgium, 52–54 Japan, 278, 279 Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of, 296 The Netherlands, 387, 389 Landes (France), 194 Landslides Georgia, 200 Japan, 276–277 Kyrgyzstan, 302 Venezuela, 591–592 Langeberg Range (South Africa), 494 Langeland Strait (Denmark), 154 Langfjell (Norway), 405 Langjökull (Iceland), 240 Langkawi (Malaysia), 335 Languages Canada, 101 Chad, 111 Eritrea, 178 Geodata.book Page 669 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 61. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA670 Guinea, 224 Guinea-Bissau, 226 Länkäran Lowlands (Azerbaijan), 40 Lan-Yü Island (Taiwan), 525 Lanzarote Island (Spain), 500 Laos, 304–307, 305, 307t Lapland (Finland), 186–188 Laptev Sea, 455 Lapuan River (Finland), 187 Laramie Range (United States), 573 Large Island (Grenada), 217 Large Lake. See Grand Lac (Switzerland) Larnaca Bay (Cyprus), 149 Larsen Ice Shelf (Antarctica), 20, 21 Larvotto (Monaco), 362 Latgale Upland (Latvia), 308 Latvia, 307–309, 308, 309t Lau Group (Fiji), 185 Lau Island (Fiji), 185 Laughing Bird Cay (Belize), 56 Laurentian Highlands (Canada), 97 Laurentian Plateau. See Canadian Shield Lava fields, in Iceland, 238–239 Lavan (Iran), 257 Layou River (Dominica), 157 Le Kartala. See Mt. Karthala (Comoros) Le Robert Bay (Martinique), 346 Leakey, Louis S.B., 530 Lebanon, 309–311, 310 Lebanon Mountains, 310–311 Lebombo Plain (Swaziland), 512 Lebombo Range (Swaziland), 512 Lechtal Alps (Austria), 36 Ledenika Lake (Bulgaria), 82 Leeward Islands Anguilla, 16–17 Antigua, 22–23 Barbuda, 22–23 Netherlands Antilles, 390 Saint Kitts and Nevis, 461 Leie River (Belgium), 53 Leitha River (Austria), 37–38 Lek River. See Neder Rijn (The Netherlands) Lele (Micronesia), 359 Lely Mountains (Suriname), 510 Lemnos (Greece), 212 Lempa River (Honduras), 233 Lemurs, 327 Lena River (Russia), 454 Lenin Peak, 303, 528 Leninabad. See Khudzhand (Tajikistan) Lepontine Alps (Switzerland), 518 Lerma River (Mexico), 354 Les Amirantes (Seychelles), 480 Les Cayemites (Haiti), 231 Les Tantes Island (Grenada), 217 Les Trois River (Haiti), 231 Les Valls. See The Valleys (Andorra) Lesbos (Greece), 212 Lesotho, 311–313, 312, 313t Lesser Antarctica. See West Antarctica Lesser Antilles Guadeloupe, 218–219 Martinique, 346–347 See also Leeward Islands; Windward Islands Lesser Caucasus Mountains, 28, 40, 200 Lesser Himalayas, 62–64, 383 Lesser Kabylie range (Algeria), 8 Lesser Sunda Islands, 162, 252 Lesser Tunb Island (United Arab Emirates), 563 Lésvos. See Lesbos (Greece) Leukas (Greece), 212 Levees (Hungary), 236–237 Levera Pond (Grenada), 216 Levká Mountains (Greece), 212 Levkas. See Leukas (Greece) Lewis (United Kingdom), 568 Leyte (The Philippines), 434–435 Leyte Gulf (The Philippines), 434 Lian-hua Feng (China), 117 Liao He (China), 118 Liaodong Peninsula (China), 119 Liban River valley (Malaysia), 335 Liberia, 313–315, 314, 315t Libuasan marsh (The Philippines), 434 Libungan marsh (The Philippines), 434 Libya, 8, 316–318, 317 Libyan Desert, 318, 509 Lichinga Plateau (Mozambique), 371–372 Liechtenstein, 318–320, 319 Lielupe River (Latvia), 308 Liepaja (Latvia), 309 Lighthouse of the Pacific. See Volcán Izalco (El Salvador) Ligitan Island, 248, 335 Ligonha River (Mozambique), 372 Liguanea Plain (Jamaica), 275 Liguria (Italy), 272 Ligurian Sea (Italy), 272 Likiep Atoll (Marshall Islands), 344 Lille Strait (Denmark), 154 Lilongwe (Malawi), 332, 333 Lilongwe Plain (Malawi), 331 Lilongwe River (Malawi), 332 Lim Fjord (Denmark), 154 Lima (Peru), 431 Limarí River (Chile), 113 Limay River (Argentina), 26 Limbang River valley (Brunei), 80 Limerick (Ireland), 264 Limestone Cayman Islands, 103 Cuban mountains, 144, 146 Dinaric Alps, 142 Estonia, 179 Moravian Karst, 151 North Albanian Alps, 6 Límnos. See Lemnos (Greece) Limpopo River, 72, 372, 495–496, 609–610 Line Islands (Kiribati), 292–293 Lingayen Gulf (The Philippines), 435 Linyanti River (Namibia), 379 Lipari Islands (Italy), 269, 272 Lipno Dam (Czech Republic), 151 Lipobane Point (Mozambique), 373 Lisbon (Portugal), 440, 442, 443 Lithuania, 320–322, 321, 322t Litoral. See Costa (Ecuador) Little Alföld (Hungary), 235, 237, 238 Little Bahama Bank, 41 Little Carpathian Mountains (Slovakia), 485 Little Cayman Island, 103–104 Little Corn Island (Nicaragua), 396 Little Danube River (Slovakia), 485 Little Karroo Plateau (South Africa), 495 Little Karroo Range (South Africa), 494 Little Mount Ararat (Turkey), 546 Little Riviera. See Moselle River Valley (Luxembourg) Little Scarcies River (Sierra Leone), 481 Little Switzerland. See Müllerthal (Luxembourg) Little Tobago Island (Trinidad and Tobago), 541 Little Zab River (Iraq), 260 Littoral. See Costa (Ecuador) Liverpool Bay (England), 569 Livingstone Falls (DROC), 131 Livingstone-Nyasa Highlands (Mozambique), 370 Ljubljana (Slovenia), 488 Ljubljana Basin (Slovenia), 487 Ljubljanica River (Slovenia), 488 Ljungan River (Sweden), 515 Llandudno Beach (South Africa), 496 Llano Estacado (United States), 571, 574 Llanos (Venezuela), 592–593 Llanura de los Guatusos (Costa Rica), 137 Llanura de San Carlos. See San Carlos Plains (Costa Rica) Lleyn Peninsula (United Kingdom), 569 Llullaillaco (Chile), 112 Loa River (Chile), 113 Lobaye River (Central African Republic), 105 Lobos Island (Spain), 500 Loch Awe (Scotland), 566 Loch Lomond (Scotland), 566 Loch Loyal (Scotland), 566 Loch Ness (Scotland), 566 Loch Shin (Scotland), 566 Lochs. See Lakes Loess, Germany, 206 Loess Plateau (China), 115, 117, 120 Lofa River (Liberia), 314 Lofoten (Norway), 406 Loggerhead turtles, 409 Logone River, 94, 108, 109, 110 Loire River (France), 191 Lois River (East Timor), 162 Loktak Lake (India), 245 Lolland Island (Denmark), 154 Loma Mountains (Sierra Leone), 481 Lomaiviti (Fiji), 185 Lomami River (DROC), 131 Lombok (Indonesia), 248–254 Lomé (Togo), 538 London (England), 567, 570 Long (Papua New Guinea), 422 Long Beach (Yugoslavia). See Velika Plaza (Yugoslavia) Long Island (The Bahamas), 42 Long Island (United States), 577 Long Strait, 455 Lopevi Island (Vanuatu), 587 Los Angeles (United States), 578 Los Roques Archipelago (Venezuela), 592 Lospalos (East Timor), 162 Lotagipi Swamp (Sudan), 508 Lotus Flower Peak. See Lian-hua Feng (China) Geodata.book Page 670 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 62. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA 671 Index Louessé River (Republic of the Congo), 134 Lough Allen (Ireland), 262 Lough Conn (Ireland), 262 Lough Corrib (Ireland), 262 Lough Derg (Ireland), 262 Lough Foyle (Northern Ireland), 569 Lough Hyne (Ireland), 262 Lough Leane (Ireland), 263 Lough Mask (Ireland), 262 Lough Neagh (Northern Ireland), 262, 565– 567 Lough Ree (Ireland), 262 Loughs. See Lakes Louisiade Archipelago (Papua New Guinea), 422, 423 Low Countries. See Benelux countries Low Netherlands, 387 Low Steppes (Tunisia), 545 Low Tatras Mountains (Slovakia), 485–486 Lower California Peninsular Range, 574 Lower Congo (DROC), 131 Lower Galilee (Israel), 266 Lower Guinea, 222 Lower Lough Erne (Northern Ireland), 566– 567 Lower Rhine River (Switzerland), 519 Lower Tunguska River (Russia), 454 Loweswater Lake (England), 566 Lowland north (Argentina), 24 Lowlands. See names of specific lowlands Lowveld (Zimbabwe), 609, 611 Loyalty Islands (France), 193 Lü Tao Island (Taiwan), 525 Lualaba River (DROC), 130 Luangwa River (Zambia), 605, 607 Luangwa River Valley (Zambia), 606–607 Luapula River (DROC), 130 Lucie River (Suriname), 511 Lugano (Switzerland), 520 Lugenda River (Mozambique), 372 Luhwa River (Rwanda), 459 Lukanga Swamp (Zambia), 607–608 Lukenie River (DROC), 131 Lukuga River (DROC), 130 Lule River (Sweden), 515 Lulua River (DROC), 131 Lunda Divide, 13 Lundi River, 610 Lunsemfwa River (Zambia), 607 Lupar River (Malaysia), 335 Lúrio River (Mozambique), 372 Lusaka (Zambia), 608 Lusutfu River. See Great Usutu River (Swaziland) Lst Desert (Iran), 258 Luvironza River. See Ruvironza River (Burundi) Luvua River (DROC), 130 Luxembourg, 322–324, 323, 324t Luxembourg (city), 323–324 Luzon (The Philippines), 432–436 Luzon Strait (The Philippines), 434 M Maack’s Shelter (Namibia), 378 Maap (Micronesia), 359 Maas River. See Meuse River Macdonnell Range (Australia), 32 Macedonia, Former Yugoslav Republic of, 324–327, 325, 326t Macgillycuddy’s Reeks (Ireland), 262 Machar Marshes (Sudan), 508 Mach’o˘l Range (DPRK), 295 Machu Picchu (Peru), 430 Macias Nguema Biyogo. See Isla de Bioko (Equatorial Guinea) Mackenzie Range (Canada), 97 Mackenzie River (Canada), 98 Mackenzie Trough (Canada), 99 Maclaralin River (Dominica), 158 Macuma River. See Morona River (Ecuador) Madagascar, 327–330, 328 Madang (Papua New Guinea), 422 Madeira (Portugal), 440, 442 Madeira River (Brazil), 74 Madeiran archipelago (Portugal), 442 Madelgabel (Germany), 202 Madhumati River (Bangladesh), 46 Madhya Pradesh (India), 244, 247 Madjera range (Algeria), 8 Madonie Range (Italy), 270–271 Madras. See Chennai (India) Madre de Dios River (Peru), 430 Madura (Indonesia), 252 Maduru Oya Reservoir (Sri Lanka), 503 Maduru River (Sri Lanka), 503 Mae Klong Bay (Thailand), 535 Maéwo (Vanuatu), 587 Mafia (Tanzania), 531–532 Mafinga Hills (Zambia), 606 Mafingi Mountains (Zambia), 605 Magaruque Island (Mozambique), 373 Magdalena Bay (Mexico), 355 Magdalena River (Colombia), 124 Magellanic penguins, 26 Maggia River (Switzerland), 519 Maghreb region Algeria, 8–11 Morocco, 367–370 Tunisia, 543–545 Maha River (Sri Lanka), 504 Mahabharat Range (Nepal), 383, 384 Mahadeo Hills (India), 244 Mahafaly Plateau (Madagascar), 328 Mahakam lakes (Indonesia), 250 Mahakam River (Indonesia), 250, 251 Mahanadi River (India), 245 Mahaweli River (Sri Lanka), 503 Mahé Island (Seychelles), 478–480 Mahia Peninsula (New Zealand), 393 Mahrat Mountains (Oman), 410 Maikala Hills (India), 244 Main-Danube Canal (Germany), 205 Main Ridge (Trinidad and Tobago), 541 Main River (Germany), 204 Maine (United States), 571, 574 Mainland Island (United Kingdom), 568 Maio (Cape Verde), 102 Maipo River (Chile), 113 Maisan (Korea, Republic of), 298 Maiskhal (Bangladesh), 47 Majé Mountains (Panama), 417 Majevica Mountains (Bosnia and Herzegovina), 69 Majorca Island (Spain), 500 Majors Bay (Saint Kitts and Nevis), 461 Majuro Atoll (Marshall Islands), 344 Makassar Strait, 251 Makgadikgadi Salt Pans (Botswana), 71 Makhaleng River. See Kometspruit River (Lesotho) Makmal (Kyrgyzstan), 304 Makonde Plateau (Tanzania), 531 Makorako (New Zealand), 391 Makran Range (Pakistan), 412 Malabar Coast (India), 246 Malagarasi River, 88, 531 Malaita Island (Solomon Islands), 489–490 Malakula (Vanuatu), 587 Malanje Highlands (Angola), 13 Malawi, 330–333, 331, 332t Malay Peninsula, 248–254, 333, 374 Malaysia, 248, 251, 333–337, 334, 336t Malcom (Oman), 409 Malden Island (Kiribati), 292, 293 Maldives, 337–339, 338, 339t Malé (Maldives), 337–339 Malé Atoll (Maldives), 337–339 Make Karpaty. See Little Carpathian Mountains (Slovakia) Maletsunyane Falls (Lesotho), 312 Maletsunyane River (Lesotho), 312 Mali, 339–342, 340, 342t Maliana Plateau (East Timor), 162 Malibamatso River (Lesotho), 312 Malingre Island (French Guiana), 195 Maloelap Atoll (Marshall Islands), 344 Malolo Island (Fiji), 185 Malolotja Falls (Swaziland), 512 Malolotja Nature Reserve (Swaziland), 512– 513 Malolotja River (Swaziland), 512 Maloti Mountains (Lesotho), 312, 313 Malpelo Island (Colombia), 125 Malta, 342–345, 343, 344t Malta Channel, 272 Maluku Islands (Indonesia), 249, 252 Maluku Sea, 251 Malwa Plateau (India), 244 Mamberamo River (Indonesia), 251 Mambéré River (Central African Republic), 105 Mamoré River (Bolivia), 66 Mana River (French Guiana), 195 Managua (Nicaragua), 395 Manam (Papua New Guinea), 422 Manambajo River (Madagascar), 329 Mananara River (Madagascar), 329 Manas River. See Tongsa River (Bhutan) Manaslu (Nepal), 384 Manatee Hills (Belize), 55 Manatee Lagoons (Belize), 56 Mancarrón Island (Nicaragua), 396 Mancarroncito Island (Nicaragua), 396 Manchester (Jamaica), 275 Manchhar Lake (Pakistan), 413 Manchurian Plain (China), 115 Mand River (Iran), 256 Mandai Hill (Singapore), 483 Geodata.book Page 671 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 63. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA672 Mandara Mountains, 92, 93, 402 Mandeb Island (Yemen), 600 Manding Mountains (Mali), 340 Mandingue Plateau (Mali), 340 Mangin Range (Myanmar), 375 Mangla Dam (Pakistan), 413 Mango (Togo), 538 Mangoky River (Madagascar), 329 Mangroves Bangladesh, 46, 47 Belize, 56 Brunei, 80–81 Cayman Islands, 104 Comoros, 127 Costa Rica, 137 Cuba, 146 East Timor, 163 El Salvador, 172 Fiji, 184 French Guiana, 195 Gabon, 197 Gambia, 198 Grenada, 216 Guadeloupe, 218 Guatemala, 221 Guinea, 224 Guinea-Bissau, 226 India, 245, 247 Indonesia, 251, 252–253 Iran, 257 Kenya, 291 Liberia, 315 Madagascar, 329, 330 Malaysia, 335 Micronesia, 359 Mozambique, 372, 373 Myanmar, 376 New Zealand, 393 Nigeria, 403 Oman, 409 Pakistan, 413, 414 Palau, 415 Panama, 418 Papua New Guinea, 422, 423 Samoa, 467 Somalia, 491 Sri Lanka, 504 Venezuela, 593 Manguéni Plateau (Niger), 399 Mangyshlak Peninsula (Kazakhstan), 287 Manila (The Philippines), 435 Manila Bay (The Philippines), 435 Manindjau (Indonesia), 250 Maningory River (Madagascar), 329 Maninjau Lake (Indonesia), 250 Maninjau Plateau (Indonesia), 250 Manitoba Lowland (Canada), 100 Manitoulin Island (Canada), 99 Mannar Island (Sri Lanka), 504 Mano River, 314, 481 Man-of-War Cays (Nicaragua), 396–397 Manono Island (Samoa), 466–467 Mansôa River (Guinea-Bissau), 225 Mantaro River (Peru), 430 Manufacturing Belarus, 51 Israel, 268 Luxembourg, 324 Mauritius, 352 Taiwan, 526 United Kingdom, 570 See also Commerce and industry Manukau Harbor (New Zealand), 393 Manulu Lagoon (Kiribati), 293 Manus (Papua New Guinea), 422 Maoke Mountains (Indonesia), 249 Mao-Kebbi. See Mayo-Kebbi (Chad) Maore. See Mayotte (France) Mapocho River (Chile), 113 Maputo (Mozambique), 372 Maquis. See Grasslands Mar da Palha (Portugal), 442 Mar del Plata (Argentina), 26 Maracá Island (Brazil), 76 Maracaibo Lowlands (Venezuela), 589 Maradu Bay (Malaysia), 336 Marajó Bay (Brazil), 76 Marajó Island (Brazil), 76 Marano River (San Marino), 469 Marañón River (Peru), 429, 430 Maravia Highlands (Mozambique), 372 Marcal River (Hungary), 236 Marche (Italy), 271 Marchena Island (Galápagos), 165 Mardin Mountains (Turkey), 546 Mare aux Vacoas (Mauritius), 351 Mareb River, 177, 508 Maremma (Italy), 271, 272 Margalla Hills (Pakistan), 412 Margaret River (Australia), 34 Margarita Island. See Isla Margarita (Venezuela) Margherita Peak, 130, 556 Margow Desert (Afghanistan), 4 Maria Islands (Saint Lucia), 462–463 Mariana Islands (United States), 578 Maribor (Slovenia), 487–488 Marie-Galante (Guadeloupe), 218 Marienfluss River (Namibia), 379 Marine ecosystems Colombia, 124 Great Barrier Reef, 33 Indonesia, 251 Mexico, 355 Namibia, 379 Saint Kitts and Nevis, 461 Marine mammals Argentina, 26 Belize, 56 Saudi Arabia, 473 Marine National Park (India), 246 Marion Island (South Africa), 496 Maritime Alps (France), 190 Maritime Flanders (Belgium), 53–54 Maritime Guinea. See Lower Guinea Maritsa River, 82, 83, 212, 548 Marker Lake. See Markermeer (The Netherlands) Markermeer (The Netherlands), 388 Markham River (Papua New Guinea), 421, 422 Marmagao (India), 245 Marmara Denizi. See Sea of Marmara (Turkey) Marne River (France), 191 Marobo River (East Timor), 163 Maroni River, 195, 511 Marquesas (France), 193 Marquis River (Saint Lucia), 462 Marra Mountains (Sudan), 507 Marshall Islands, 344–345, 345 Marshlands. See Wetlands Martinique, 192, 345–347, 346 Martinique Passage, 346 Marysville Buttes (United States), 574 Masada (Israel), 267 Masai Steppe (Tanzania), 531 Masbate (The Philippines), 433, 434 Mascarene Plateau (Mauritius), 350 Mashkai River (Pakistan), 413 Mashona Hills (Zimbabwe), 609 Mapjrah Island (Oman), 409, 410 Masqat (Oman), 410 Massachusetts (United States), 574 Massawa Channel (Eritrea), 177 Massif Central (France), 191 Massif de la Hotte (Haiti), 230 Massif de la Selle (Haiti), 230 Massif du Nord (Haiti), 230 Masurian Lake District (Poland), 437 Mat River (Albania), 6 Matam (Senegal), 477 Matanti (Micronesia), 358 Mataura River (New Zealand), 393 Matavanu (Samoa), 466 Matebian (East Timor), 162 Matorral, 114 Mat-Su Islands (Taiwan), 524–525 Matterhorn (Switzerland), 518 Matthew Island (Vanuatu), 587 Mau Escarpment (Kenya), 289 Mauga Afi (Samoa), 466 Mauga Ali’ii (Samoa), 466 Mauga Fito (Samoa), 466 Mauga Loa (Samoa), 466 Mauga Mu (Samoa), 466 Mauga-o-Savai’i (Samoa), 466 Mauga Silisili (Samoa), 466 Maui (United States), 577 Maule River (Chile), 113 Mauna Kea (United States), 574 Mauna Loa (United States), 574, 577 Mauritania, 347–350, 349 Mauritius, 350, 350–352, 351t Mavrovo National Park (Macedonia), 326 Mawson Peak (Australia), 32 Maya Mountains (Belize), 56–57 Mayaguana Island (The Bahamas), 42 Mayaguana Passage (The Bahamas), 41–42 Mayagüez Bay (Puerto Rico), 445 Mayan civilization, 221–222 Mayo-Kebbi (Chad), 108, 109 Mayombé Escarpment, 13, 15, 133–134 Mayotte (France), 127, 192 Mayreau Island (Saint Vincent and the Grenadines), 464 Mayumbe Mountains (DROC), 130 Mazaruni River (Guyana), 228 Mazhur Desert (Saudi Arabia), 475 Mbabane (Swaziland), 512–513 Mbala Highlands (Zambia), 605 Mbari River (Central African Republic), 105 Mbeya Range (Tanzania), 531 Geodata.book Page 672 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 64. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA 673 Index Mbini (Equatorial Guinea), 174–175 Mbini River (Equatorial Guinea), 175 Mbuluzi River (Swaziland), 512–513 Mbuna (fish), 333 McCarthy Inlet (Antarctica), 20 McCarthy Island (Gambia), 198 McDonald Islands (Australia), 31, 34 M’Clintock Channel (Canada), 99 M’Clure Strait (Canada), 99 McMahon Line, 242 McMurdo Dry Valleys (Antarctica), 19 McMurdo Station (Antarctica), 21 Mecca (Saudi Arabia), 472, 474 Mecklenburg Bay (Germany), 205 Mecsek Mountains (Hungary), 235 Medicinal plants India, 248 Madagascar, 330 Myanmar, 377 neem trees, 244 Paraguay, 427 Medina (Saudi Arabia), 473 Mediterranean islands. See specific islands Medjerda River (Tunisia), 544 Medjerda Valley (Tunisia), 544–545 Meduse (ship), 349 Meghna River (Bangladesh), 46 Mekong Delta (Vietnam), 594–597 Mekong River Cambodia, 89–90, 91 China, 119 Laos, 305, 306 Myanmar, 376 Thailand, 534–536 Melbourne (Australia), 35 Melilla, 368, 499 Melo (Guinea-Bissau), 225 Melo River (Paraguay), 426 Melville Island (Australia), 34 Melville Island (Trinidad and Tobago). See St. Giles Island (Trinidad and Tobago) Mende (Sierra Leone), 482 Mendoza (Argentina), 24 Menor Lagoon (Spain), 501 Mentawi Islands (Indonesia), 252 Mere Island (French Guiana), 195 Mereb River (Eritrea), 177 Mergui Archipelago (Myanmar), 376 Merída (Venezuela), 591 Mesa Central (Mexico), 354, 356 Mesa del Norte (Mexico), 354 Mesaoria Plain (Cyprus), 148, 149 Meseta Central (Costa Rica), 136–138 Meseta Central (Spain), 499–501 Mesopotamia, 259–261, 521, 523 Mesopotamia (Argentina), 24, 27 Mesopotamia Valley (Saint Vincent and the Grenadines), 465 Messalo River (Mozambique), 372 Messina (Italy), 269 Messum Crater (Namibia), 378 Mesta River (Bulgaria), 83 Meta River, 124, 591 Metic Shoal Island, 539 Metropolitan Area (Kuwait), 301 Métsovon pass (Greece), 212 Meuse River, 53, 191–192, 388 Mexicali Valley (Mexico), 355 Mexico, 352–357, 353, 356t, 357t Mexico City (Mexico), 354, 357 Meyungs (Palau), 416 Mezzogiorno (Italy), 269 M’Goze Lagoon (Gabon), 197 Mi River (Sri Lanka), 504 Miami (United States), 578 Miani Hor (Pakistan), 413 Michigan (United States), 573 Mico Mountains (Guatemala), 220 Micronesia, Federated States of (FSM), 357– 360, 358 Midagahara (Japan), 277 Middle American Trench, 172, 355 Middle Atlas Mountains (Morocco), 369 Middle Caicos Island (Turks and Caicos Islands), 552–553 Middle East. See specific countries Middle Lowlands (Latvia), 309 Middle Rockies (United States), 573 Middle Veld (South Africa), 494–495 Middleveld (Zimbabwe), 609, 611 Midnight sun Finland, 188 Greenland, 215 Norway, 407 Midu Island (Maldives), 338 Midway Islands (United States), 577 Migiurtinia Mountains (Somalia), 491 Mikeno (DROC), 130 Miladummadulu Atoll (Maldives), 338 Milan (Italy), 272 Mili Atoll (Marshall Islands), 344 Milindi (Kenya), 290 Milk River Bath (Jamaica), 274 Milne Bay (Papua New Guinea), 422 Milwaukee Depth, 444 Mjna’ ‘Abd Allah (Kuwait), 301 Minahasa Peninsula (Indonesia), 252 Minakami Canyon (Japan), 278 Mindanao (The Philippines), 432–436 Mindanao River (The Philippines), 434 Mindor Strait, 434 Mindoro (The Philippines), 434, 436 Mineral springs Bosnia and Herzegovina, 69 China, 117 Cuba, 146 Czech Republic, 151 Georgia, 202 Hungary, 236 Macedonia, 326 Mongolia, 364 Minerals Afghanistan, 5 Albania, 7 Algeria, 11 Andorra, 12 Angola, 15 Antarctica, 21–22 Argentina, 27 Armenia, 29 Australia, 35 Austria, 39 Azerbaijan, 41 Belgium, 55 Benin, 59 Bermuda, 61 Bolivia, 68 Bosnia and Herzegovina, 70 Botswana, 72 Brazil, 78 Bulgaria, 84 Burundi, 88 Cambodia, 91 Cameroon, 95 Canada, 101 Central African Republic, 107 Chad, 111 Chile, 114 China, 121 Colombia, 125, 126 Congo, Democratic Republic of, 132–133 Congo, Republic of, 135 Côte d’Ivoire, 142 Croatia, 144 Cuba, 148 Cyprus, 150 Czech Republic, 152 Denmark, 155 Dominican Republic, 161 East Timor, 163–164 Ecuador, 167 Egypt, 170 Equatorial Guinea, 176 Eritrea, 178 Estonia, 180 Ethiopia, 183 Finland, 188 French Guiana, 195 Gabon, 197 Georgia, 201–202 Germany, 206 Ghana, 210 Greece, 214 Greenland, 216 Guatemala, 222 Guinea, 224 Guinea-Bissau, 227 Guyana, 229 Haiti, 232 Honduras, 234 Hungary, 238 India, 244, 247, 248 Indonesia, 254 Iran, 258 Ireland, 264 Israel, 268 Italy, 273 Jamaica, 275 Jordan, 283 Kazakhstan, 286, 288 Kenya, 292 Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of, 297 Korea, Republic of, 299 Kyrgyzstan, 304 Laos, 307 Lebanon, 311 Liberia, 315 Libya, 318 Lithuania, 322 Luxembourg, 324 Geodata.book Page 673 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 65. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA674 Macedonia, 326 Madagascar, 330 Malawi, 333 Malaysia, 336 Mali, 342 Marshall Islands, 345 Mauritania, 349 Mexico, 357 Moldova, 361 Mongolia, 367 Morocco, 370 Mozambique, 374 Myanmar, 377 Namibia, 381 Nepal, 386 New Zealand, 394 Nicaragua, 398 Niger, 400 Nigeria, 404 Norway, 408 Oman, 410 Pakistan, 414 Panama, 420 Papua New Guinea, 421, 423 Paraguay, 427 Peru, 432 The Philippines, 436 Poland, 440 Portugal, 443 Romania, 451 Russia, 457 Rwanda, 459 Saudi Arabia, 475 Sierra Leone, 482 Slovakia, 486 Slovenia, 486 Solomon Islands, 490 Somalia, 494 South Africa, 498 Spain, 502 Sri Lanka, 505 Sudan, 510 Suriname, 512 Swaziland, 514 Sweden, 517 Switzerland, 521 Syria, 524 Taiwan, 526 Tajikistan, 529 Tanzania, 533 Thailand, 536 Togo, 538 Tunisia, 545 Turkey, 549 Turkmenistan, 552 Uganda, 558 Ukraine, 561 United Kingdom, 570 United States, 580–581 Uruguay, 583 Uzbekistan, 586 Venezuela, 593 Vietnam, 597 Yemen, 601 Yugoslavia, 605 Zambia, 608 Zimbabwe, 611 Minerva Reefs (Tonga), 539 Mingäçevir Reservoir (Azerbaijan), 40 Minho River, 442, 500 Minicoy Island (India), 246 Mining Australia, 35 Belize, 57 Botswana, 72 Bulgaria, 84 Indonesia, 254 Luxembourg, 323 Mexico, 357 Saudi Arabia, 475 Sierra Leone, 482 Slovenia, 488 South Africa, 498 Sri Lanka, 505 Sweden, 517 Tajikistan, 529 Ukraine, 561 Uruguay, 583 Uzbekistan, 586 Zambia, 608 See also Minerals Minnesota (United States), 573, 575 Miño River. See Minho River Miñorca Island (Spain), 500 Mirabello Gulf (Greece), 213 Miravalles volcano (Costa Rica), 136 Mirzachol Desert (Uzbekistan), 585 Misiones (Argentina), 24 Mississippi Delta (United States), 578 Mississippi River (United States), 571, 574, 576, 579–580 Missouri (United States), 573 Missouri Plateau (United States), 571 Missouri River (United States), 574, 576 Mistassini Lake (Canada), 97 Mitidja Plain (Algeria), 10 Mittelland Canal (Germany), 205 Mittleland (Switzerland), 517–521 Mitumba Mountains (DROC), 130 Mitzpeh Shlagim (Israel), 266 Mizen Head (Ireland), 263 Mnjoli Reservoir (Swaziland), 514 Mo Chhu. See Mo River (Bhutan) Mo River (Bhutan), 63 Moa River (Sierra Leone), 481 Mobile Bay (United States), 578 Moctezuma-Panuco River (Mexico), 354 Moen (Micronesia), 359 Mogadishu (Somalia), 493 Mogadouro Mountains (Portugal), 441 Moharloo Lake (Iran), 256 Mohéli (Comoros), 127 Mojave Desert (United States), 579 Moka Range (Mauritius), 350 Mokil Islands (Micronesia), 358 Moldau River. See Vltava River (Czech Republic) Moldavia (Romania), 448 Moldavian Carpathians (Romania), 448, 450 Moldavian Plateau (Romania), 449 Moldova, 360, 360–362, 361t Môle-St.-Nicolas (Haiti), 230 Molokai (United States), 577 Molucca Sea. See Maluku Sea Moluccas Islands. See Maluku Islands (Indonesia) Mombasa (Kenya), 291 Momiji Canyon (Japan), 278 Mona Island (Puerto Rico), 444 Mona Passage, 160, 444 Monaco, 362, 362–363 Monaco-Ville, 362 Monday River (Paraguay), 426 Mondego River (Portugal), 442 Mondsee (Austria), 37 Mongol Daguur (Mongolia), 365 Mongolia, 363–367, 364, 366t Mongolian Plateau, 364 Monkey Hill (Saint Kitts and Nevis), 461 Monkey River (Belize), 56 Monkeys, on Saint Kitts and Nevis, 461 Mono River, 58, 537 Monos Island (Trinidad and Tobago), 541 Monrovia (Liberia), 315 Monsoons Afghanistan, 4 Bangladesh, 47 Bhutan, 63–64 Brunei, 81 Cambodia, 90–91 Eritrea, 178 Guinea, 224 Guinea-Bissau, 225 India, 246 Japan, 280 Laos, 306 Madagascar, 329 Malaysia, 336 Maldives, 337, 338 Nepal, 385 Oman, 410 Papua New Guinea, 423 The Philippines, 434 Russia, 456 Sri Lanka, 504 Taiwan, 526 Tanzania, 532 Mont Blanc, 190, 269 Mont Celaque (Honduras), 233 Mont D’Iberville (Canada), 97 Mont Jacques-Cartier (Canada), 97 Mont Ngaoui (Central African Republic), 105 Monte Blanco. See Mont Blanc Monte Carlo (Monaco), 362 Monte Chime (Equatorial Guinea), 175 Monte Chocolate (Equatorial Guinea), 175 Monte Corno (Italy), 270 Monte Lindo River (Paraguay), 426 Monte Rosa Massif (Switzerland), 518 Montecristo National Park (El Salvador), 173 Montego Bay (Jamaica), 275 Montenegro (Yugoslavia), 602–605 Montevideo (Uruguay), 582 Montreaux (Switzerland), 519 Monts des Ksour (Tunisia), 545 Montserrat (United Kingdom), 568 Moraca River (Yugoslavia), 602–604 Moraines Denmark, 153–154 Finland, 186 Latvia, 308 Geodata.book Page 674 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 66. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA 675 Index Morant Cays (Jamaica), 275 Morant Point (Jamaica), 274 Morava River, 152, 604 Moravia (Czech Republic), 150–152 Moravian Karst (Czech Republic), 151 Moray Firth (Scotland), 569 Morbha River, 551 Morecambe Bay (England), 569 Morelos Dam (Mexico), 355 Morghab River (Afghanistan), 3 Morne Anglais (Dominica), 157 Morne au Diable (Dominica), 157 Morne Brule (Dominica), 157 Morne Couronne (Dominica), 157 Morne Diablotin (Dominica), 157 Morne la Pierre (Haiti), 231 Morne Plat Pays (Dominica), 157 Morne Seychellois (Seychelles), 478 Morne Trois Pitons (Dominica), 157 Moro Gulf (The Philippines), 435 Moro River (Sierra Leone), 481 Morocco, 367–370, 368, 370t Morona River (Ecuador), 165 Morozan (El Salvador), 172 Morphou Bay (Cyprus), 149 Morro de Mejo. See Mount Mejo (Angola) Morro de Moco. See Mount Moco (Angola) Morro de Vavéle (Angola), 13 Morro River (Liberia), 314 Morrocoy National Park (Venezuela), 592 Mortlocks (Micronesia), 358 Moscow (Russia), 456 Moselle River, 191–192, 204, 323 Moselle River Valley (Luxembourg), 323–324 Mosioa-Tunya. See Victoria Falls Moskitos Cays (Nicaragua), 396 Mosquito Coast, 233, 395, 397, 398 Mosquito Gulf (Panama), 419 Mossel Bay (South Africa), 496 Mosso plains (Burundi), 88 Mostar (Bosnia and Herzegovina), 70 Mosul (Iraq), 261 Mota Lava (Vanuatu), 587 Motagua River (Guatemala), 220–221 Moulouya River (Morocco), 369 Mount Afadjato (Ghana), 207 Mt. Agou (Togo), 537 Mt. Alvernia (The Bahamas), 41 Mount Apo (The Philippines), 433 Mount Aragats (Armenia), 28 Mount Ararat (Turkey), 546 Mount Aripo (Trinidad and Tobago), 541 Mount Ash-Shánabj (Tunisia), 543 Mount Ayribaba. See Gora Ayribaba (Turkmenistan) Mt. Azul (Galápagos Islands), 165 Mount Balabrevenesti (Moldova), 360 Mount Belasica (Macedonia), 325 Mount Berlin (Antarctica), 19 Mount Berongou (Republic of the Congo), 134 Mount Bia (Laos), 305 Mt. Binga (Mozambique), 371 Mt. Botrange (Belgium), 52 Mount Bounaceur (Morocco), 369 Mt. Bruce (Australia), 32 Mt. Cameroon, 92 Mount Carmel (Israel), 266 Mt. Carrantuohil (Ireland), 262 Mt. Catherine (Egypt), 167 Mt. Chajrchan Uul (Mongolia), 364 Mount Chirripó. See Chirripó Grande (Costa Rica) Mount Cho Oyu (Nepal), 384 Mt. Cook (New Zealand), 391 Mount Crozer. See Fenkol (Micronesia) Mt. Damamacrvand (Iran), 255 Mt. Daravica (Yugoslavia), 602 Mount Debasien (Uganda), 556 Mt. Dhírfis (Euboea), 212 Mt. Dinara (Croatia), 142 Mount Ebramacrhimacrm (Iraq), 259 Mt. Elbert (United States), 573 Mount El’brus (Russia), 453 Mount Elgon (Uganda), 556, 558 Mt. Emlembe (Swaziland), 512 Mount Erebus (Antarctica), 19 Mt. Etna (Italy), 271 Mount Everest, 116, 384 Mt. Fako. See Mt. Cameroon Mt. Fsladj (Afghanistan), 2 Mount Fogo (Cape Verde), 102 Mount Fuji (Japan), 276 Mount Fujiyama. See Mount Fuji (Japan) Mt. Giluwe (Papua New Guinea), 420 Mt. Gimie (Saint Lucia), 462 Mount Godwin Austen. See K2 (Pakistan) Mt. Gréboun (Niger), 399 Mt. Grintovec (Slovenia), 487 Mount Grosser Beer (Germany), 204 Mount Haltia (Finland), 186 Mt. Hamatah (Egypt), 167 Mt. Heha (Burundi), 87 Mt. Hermon (Lebanon), 310 Mount Hermon (Syria), 521 Mt. Hillaby (Barbados), 48 Mount Hombori Tondo (Mali), 340 Mount Hoverlya (Ukraine), 559 Mount Huyten. See Nayramadlïn Orgil (Mongolia) Mt. Iboundji (Gabon), 196 Mt. Ida (Crete), 212 Mount Ijill (Mauritania), 347 Mount Inyangani (Zimbabwe), 609 Mount Jackson (Antarctica), 19 Mount Jamanota (Aruba), 30 Mt. Kaçkar (Turkey), 546 Mt. Karisimbi (Rwanda), 458 Mt. Kartala. See Mt. Karthala (Comoros) Mt. Karthala (Comoros), 127 Mount Kazbek (Georgia), 200 Mount Kékes (Hungary), 235 Mount Keli Mulu (Indonesia), 250 Mount Kenya, 288 Mount Kilimanjaro (Tanzania), 530, 532 Mount Kinabalu (Malaysia), 334 Mount Kinyeti (Sudan), 507 Mount Kodprimeros (Hungary), 235 Mt. Korabit (Albania), 6 Mt. Kosciusko (Australia), 32 Mount Kwanmo. See Kwanmo-bon (DPRK) Mount La Selle (Haiti), 230 Mount Lawz (Saudi Arabia), 475 Mount Lhotse (Nepal), 384 Mt. Liamuiga. See Mt. Misery (Saint Kitts and Nevis) Mt. Lofty (Australia), 32 Mount Logan (Canada), 97 Mount Loma Mansa (Sierra Leone), 481 Mount Loolmalassin (Tanzania), 530 Mt. Maglic (Bosnia and Herzegovina), 69, 70 Mount Makalu (Nepal), 384 Mount Makarakomburu (Solomon Islands), 489 Mount Marasabit (Kenya), 291 Mt. Maromokotro (Madagascar), 327 Mount Maroum (Vanuatu), 587 Mount Mayon (The Philippines), 433 Mount McKinley (United States), 573–574 Mount Mejo (Angola), 13 Mount Melbourne (Antarctica), 19 Mt. Meron (Israel), 266, 267 Mount Meru (Tanzania), 530 Mt. Misery (Saint Kitts and Nevis), 460 Mt. Mitchell (United States), 573 Mount Moco (Angola), 13 Mt. Moldoveanu (Romania), 448 Mount Moroto (Uganda), 556 Mount Morungole (Uganda), 556 Mt. Mulanje (Malawi), 331, 332 Mount Murud (Malaysia), 334 Mount Narodnaya (Russia), 453 Mt. Neige (France), 190 Mt. Nevis (Saint Kitts and Nevis), 460 Mount Ngerchelchauus (Palau), 415 Mount Nimba, 139, 223 Mt. Nowshamacrk (Afghanistan), 2 Mount Ntlenyana (Lesotho), 312 Mount Olympus. See Ulu Dagbreve (Turkey) Mt. Olympus (Cyprus), 149 Mt. Olympus (Greece), 212 Mt. Órvilos (Greece), 212 Mount Oyama (Japan), 276 Mount Paektu. See Paektu-san (DPRK) Mt. Paget (United Kingdom), 568 Mt. Pagon (Brunei), 80 Mt. Parnassus (Greece), 212 Mount Pelée (Martinique), 346 Mt. Pelukha (Russia), 453 Mt. Pietrosu (Romania), 448 Mount Pinatubo (The Philippines), 433 Mount Pulog (The Philippines), 432–433 Mt. Rao (Laos), 305 Mount Rasdajan. See Ras Deshen (Ethiopia) Mount Raya (Indonesia), 249 Mt. Roman-Kosh (Ukraine), 559 Mt. Roraima (Guyana), 227 Mount Roraina (Venezuela), 590–591 Mt. Rysy (Poland), 437 Mount Sabinio (Uganda), 556 Mount Sage (British Virgin Islands), 79 Mount Saint Catherine (Grenada), 216 Mt. Sajama (Bolivia), 66 Mt. Scenery (Netherlands Antilles), 390 Mount Seychelles. See Morne Seychellois (Seychelles) Mt. Shahshah (Turkmenistan), 550 Mt. Shajyb al-Banamacrt (Egypt), 167 Mt. Shimbiris (Somalia), 491 Mount Shkhara (Georgia), 200 Mount Sidley (Antarctica), 19 Geodata.book Page 675 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 67. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA676 Mt. Snežka (Czech Republic), 150 Mt. Snowdon (Wales), 564, 566 Mount Spurr (United States), 577 Mt. Stol (Slovenia), 487 Mount Tabiwol (Micronesia), 358 Mount Tabwemasana (Vanuatu), 587 Mt. Tahan (Malaysia), 334 Mt. Tahat (Algeria), 8 Mount Tamana (Trinidad and Tobago), 541 Mt. Taranaki. See Egmont Peak (New Zealand) Mt. Tendre (Switzerland), 518 Mt. Timfristós (Greece), 212 Mt. Titano (San Marino), 469 Mt. Tobaoi (Saint Vincent and the Grenadines), 464 Mt. Tomaniivi (Fiji), 184 Mount Totolom (Micronesia), 358 Mount Toubkal (Morocco), 369 Mt. Triglav (Slovenia), 487–488 Mt. Tsiafajavona (Madagascar), 327 Mount Tukosmera (Vanuatu), 587 Mount Tupungato (Chile), 112 Mount Unzen (Japan), 276 Mt. Usborne (United Kingdom), 568 Mount Usu (Japan), 276 Mount Vaea (Samoa), 466 Mount Vavéle. See Morro de Vavéle (Angola) Mt. Victoria (Myanmar), 375 Mt. Victoria (Papua New Guinea), 420 Mt. Waialeale (United States), 579 Mt. Whitney (United States), 574 Mt. Wilhelm (Papua New Guinea), 420 Mt. Wutivi (Liberia), 314 Mount Yibir (United Arab Emirates), 562 Mount Zulia (Uganda), 556 Mountain Heights Plateau. See Eastern Heights Plateau (Jordan) Mountain Pine Ridge plateau (Belize), 56 Mountain Region (Nepal), 382, 383–384 Mountains Afghanistan, 2–3 Albania, 5–6 Algeria, 8 Andorra, 11–12 Angola, 13 Anguilla, 16 Antarctica, 18–19 Antigua, 22 Argentina, 24–25 Armenia, 28 Australia, 31–32 Austria, 36 Azerbaijan, 39, 40 Bahrain, 43 Bangladesh, 45 Barbados, 48 Belarus, 50 Belgium, 52 Belize, 55, 56 Benin, 58 Bermuda, 60 Bhutan, 62 Bolivia, 65–66 Bosnia and Herzegovina, 69 Brazil, 74 British Virgin Islands, 79 Bulgaria, 82 Burundi, 87 Cambodia, 89 Cameroon, 92 Canada, 96–97 Cape Verde, 102 Cayman Islands, 103–104 Central African Republic, 105 Chad, 108 Chile, 112 China, 115–116 Colombia, 122–123 Comoros, 127 Congo, Democratic Republic of, 129–130 Congo, Republic of, 133–134 Costa Rica, 136 Côte d’Ivoire, 139 Croatia, 142 Cuba, 145–146 Cyprus, 148–149 Czech Republic, 150–151 Djibouti, 156 Dominica, 157 Dominican Republic, 159 East Timor, 162 Ecuador, 164–165, 166 Egypt, 167 El Salvador, 171–172 Equatorial Guinea, 175 Eritrea, 176 Ethiopia, 181–182 Fiji, 184 Finland, 186 France, 189–190 French Guiana, 195 Gabon, 196 Georgia, 200 Germany, 202–203 Ghana, 207 Greece, 211, 212 Greenland, 215 Grenada, 216 Guatemala, 219, 220 Guinea, 223 Guyana, 227 Haiti, 229–230 Honduras, 232–233 Hungary, 235 Iceland, 239 India, 242–244 Indonesia, 249 Iran, 255 Iraq, 259 Ireland, 262 Israel, 266 Italy, 269–271 Jamaica, 274 Japan, 276–277 Jordan, 282 Kazakhstan, 284–285 Kenya, 288–290 Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of, 295 Korea, Republic of, 297–298 Kyrgyzstan, 302–303 Laos, 305 Lebanon, 310 Lesotho, 312 Liberia, 314 Libya, 316 Liechtenstein, 318–319 Macedonia, 325 Madagascar, 327–328 Malawi, 331 Malaysia, 334 Mali, 340 Martinique, 346 Mauritius, 350–351 Mexico, 352, 353–354 Micronesia, 358 Mongolia, 363–364 Morocco, 368–369 Mozambique, 370–371 Myanmar, 375 Namibia, 378–379 Nepal, 383–384 Netherlands Antilles, 390 New Zealand, 391 Nicaragua, 395 Niger, 399 Nigeria, 402 Norway, 405 Oman, 409 Pakistan, 411–412 Palau, 415 Panama, 417 Papua New Guinea, 420–421 Paraguay, 424 Peru, 428 The Philippines, 432–433 Poland, 437 Portugal, 441 Puerto Rico, 444 Romania, 448–449 Russia, 453 Rwanda, 458 Saint Kitts and Nevis, 460 Saint Lucia, 462 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, 464 Samoa, 466 San Marino, 469 São Tomé and Príncipe, 470 Saudi Arabia, 472 Seychelles, 478 Sierra Leone, 480 Slovakia, 484–485 Slovenia, 487 Solomon Islands, 489 Somalia, 491 South Africa, 494–495 Spain, 499–500 Sri Lanka, 502–503 Sudan, 506–507 Suriname, 510 Sweden, 514 Switzerland, 518–521 Syria, 521–522 Taiwan, 525 Tajikistan, 527–528 Tanzania, 531 Thailand, 533–534 Togo, 538 Tonga, 539 Trinidad and Tobago, 541 Tunisia, 543–544 Geodata.book Page 676 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 68. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA 677 Index Turkey, 546 Turkmenistan, 550 Uganda, 556 Ukraine, 559 United Arab Emirates, 562 United Kingdom, 566 United States, 573–574 Uzbekistan, 584 Vanuatu, 587 Venezuela, 590 Vietnam, 594 Virgin Islands, 598 Yemen, 599 Yugoslavia, 602 Zambia, 606 Zimbabwe, 609 Mountains of the Moon. See Ruwenzori Mountains (Uganda) Mourne Mountains (Northern Ireland), 565– 566 Moussa Ali (Djibouti), 156 Moy River (Ireland), 263 Moyowosi Game Reserve (Tanzania), 531 Mozambique, 370–374, 371, 374t Mozambique Channel, 329, 372 Mozambique Plateau, 372 Mpongo River (Uganda), 557 Mt. See Mount Mu Us Desert (China), 120 Muchinga Mountains (Zambia), 605–606 Mudslides. See Landslides Mudug Plain (Somalia), 491 Mufulwe Hills (Zambia), 608 Mufumbiro Range, 556 Muhavura (Uganda), 556 Mühlviertel (Austria), 37 Muhu Island (Estonia), 180 Mui Bai Bung (Vietnam), 596–597 Mujeres (Mexico), 355 Mulaku Atoll (Maldives), 338 Mulanje Massif. See Mulanje Mountains (Malawi) Mulanje Mountains (Malawi), 331 Mulanje Plateau. See Mulanje Mountains (Malawi) Mulhacén (Spain), 500 Mulifanua (Samoa), 467 Mull (United Kingdom), 566, 568 Mull of Galloway (United Kingdom), 569 Muller Mountains (Indonesia), 249 Müllerthal (Luxembourg), 324 Mulu (Malaysia), 334 Muluya River. See Moulouya River (Morocco) Mumbai (India), 242, 245, 248 Mun River (Thailand), 534 Muonio River (Finland), 187 Mur River (Austria), 37 Mura River, 143, 236, 488 Muragarazi River. See Malagarasi River Murep River (Romania), 449 Murmansk (Russia), 455 Murray-Darling River (Australia), 33 Murray River (Australia), 33 Murrumbidgee River (Australia), 33 Muruk Lakes (Papua New Guinea), 421 Mürz River (Austria), 37 Mus (Turkey), 549 Musala (Bulgaria), 82 Musandam Peninsula, 408, 411 Musashino Plateau (Japan), 277 Musgrave Range (Australia), 32 Musi River (Indonesia), 251 Mussau (Papua New Guinea), 422 Mustang (Nepal), 384 Mustique Island (Saint Vincent and the Grenadines), 464 Muthurajawela Marsh (Sri Lanka), 504 Muzizi River (Uganda), 557 Mwali. See Mohéli (Comoros) Myanmar, 374–377, 375, 377t Myar (Iceland), 238 Myohyang Range (DPRK), 295 Mýrdalsjökull (Iceland), 240 Mývatn-Laxa Lake (Iceland), 240 M’zab (Algeria), 10 N Naayband Bay (Iran), 257 Nabih Salih (Bahrain), 43–44 Nabu Yunis (Syria), 521 Nacaome River (Honduras), 233 Nadi River (Fiji), 184 Nafssah Plateau (Libya), 316 Nagorno-Karabakh region (Azerbaijan), 39 Nagoya Bay. See Ise Bay (Japan) Nahr al Khabsr. See Khabsr River Nairobi (Kenya), 291 Nakai Plateau (Laos), 305–306, 306 Naktong River (Korea, Republic of), 298 Nal River (Pakistan), 413 Nam Ha National Protected Area (Laos), 306 Nam Phoun (Laos), 306 Nam Theun II dam project (Laos), 305 Namak Lake (Iran), 256 Namakzar-e Shahdad (Iran), 258 Namib Desert, 15, 377, 380, 497 Namibia, 377–381, 378, 380t Namja Pass (Nepal), 384 Namorik Atoll (Marshall Islands), 344 Namp’o (DPRK), 296 Namtu River (Myanmar), 375 Namuli Highlands. See Shire Highlands Namwunweito (Micronesia), 358 Nan Heng Shan (China), 117 Nan River (Thailand), 534 Nanda Devi (India), 242 Nang River (Vietnam), 595 Nanga Parbat (Pakistan), 411 Nangbeto Dam (Benin), 59 Nangnim Range (DPRK), 295 Nangpa (Nepal), 384 Nanortalik (Greenland), 215 Nanpo Chain (Japan), 279 Nantes-Brest Canal (France), 192 Nanuku Passage (Fiji), 185 Nanumanga Island (Tuvalu), 554 Nanumea Island (Tuvalu), 554 Napo River, 165, 430 Nara (Japan), 279 Nara Lagna (Nepal), 384 Narayani River (Nepal), 385 Nari (East Timor), 162 Nariva Plain (Trinidad and Tobago), 542 Nariva Swamp (Trinidad and Tobago), 541 Narke (Sweden), 516 Narmada River (India), 245 The Narrows (Saint Kitts and Nevis), 461 Narva River (Estonia), 179 Naryn River (Kyrgyzstan), 303 Nassau (The Bahamas), 41, 42 Nata River, 610 National Biodiversity Area (Laos), 306 National parks Angola, 13 Argentina, 24, 27 Bosnia and Herzegovina, 70 Canada, 97, 98 Chile, 113 Côte d’Ivoire, 141 Croatia, 143–144 Denmark, 155 Dominican Republic, 160 Ecuador, 167 El Salvador, 172, 173 Germany, 205 Guatemala, 221 India, 245, 246, 247 Indonesia, 251 Iran, 258 Ireland, 263 Italy, 271 Japan, 277, 278, 280 Kenya, 290, 291, 292 Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of, 295 Macedonia, 326 Malawi, 333 Malaysia, 334 Mali, 342 Mauritania, 348 Mongolia, 364, 365 Mozambique, 373 Namibia, 380 Nepal, 384, 385 The Netherlands, 388 Nicaragua, 396 Pakistan, 413, 414 Panama, 418, 419 The Philippines, 433, 434 Slovakia, 485 Slovenia, 488 Sri Lanka, 503–504 Sudan, 508 Thailand, 534, 535–536 Turkey, 548, 549 United Kingdom, 566, 569 United States, 573–575 Uruguay, 582 Venezuela, 592–593 Vietnam, 597 Virgin Islands, 598–599 Yugoslavia, 605 Zambia, 605 NATO. See North Atlantic Treaty Organization Natu La (India), 243 Natural gas Afghanistan, 5 Algeria, 11 Azerbaijan, 41 Bangladesh, 48 Geodata.book Page 677 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 69. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA678 Barbados, 49 Belarus, 51 Bolivia, 68 Canada, 101 Colombia, 126 Eritrea, 178 Indonesia, 254 Ireland, 264 Kazakhstan, 288 Kuwait, 301 Libya, 318 Malaysia, 336 Myanmar, 377 The Netherlands, 389 New Zealand, 394 Nigeria, 403, 404 Norway, 408 Oman, 410 Pakistan, 413, 414 Papua New Guinea, 423 Qatar, 447 Russia, 455, 457 Saudi Arabia, 475 Syria, 521, 524 Tanzania, 533 Thailand, 536 Trinidad and Tobago, 542 Turkmenistan, 552 Ukraine, 561–562 United Arab Emirates, 563–564 United States, 580 Uzbekistan, 586 Vietnam, 597 Natural resources Afghanistan, 5 Albania, 7 Algeria, 11 Andorra, 12 Angola, 15 Anguilla, 17 Antarctica, 21–22 Antigua, 23 Argentina, 27 Armenia, 29 Australia, 35 Austria, 39 Azerbaijan, 41 The Bahamas, 42 Bahrain, 44 Bangladesh, 48 Barbados, 49 Barbuda, 23 Belarus, 51 Belgium, 54–55 Belize, 57 Benin, 59 Bermuda, 61 Bhutan, 64 Bolivia, 68 Bosnia and Herzegovina, 70 Botswana, 72 Brazil, 78 Brunei, 81 Bulgaria, 84 Burkina Faso, 86 Burundi, 88 Cambodia, 91 Cameroon, 95 Canada, 101 Cape Verde, 103 Cayman Islands, 104 Central African Republic, 107 Chad, 111 Chile, 114 China, 121 Colombia, 126 Comoros, 128 Congo, Democratic Republic of, 132–133 Congo, Republic of, 135 Costa Rica, 138 Côte d’Ivoire, 142 Croatia, 144 Cuba, 148 Cyprus, 150 Czech Republic, 152 Denmark, 155 Djibouti, 157 Dominica, 158 Dominican Republic, 161 East Timor, 163–164 Ecuador, 167 Egypt, 170 El Salvador, 174 Equatorial Guinea, 176 Eritrea, 178 Estonia, 180 Ethiopia, 183 Fiji, 185 Finland, 188 France, 194 French Guiana, 195 Gabon, 197 Gambia, 199 Georgia, 201–202 Germany, 206 Ghana, 210 Greece, 214 Greenland, 216 Grenada, 217 Guadeloupe, 219 Guatemala, 222 Guinea, 224 Guinea-Bissau, 227 Guyana, 229 Haiti, 232 Honduras, 234 Hungary, 238 Iceland, 241 India, 248 Indonesia, 254 Iran, 258 Iraq, 261 Ireland, 264–265 Israel, 268 Italy, 273 Jamaica, 275 Japan, 281 Jordan, 283 Kazakhstan, 288 Kenya, 292 Kiribati, 294 Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of, 297 Korea, Republic of, 299 Kuwait, 301 Kyrgyzstan, 304 Laos, 307 Latvia, 309 Lebanon, 311 Lesotho, 313 Liberia, 315 Libya, 318 Liechtenstein, 319 Lithuania, 322 Luxembourg, 324 Macedonia, 326 Madagascar, 330 Malawi, 333 Malaysia, 336 Maldives, 339 Mali, 342 Malta, 343–344 Marshall Islands, 345 Martinique, 347 Mauritania, 349 Mauritius, 352 Mexico, 357 Micronesia, 359 Moldova, 361–362 Monaco, 363 Mongolia, 367 Morocco, 370 Mozambique, 374 Myanmar, 377 Namibia, 381 Nauru, 382 Nepal, 386 The Netherlands, 389 Netherlands Antilles, 390 New Zealand, 394 Nicaragua, 398 Niger, 400 Nigeria, 404 Norway, 408 Oman, 410–411 Pakistan, 414–415 Palau, 416 Panama, 420 Papua New Guinea, 423 Paraguay, 427 Peru, 432 The Philippines, 436 Poland, 440 Portugal, 443 Puerto Rico, 445 Qatar, 447 Redonda, 23 Romania, 451 Russia, 457 Rwanda, 459 Saint Kitts and Nevis, 462 Saint Lucia, 463–464 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, 465 Samoa, 468 San Marino, 469 São Tomé and Príncipe, 471 Saudi Arabia, 475 Senegal, 478 Seychelles, 480 Sierra Leone, 482 Singapore, 484 Geodata.book Page 678 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 70. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA 679 Index Slovakia, 486 Slovenia, 488 Solomon Islands, 490 Somalia, 494 South Africa, 498 Spain, 502 Sri Lanka, 505 Sudan, 510 Suriname, 510–512 Swaziland, 513–514 Sweden, 517 Switzerland, 520–521 Syria, 524 Taiwan, 526 Tanzania, 533 Thailand, 536 Togo, 538 Tonga, 540 Trinidad and Tobago, 542–543 Tunisia, 545 Turkey, 549 Turkmenistan, 552 Turks and Caicos Islands, 553 Tuvalu, 555 Uganda, 558 Ukraine, 561–562 United Arab Emirates, 563–564 United Kingdom, 570 United States, 580–581 Uruguay, 583 Uzbekistan, 586 Vanuatu, 588 Venezuela, 593 Vietnam, 597 Virgin Islands, 598–599 Yemen, 601 Yugoslavia, 605 Zambia, 608 Zimbabwe, 611 Nature reserves Belarus, 51 Cayman Islands, 104 Central African Republic, 106 Denmark, 154 Ecuador, 165 El Salvador, 173–174 Gabon, 197 India, 246 Indonesia, 250, 251 Israel, 267 Italy, 271 Japan, 278, 280 Kazakhstan, 284 Kenya, 291 Laos, 305–306 Lithuania, 321 Luxembourg, 323 Madagascar, 328 Mauritania, 348 Mauritius, 351 Mongolia, 363, 365 Namibia, 379 Nepal, 385 Nicaragua, 396, 397–398 Oman, 409 Pakistan, 413 Panama, 418, 419 Papua New Guinea, 422 Peru, 430 The Philippines, 434 Puerto Rico, 445 Singapore, 484 Suriname, 511 Swaziland, 512–513 Tanzania, 531 Thailand, 535 United Kingdom, 567 United States, 575 Venezuela, 592 Vietnam, 597 Naujan Lake National Park (The Philippines), 434 Nauru, 381, 381–382, 382t Nausori Highlands (Fiji), 184 Navassa Island, 231 Navet River (Trinidad and Tobago), 541 Naxçivan (Azerbaijan), 39 Nayramadlïn Orgil (Mongolia), 363–364 Nazca lines (Peru), 430 Nazca Tectonic Plate Panama, 417 Peru, 428 N’Djamena (Chad), 108, 110 Ndogo Lagoon (Gabon), 197 Ndole Bay (Zambia), 607 Ndreketí River (Fiji), 184 Near Islands (United States), 577 Nebrodi Range (Italy), 270–271 Neckar River (Germany), 204 Neder Rijn (The Netherlands), 388 Neem trees, 244 Ñeembucú Plain (Paraguay), 426, 427 Nefta (Tunisia), 545 Negev Desert (Israel), 266, 267–268 Negombo (Sri Lanka), 504 Negro River, 26, 74, 426, 591 Negros (The Philippines), 433, 434, 435 Nei Mongol Plateau (China), 117 Neiba Bay. See Bay of Neiba (Dominican Republic) Neiba Valley (Dominican Republic), 232 Neisse River. See Nysa River (Poland) Nejd Plateau (Saudi Arabia), 472 Nelson-Saskatchewan River (Canada), 98 Neman Lowland (Belarus), 50 Neman River, 51, 320 Nemegt Canyon (Mongolia), 364 Nemunas River. See Neman River Nendo Island (Solomon Islands), 489 Nepal, 382–386, 383, 386t Nepen Diakha (Senegal), 476 Neretva River, 69, 143 Neris River (Lithuania), 320 Nernier (Switzerland), 519 Néstos River (Greece), 212 The Netherlands, 386–389, 387 Netherlands Antilles, 29–31, 389–390, 390 Nettilling Lake (Canada), 97 Neuquén River (Argentina), 26 Neuschwanstein (Germany), 202 Neusiedler Lake, 37, 38, 235 Neusiedler See. See Neusiedler Lake Nevada Yerupajá (Peru), 428 Nevado del Huila (Colombia), 122 Nevado Huascarán (Peru), 428 Nevado Mismi (Peru), 429–430 Nevis Peak. See Mt. Nevis (Saint Kitts and Nevis) New Amsterdam (Guyana), 228 New Britain (Papua New Guinea), 421, 422 New Caldonia (France), 192–193 New England (United States), 571, 574, 578 New Forest (England), 570 New Georgia Island (Solomon Islands), 489– 490 New Guinea, 248, 252, 420–423 New Hampshire (United States), 574 New Hanover (Papua New Guinea), 422 New Ireland (Papua New Guinea), 422 New Providence (The Bahamas), 41, 42 New Siberian Islands (Russia), 455 New York Bay (United States), 578 New York City (United States), 576, 578, 580 New York State (United States), 574, 576 New Zealand, 390–395, 392, 394t Newfoundland (Canada), 99 Neyriz Lakes (Iran), 257 Ngamiland (Botswana), 71 Ngatik Islands (Micronesia), 358 Ngazidja. See Grand Comore (Comoros) Ngoma Mountains (DROC), 130 Ngonye Falls (Zambia), 607 Ngorongoro Crater (Tanzania), 530 Ngounié River (Gabon), 196 Ngum reservoir (Laos), 306 Ngum River (Laos), 306 Ngumi Island (Somalia), 492 Nguru Mountains (Tanzania), 531 Ngwavuma River (Swaziland), 512 Niah National Park (Malaysia), 334 Niamey (Niger), 400 Niari River (Republic of the Congo), 134 Niari Valley (Republic of the Congo), 135 Niassa (Mozambique), 371–372 Nicaragua, 395–398, 397 Nickerie River (Suriname), 511 Nicobar Islands (India), 246 Nidže Mountains (Macedonia), 325 Niedere Tauern (Austria), 36 Niger, 398–400, 399 Niger Delta (Nigeria), 401–403 Niger Plains (Benin), 58 Niger River, 58, 223–224, 339, 341, 399, 402– 403 Nigeria, 400–404, 401, 404t Nightingale Islands (United Kingdom), 568 Nihon Daira (Japan), 277 Niihau (United States), 577 Nikopol (Ukraine), 561 Nilandu Atoll (Maldives), 338 Nile River, 169, 506–509 Nile Valley (Egypt), 167–170 Nimba Mountains (Guinea), 223 Nimba Range (Liberia), 314 Nissan River (Sweden), 515 Nissum (Denmark), 154 Nistru River. See Dniester River Nitra River (Slovakia), 485 Niua Island Group (Tonga), 538 Niuafo’ou Island (Tonga), 539 Niuatoputapu Island (Tonga), 539–540 Geodata.book Page 679 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 71. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA680 Niue Island, 394 Niulakita Island (Tuvalu), 554 Niuto Island (Tuvalu), 554 Nizhniy Novgorod (Russia), 454 Nizke Tatry. See Low Tatras Mountains (Slovakia) Njesuthi Mountains (South Africa), 494–495 Nkamba Bay (Zambia), 607 Nkomi Lagoon (Gabon), 197 Nobi Plain (Japan), 280 Nógrádi River (Hungary), 236 Nogueira Mountains (Portugal), 441 Noires Mountains (Haiti), 230 Nong Bong Kai (Thailand), 535 Nong Khai (Thailand), 535 Norak (Tajikistan), 528 Norak Reservoir (Tajikistan), 528 Nord Norge. See North Norway Nordkap. See North Cape (Norway) Nord-Ostsee Canal (Germany), 205 Norfolk Island (Australia), 31, 34 Norgay, Tenzing, 384 Noric Alps (Austria), 36 Norrland (Sweden), 514–517 Norte Chico (Chile), 112–113 Norte Grande (Chile), 112 North Albanian Alps, 5–6, 602 North American Tectonic Plate Bermuda, 60 Canada, 96 Cuba, 145 El Salvador, 171 Greenland, 214 Japan, 276 Martinique, 346 Mexico, 352 Puerto Rico, 444 Russia, 453 Turks and Caicos Islands, 552 United States, 573 North Atlantic Drift, 241 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), 52 North Caicos Island (Turks and Caicos Islands), 552–553 North Cape (New Zealand), 393 North Cape (Norway), 407 North Carolina (United States), 576 North Channel (Ireland), 263 North China Plain (China), 120 North Downs (England), 566 North Friar’s Bay (Saint Kitts and Nevis), 461 North Frigate Bay (Saint Kitts and Nevis), 461 North Frisian Islands (Germany), 205 North Hatia (Bangladesh), 47 North Island (New Zealand), 391–394 North Korea. See Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of North Malosmadulu Atoll (Maldives), 338 North Mariana Islands (United States), 571 North Norway, 405 North Point (Barbados), 49 North Saskatchewan River (Canada), 98 North Sea Canal (The Netherlands), 388 North Sound (Cayman Islands), 104 North Taranaki Bight (New Zealand), 393 North Uist (United Kingdom), 568 North-East Island, 406 Northern Alpine Forelands (Austria), 37 Northern Arabian Desert. See Syrian Desert Northern High Plains (Nigeria), 402 Northern Highlands (Jordan), 282 Northern Highlands (Tanzania), 530 Northern Highlands (United Kingdom), 567 Northern Highlands (Vietnam), 594 Northern Ireland (United Kingdom), 262, 564– 569 Northern Mountains (Venezuela), 589–591 Northern Plain (Haiti), 231 Northern Plainlands Region (Kenya), 291 Northern Plains (Afghanistan), 1, 4 Northern Range (Trinidad and Tobago), 541– 542 Northern Rockies (United States), 573, 576 Northern Sporades Islands (Greece), 213 Northern Territory (Australia), 31 Northern uplands (DROC), 129 Northern Uplands (Paraguay), 424, 427 Northland (New Zealand), 393 Northwestern Highlands. See Ethiopian Plateau Norway, 404–408, 406, 407t Norwegian Bay (Canada), 99 Norwegian Plateau, 405 Norwegian Sea, 405 Nossob River (Namibia), 379 Nosy Be (Madagascar), 329 Nosy Boraha (Madagascar), 329 Nosy Mitsio (Madagascar), 329 Noto Peninsula (Japan), 279 Nouadhibou (Mauritania), 348 Nouakchott (Mauritania), 348 Novaya Zemlya (Russia), 455, 456 Novosibirsk (Russia), 457 Novosibirsk Reservoir (Russia), 454 Nsumbu National Park (Zambia), 607 Ntem River (Equatorial Guinea), 175 Nu River (China), 119 Nuba Mountains (Sudan), 507 Nubia, 508 Nubian Desert, 509 Nuclear power, 194 Nuclear weapons testing, 345, 382 Nufen Pass (Switzerland), 519 Nugaaleed River (Somalia), 491 Nui Island (Tuvalu), 554 Nukufetau Island (Tuvalu), 554 Nukulailai Island (Tuvalu), 554 Nukuoro Islands (Micronesia), 358 Nullarbor Plain (Australia), 33 Nun River (Nigeria), 403 Nur Mountains (Turkey), 546 Nurek. See Norak (Tajikistan) Nusa Tenggara (Indonesia), 248, 249, 250, 252 Nuuk (Greenland), 215 Nyabarongo River (Rwanda), 459 Nyamulagira (DROC), 130 Nyasa. See Lake Malawi Nyika Plateau (Malawi), 331 Nyiragongo (DROC), 130 Nyong River (Cameroon), 94 Nysa River (Poland), 438 Nzoia River (Kenya), 290 Nzwani. See Anjouan (Comoros) O Oahu (United States), 577 Oas Mountains (Romania), 448 Oases Algeria, 8 Egypt, 169–170 Iran, 258 Jordan, 282 Kuwait, 300 Libya, 318 Mali, 339, 342 Mauritania, 349 Niger, 400 Oases of al-Liwa’ (United Arab Emirates), 563 Oaxaca (Mexico), 354 Ob Luang Gorge (Thailand), 534 Ob’ River (Russia), 454 Oban Hills (Nigeria), 403 Oboke Gorge (Japan), 278 Obudu Uplands (Nigeria), 403 Occidental Mountains (Cuba), 145 Occidental Paraguay. See Western Paraguay Occupied territories, Israel, 266, 268 Ocean Island. See Banaba Island (Kiribati) Oceans and seas Albania, 6 Australia, 33 Brunei, 80 Bulgaria, 83 Canada, 99 Cayman Islands, 104 China, 119 Colombia, 124 Congo, Democratic Republic of, 131 Côte d’Ivoire, 140 Croatia, 143 Cuba, 146 Cyprus, 149 Denmark, 154 Dominica, 158 Dominican Republic, 160 East Timor, 163 Ecuador, 165 Egypt, 169 El Salvador, 172 Equatorial Guinea, 175 Eritrea, 177 Estonia, 179 Fiji, 185 Finland, 187–188 France, 192 French Guiana, 195 Gabon, 197 Gambia, 198 Georgia, 201 Germany, 205 Ghana, 208 Greece, 210, 212 Greenland, 215 Grenada, 217 Guadeloupe, 218 Guinea, 224 Guinea-Bissau, 225 Guyana, 228 Haiti, 231 Honduras, 233 Geodata.book Page 680 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 72. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA 681 Index Iceland, 240 India, 245 Indonesia, 251 Iran, 257 Ireland, 263 Israel, 267 Italy, 271–272 Jamaica, 274–275 Japan, 278–279 Jordan, 283 Kazakhstan, 286–287 Kenya, 290 Kiribati, 293 Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of, 296 Korea, Republic of, 298 Kuwait, 300 Latvia, 308–309 Lebanon, 311 Liberia, 315 Libya, 316 Madagascar, 329 Malaysia, 335 Maldives, 337–338 Malta, 343 Marshall Islands, 344 Martinique, 346 Mauritania, 348 Mauritius, 351 Mexico, 355–356 Monaco, 362 Morocco, 369 Mozambique, 372 Myanmar, 376 Namibia, 379 The Netherlands, 388 Netherlands Antilles, 390 New Zealand, 393 Nicaragua, 396 Nigeria, 403 Norway, 405 Oman, 409 Pakistan, 413 Panama, 418–419 Papua New Guinea, 422 Peru, 430 The Philippines, 434 Poland, 438–439 Portugal, 442 Puerto Rico, 444 Qatar, 446 Romania, 450 Russia, 455 Saint Kitts and Nevis, 460–461 Saint Lucia, 462–463 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, 464 São Tomé and Príncipe, 471 Senegal, 476–477 Seychelles, 478 Sierra Leone, 481 Singapore, 483 Somalia, 492 South Africa, 496 Spain, 500 Sri Lanka, 504 Sudan, 508 Sweden, 516 Syria, 523 Taiwan, 525 Tanzania, 531 Thailand, 535 Tonga, 539 Trinidad and Tobago, 541 Turkey, 548 Turks and Caicos Islands, 552–553 United Arab Emirates, 563 United Kingdom, 567 United States, 576–577 Vanuatu, 587 Venezuela, 592 Vietnam, 595 Yemen, 600 Ocho Rios (Jamaica), 275 Oder River, 151–152, 204, 437–438 Odessa (Ukraine), 560 Odra River. See Oder River Odyssey (Homer), 212, 269 Oecussi (East Timor), 162, 163 Oelemari River (Suriname), 511 Oesling (Luxembourg), 323, 324 Ofu Island (United States), 578 Ogaden plain (Ethiopia), 183 Ogasawara Islands. See Bonin Islands (Japan) Ogii Nuur Lake (Mongolia), 365 Ogo Plateau (Somalia), 491 Ogooué River, 134, 196 Ohio (United States), 574 Ohio River (United States), 576, 580 Ohre River (Czech Republic), 152 Ohridsko Jezero. See Lake Ohrid Oil. See Petroleum Oise River (France), 191 Ojos del Salado (Chile), 112 Ok Tedi mine (Papua New Guinea), 421, 422 Ok Tedi River (Papua New Guinea), 422 Okavango Delta (Botswana), 72 Okavango River, 13, 72, 379 Okavango Swamps (Botswana), 71 Okefenokee Swamp (United States), 576 Oki Island (Japan), 279 Okinawa (Japan), 279 Oklahoma (United States), 573 Oksfjordjokel (Norway), 405 Öland Island (Sweden), 514, 516 Olango Island Wildlife Sanctuary (The Philippines), 434 Olduvai Gorge (Tanzania), 530 Oléron Island (France), 192 Ölfusá River (Iceland), 240 Olosega Island (United States), 578 Olt River (Romania), 449 Oltenia (Romania), 448 Olympia Mountains (United States), 579 Olympic Mountains (United States), 574, 579 Oman, 408–411, 409, 410t Omaruru (Namibia), 379 Omatako River (Namibia), 379 Ombrone River (Italy), 271 Ometepe Island (Nicaragua), 396 Omo River (Ethiopia), 182 Omsk (Russia), 457 “On the Beautiful Blue Danube” (Straus), 36 One and a Half Degree Channel (Maldives), 337, 338 Onilahy River (Madagascar), 329 Onon River (Mongolia), 365 Ontong Java Island (Solomon Islands), 489 Ontong Java Plateau (Papua New Guinea), 422 Onyx River (Antarctica), 19 Oobako Canyon (Japan), 278 Oosterschelde (The Netherlands), 388–389 OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries), 197 Öraefajökull (Iceland), 239 Orange River, 312, 379, 496 Orango (Guinea-Bissau), 225 Orangozinho (Guinea-Bissau), 225 Oranje Mountains (Suriname), 510 Orchid Island. See Lan-Yü Island (Taiwan) Ord River Dam (Australia), 33 Ordos Desert. See Mu Us Desert (China) Ore Mountains, 151, 204 Oregon (United States), 574 Oregon Coast Range (United States), 574 Øresund Bridge, 154 Øresundbron. See Øresund Bridge Oreti River (New Zealand), 393 Organ Pipes (Namibia), 379 Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC), 197 Orhon River (Mongolia), 365 Oriental Mountains (Cuba), 145 Oriental Paraguay. See Eastern Paraguay Orinoco Delta (Venezuela), 592–593 Orinoco Lowlands (Venezuela), 589 Orinoco River, 124, 591–593 Oriomo Plateau (Papua New Guinea), 421 Orkney Islands (United Kingdom), 566–568 Ormara Turtle Beaches (Pakistan), 413 Örnsköldsvik (Sweden), 516 Oro Bay (Papua New Guinea), 422 Orog Lake (Mongolia), 365 Orontes River, 310, 521–523 Oropuche Lagoon (Trinidad and Tobago), 541 Ortoire River (Trinidad and Tobago), 541 Osaka (Japan), 279 Osh (Kyrgyzstan), 304 Oshigambo River (Namibia), 379 Oshima Peninsula (Japan), 279 Oslo (Norway), 407 Oslo Fjord (Norway), 407 Öster Gotland (Sweden), 516 Ostero Island (Denmark), 154 Ostlandet. See East Country (Norway) Osu˘m River (Bulgaria), 82 Otago (New Zealand), 391, 394 Otavi Mountains (Namibia), 378 Otepää Uplands (Estonia), 179 Otgon Tenger (Mongolia), 364 Oti River (Togo), 537 Otra River (Norway), 405 Ottawa River (Canada), 98 Otuquis Swamp (Bolivia), 67 Ötztal Alps (Austria), 36 Lu Mountains (Japan), 276 Ou River (Laos), 306 Ouachita Mountains (United States), 573 Ouaka River (Central African Republic), 105 Ouatchi Plateau (Togo), 537 Oubangui River. See Ubangi River Ouémé River (Benin), 58 Geodata.book Page 681 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 73. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA682 Ouessand Island (France), 192 Ouham River (Central African Republic), 105 Ouidah Lagood (Benin), 58 Ouled Nail Mountains (Algeria), 8 Oulu River (Finland), 187 Oumer Rebia River (Morocco), 369 Our Lady’s House of Prayer (Ireland), 263 Our River (Luxembourg), 323 Ourthe River (Belgium), 53 The Outback (Australia), 34 Outer Banks (United States), 577–578 Outer Hebrides (United Kingdom), 566–568 Outer Himalayas, 242, 383 Outer Mongolia. See Mongolia Ovalau Island (Fiji), 185 Overpopulation Bangladesh, 48 Egypt, 167 El Salvador, 174 Ethiopia, 183 India, 242, 247–248 Indonesia, 253–254 Owen Falls (Uganda), 557 Owen Stanley Range (Papua New Guinea), 420 Owerri (Nigeria), 404 Oyapock River (French Guiana), 195 Ozark Plateaus (United States), 573–574, 576 Ozarks. See Ozark Plateaus (United States) Ozero Karakul (Tajikistan), 528 Ozone hole, 21 P Paats River (Finland), 187 Pacaraima Mountains (Venezuela), 590 Pachuca (Mexico), 356 Pacific Coast Straits (Canada), 95 Pacific Coastal Lowlands (Mexico), 356 Pacific Islands Forum, 382 Pacific Lowlands (Colombia), 124, 125 Pacific Lowlands (Nicaragua), 395, 398 Pacific Mountains (United States), 573–574 Pacific Northwest (Mexico), 352 Pacific Tectonic Plate Japan, 276 Mexico, 352 Nauru, 381 New Zealand, 391 Papua New Guinea, 420 Russia, 453 Samoa, 466 Solomon Islands, 489 Tonga, 539 United States, 573 Padma River. See Ganges River Paektu-san (DPRK), 294, 295 Pag Island (Croatia), 143 Pagadian Bay (The Philippines), 435 Pagalu. See Annabón (Equatorial Guinea) Pager River (Uganda), 557 Pagsanjan Gorge National Park (The Philippines), 433 Pahang River (Malaysia), 335 Pahar complex (Nepal), 384 Paita Bay. See Bahía de Paita (Peru) Pakaraima Mountains (Guyana), 227 Pakistan, 1, 242, 411–415, 412, 414t Palancar Reef (Mexico), 355 Palau, 415, 415–417, 416t Palau Batu Putih, 335 Palawan (The Philippines), 434, 436 Palembang River (Indonesia), 250 Palestine, 265–268 Palisadoes Peninsula (Jamaica), 275 Palk Strait, 246 Palliser Bay (New Zealand), 393 Palmer Archipelago (Antarctica), 20 Palmyra Atoll (United States), 577 Paloemeu River (Suriname), 511 Palua Senga Besar (Malaysia), 335 P’ambaki Mountains (Armenia), 28 Pamir Mountains, 1, 2, 411, 527–528, 584 Pampanga River (The Philippines), 434 Pampas (Argentina), 24, 27 Pamperos. See Windstorms Panai Lake (Indonesia), 250 Panama, 417–420, 418, 419t Panama Bay, 419, 420 Panama Canal, 417–419 Panama City (Panama), 419 Pan-American Highway, 124 Panay (The Philippines), 433, 434–435 Pandivere Upland (Estonia), 179 Pangani River (Tanzania), 531, 533 Panj River (Tajikistan), 528 Panjang Hill (Singapore), 483 Panjnad River (Pakistan), 413 Pannonian Plains, 70, 142, 143, 488, 602, 604 Pantanal (Brazil), 76 Pantelleria Island (Italy), 272 Papaloapan River (Mexico), 354 Papua (Indonesia), 248–252, 420, 423 Papua New Guinea, 248, 252, 420–423, 421, 423t Papuan Plateau (Papua New Guinea), 422 Papuk Mountains (Croatia), 142 Paracas Peninsula (Peru), 430 Paracel Islands, 119 Paradelta (Bangladesh), 46–47 Paradise Islands. See Bazaruto Archipelago (Mozambique) Paraguaná Peninsula (Venezuela), 592 Paraguay, 424–427, 425, 427t Paraguay Proper. See Eastern Paraguay Paraguay River, 76, 424, 425–426 Paramaribo (Suriname), 511 Paraná Plateau (Paraguay), 424–427 Paraná River, 25–26, 75–76, 425–426, 582 Parc Nacional Los Glaciares (Argentina), 24 Pare Range (Tanzania), 530 Paria Peninsula (Venezuela), 590, 591 Parida Island (Panama), 419 Parinacota (Chile), 112 Paris Basin, 189, 191, 193–194 Parishan marsh (Iran), 257 Parishes. See Administrative divisions Park National de la Boucle du Baoulé (Mali), 342 Parks Brunei, 80 Dominica, 158 El Salvador, 173–174 See also National parks; Nature reserves Pärnu Bay (Estonia), 179 Pärnu River (Estonia), 179 Paro Chhu. See Paro River (Bhutan) Paro River (Bhutan), 63 Parrot Cay Island (Turks and Caicos Islands), 552–553 Pasig River (The Philippines), 434 Pasión River (Guatemala), 221 Pastaza River, 165, 430 Pasterze (Austria), 36 Pasu (Pakistan), 411 Patagonia (Argentina), 24–25, 26 Patagonian Ice Cap, 24–25 Patanas, 504 See also Grasslands Patia River (Colombia), 124 Patkai Range (Myanmar), 375 Pátmos (Greece), 213 Patuca River (Honduras), 233 Paulaya River (Honduras), 233 Paulo Afonso Falls (Brazil), 75 Paute River (Ecuador), 165 Paxos (Greece), 212 Peace River (Canada), 98 Peacekeeping, East Timor, 162 Pearl Cays (Nicaragua), 396–397 Pearl Harbor (United States), 577 Pearl Islands (Panama), 419 Pearl River. See Zhu Jiang (China) Peary Channel (Canada), 99 Peat Belarus, 51 Brunei, 80 Indonesia, 251 Ireland, 262, 264 Latvia, 309 Lithuania, 322 The Netherlands, 388 New Zealand, 393 Northern Ireland, 566 Pecixe (Guinea-Bissau), 225 Pecos River (United States), 576 Pedernales Peninsula (Dominican Republic), 160 Pedieos River (Cyprus), 149 Pedra Acu (Brazil), 74 Pedra Branca Island. See Palau Batu Putih Pedra Tinhosas Islet (São Tomé and Príncipe), 471 Pedro Cays (Jamaica), 275 Pegasus Bay (New Zealand), 393 Peleliu Island (Palau), 416 Pelister National Park (Macedonia), 326 Pelly Range (Canada), 97 Peloponnese (Greece), 211–212, 213 Peloritani Range (Italy), 270–271 Pemba (Tanzania), 532 Pemba Bay (Mozambique), 373 Pembrokeshire Coast Path (Wales), 569 Pemon Indians (Venezuela), 591 Penal colonies, French Guiana, 195 Penang Island (Malaysia), 335 Penghu Archipelago. See Pescadores Penguins, 20, 21, 26, 379, 430 Peninsula de Azuero (Panama), 417 Península Valdés (Valdes Peninsula), 26 Peninsular Malaysia, 333–336 Peninsulas. See names of specific peninsulas Geodata.book Page 682 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 74. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA 683 Index Pennine Alps (Switzerland), 518 Pennine Chain (England), 564, 566 Pennsylvania (United States), 573 Penón de Alhucemas Island (Spain), 499 Penón de Velez de la Gomera, 499 Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera, 368 Pentadaktylos Range. See Kyrenia Range (Cyprus) Pentecost (Vanuatu), 587 Perak River (Malaysia), 335 Pere Island (French Guiana), 195 Perim Island (Yemen), 600 Peri-Pannonian Plains (Croatia), 142 Perito Moreno (Argentina), 25 Permafrost, 455–456 Persia. See Iran Persian Gulf Bahrain, 43–44 Iran, 257 Kuwait, 300–301 Qatar, 446, 447 Saudi Arabia, 472–475 Perth (Australia), 35 Peru, 427–432, 429, 431t Peru Current, 113, 165, 166, 430, 431 Peru-Chile Trench, 430, 431 Perucica Forest (Bosnia and Herzegovina), 70 Pescadores, 119, 524–525 Pesticides Moldova, 361 neem trees, 244 Peter I Island, 20, 407 Peter the Great Bay, 455 Petermann Range (Australia), 32 Petit Lac (Switzerland), 519 Petit Martinique (Grenada), 217 Petit Piton (Saint Lucia), 462–463 Petroleum Algeria, 11 Angola, 15 Aruba, 31 Azerbaijan, 41 Bangladesh, 48 Barbados, 49 Belarus, 51 Bolivia, 68 Brunei, 80–81 Cambodia, 91 Cameroon, 95 Canada, 101 China, 120, 121 Colombia, 126 Croatia, 144 East Timor, 163 Ecuador, 167 El Salvador, 174 Equatorial Guinea, 176 Gabon, 197 Georgia, 202 Greece, 214 Guatemala, 222 Guinea-Bissau, 227 Indonesia, 254 Iran, 258 Iraq, 261 Kazakhstan, 288 Kuwait, 301 Libya, 318 Lithuania, 322 Malaysia, 336 Mexico, 357 Mozambique, 374 Myanmar, 377 Nigeria, 403, 404 Norway, 408 Oman, 410 Pakistan, 413, 414 Papua New Guinea, 423 Peru, 432 The Philippines, 436 Puerto Rico, 445 Qatar, 446, 447 Romania, 451 Russia, 455, 457 Saudi Arabia, 472, 475 Seychelles, 480 Sudan, 510 Syria, 521, 524 Trinidad and Tobago, 542 Tunisia, 545 Turkmenistan, 552 Ukraine, 561–562 United Arab Emirates, 563–564 United Kingdom, 570 United States, 580 Uzbekistan, 586 Venezuela, 593 Yemen, 601 Yugoslavia, 605 Petrusse River (Luxembourg), 324 Phae Muang Phi (Thailand), 534 Phangnga Bay (Thailand), 535 Philippine Tectonic Plate, 249, 433 Philippine Trough, 434 The Philippines, 334, 432–436, 433, 436t Phnom Aural (Cambodia), 89 Phnom Penh (Cambodia), 91 Pho Chhu. See Pho River (Bhutan) Pho River (Bhutan), 63 Phoenix Islands (Kiribati), 292–293 Phosphates Algeria, 11 Kiribati, 293 Nauru, 381–382 Netherlands Antilles, 390 Phou Bia. See Mount Bia (Laos) Phouane Plateau (Laos), 305 Phrae (Thailand), 534 Phu Kadueng National Park (Thailand), 534 Phu Keaw (Thailand), 534 Phu Wiang (Thailand), 534 Phuket Island (Thailand), 535 Piaye River (Saint Lucia), 462 Pic de Cataperdis (Andorra), 12 Pic de Coma Pederos (Andorra), 11–12 Pic de la Cabaneta (Andorra), 12 Pic de la Serrera (Andorra), 12 Pic de l’Estanyó (Andorra), 12 Pic de Siguer (Andorra), 12 Pic de Tristaina (Andorra), 12 Pic dels Pessons (Andorra), 12 Pic d’Envalira (Andorra), 12 Pichincha (Ecuador), 164 Pico (Portugal), 442 Pico da Bandeira (Brazil), 74 Pico da Cano. See Mount Fogo (Cape Verde) Pico da Neblina (Brazil), 74 Pico de Aneto (Spain), 499 Pico de Orizaba (Mexico), 353 Pico de Príncipe (São Tomé and Príncipe), 470 Pico de São Tomé (São Tomé and Príncipe), 470 Pico de Teide Mountain (Spain), 500 Pico Duarte (Dominican Republic), 159 Pico Kabumbé (São Tomé and Príncipe), 470 Pico Mogotón (Nicaragua), 395 Pico River (Peru), 428 Pico Turquino (Cuba), 145 Piduru Ridges (Sri Lanka), 502–503 Pidurutalagala Mountain (Sri Lanka), 503 Piedmont Plateau (United States), 571, 574 Pik Lenina. See Lenin Peak Pik Pobedy. See Jengish Chokusu (Kyrgyzstan) Pilcomayo River, 67, 426 Pilis Mountains (Hungary), 235 Pindus Mountains (Greece), 211, 212 Pine Cay Island (Turks and Caicos Islands), 552–553 Ping River (Thailand), 534 Pingelap Islands (Micronesia), 358 Piniós River (Greece), 212 Pinney’s Beach (Saint Kitts and Nevis), 461 Pinta Island (Galápagos), 165 Piran (Slovenia), 488 Piray River (Bolivia), 66 Pirin Mountains (Bulgaria), 82, 84 Pirin Sea. See Popovo Lake (Bulgaria) Pitcairn Islands (United Kingdom), 568 Pitch Lake (Trinidad and Tobago), 542 Pitcher plants, Madagascar, 330 Piton de la Rivière Noire (Mauritius), 350–351 Piton du Milieu (Mauritius), 351 Pittsburgh (United States), 576 Piura (Peru), 428 Piva River (Yugoslavia), 602–603 Plackovica Mountains (Macedonia), 325 “Places of Sovereignty” (Spain), 498–499 Plain of Esdraelon (Israel), 266 Plain of Jars (Laos), 305 Plain of Judaea (Israel), 267 Plain of Sharon (Israel), 267 Plains Afghanistan, 4 Algeria, 10 Angola, 15 Australia, 35 Bangladesh, 46–47 Belarus, 50 Bolivia, 65 Bosnia and Herzegovina, 70 Brazil, 77 Canada, 100 China, 120 Congo, Republic of, 134 Croatia, 143 Cyprus, 149 Denmark, 153 Dominican Republic, 161 Ethiopia, 183 Finland, 188 France, 189, 193–194 Geodata.book Page 683 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 75. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA684 Georgia, 200–201 Germany, 202 Ghana, 207, 208 Greece, 211, 213 Guinea, 222 Guinea-Bissau, 225 Guyana, 227 Hungary, 235, 237, 238 India, 246–247 Iraq, 261 Israel, 267 Italy, 272 Japan, 278, 280 Kenya, 291 Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of, 296 Korea, Republic of, 298 Laos, 305 Latvia, 307–308 Lithuania, 320 Malawi, 331 Malaysia, 333 Mauritania, 347 Mexico, 352, 355 Moldova, 360 Mongolia, 363 Morocco, 367–368, 369 Nepal, 385 New Zealand, 394 Nicaragua, 395 Nigeria, 402 Oman, 409, 410 Paraguay, 424, 427 Portugal, 443 Puerto Rico, 444, 445 Romania, 448, 450 Russia, 451, 456 Saudi Arabia, 472, 474 Slovenia, 488 Somalia, 491 South Africa, 495 Sri Lanka, 504 Sudan, 509 Suriname, 510 Swaziland, 512 Sweden, 514–517 United Kingdom, 569 United States, 574–576 Planalto Central (Brazil), 73 Planalto de Bafatá (Guinea-Bissau), 225 Planalto de Gabú (Guinea-Bissau), 225 Platano River (Honduras), 233 Plate tectonics. See names of specific tectonic plates Plateau of Iran, 255 Plateau of Tibet (China), 117 Plateau of Yorubaland. See Western High Plains (Nigeria) Plateaus Algeria, 8–9, 10 Angola, 13, 15 Antarctica, 19 Argentina, 25 Armenia, 28 Australia, 32–33 Austria, 37 Belgium, 53 Belize, 56 Benin, 58 Bolivia, 66 Botswana, 71 Brazil, 73 Bulgaria, 82 Burkina Faso, 84–85 Burundi, 87, 88 Cameroon, 92–93 Canada, 97 Central African Republic, 105 Chad, 108 Chile, 112 China, 117 Colombia, 123 Congo, Democratic Republic of, 128, 130 Congo, Republic of, 134 Costa Rica, 136–137 Côte d’Ivoire, 139 Czech Republic, 151 Djibouti, 156 East Timor, 162 Ecuador, 165 Egypt, 168 El Salvador, 172 Eritrea, 176–177 Ethiopia, 181–182 France, 189, 190–191 French Guiana, 195 Gabon, 196 Gambia, 198 Georgia, 200 Germany, 203 Ghana, 207 Guatemala, 220 Guinea, 223 Guinea-Bissau, 225 Guyana, 227 Haiti, 230, 231 Honduras, 233 Iceland, 238, 239 India, 244 Indonesia, 250 Iran, 255 Iraq, 259 Israel, 266–267 Jamaica, 274 Japan, 277–278 Jordan, 282 Kazakhstan, 285 Kenya, 288, 290 Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of, 295 Laos, 305–306 Lebanon, 310 Lesotho, 312 Liberia, 314 Libya, 316 Luxembourg, 323 Madagascar, 328–329 Malawi, 331 Mali, 340 Mauritania, 347 Mauritius, 350, 351 Mexico, 352, 354 Mongolia, 364 Mozambique, 371–372 Myanmar, 375 Namibia, 377, 379 Nauru, 381 Nepal, 384 The Netherlands, 388 New Zealand, 391 Niger, 399 Nigeria, 401, 402, 404 Norway, 405 Oman, 409 Pakistan, 412–413 Panama, 417 Papua New Guinea, 421 Paraguay, 424 The Philippines, 433 Qatar, 446 Romania, 449 Russia, 453 Rwanda, 458–459 Saint Kitts and Nevis, 460 Samoa, 466 São Tomé and Príncipe, 470 Saudi Arabia, 472–473 Senegal, 476 Sierra Leone, 481 Singapore, 483 Slovenia, 487–488 Somalia, 491 South Africa, 494–495, 497 Sri Lanka, 503 Sudan, 507 Swaziland, 512 Sweden, 514 Switzerland, 519 Syria, 521–522 Taiwan, 525 Tajikistan, 528 Tanzania, 529–531 Thailand, 534 Togo, 538 Tunisia, 544 Turkey, 546–547 Turkmenistan, 550 Uganda, 556 United Arab Emirates, 562 United Kingdom, 566 United States, 574–575 Uruguay, 581 Uzbekistan, 584 Venezuela, 591 Vietnam, 594–595 Yemen, 599 Zambia, 606 Zimbabwe, 609 Platte River (United States), 576 Plavinas Reservoir (Latvia), 308 Plazas de Soberania. See “Places of Sovereignty” (Spain) Plitvicka Lakes (Croatia), 143 Plješevica Mountains (Croatia), 142 Po River (Italy), 271, 272 Po River Valley (Italy), 269, 271, 272, 273 Poás volcano (Costa Rica), 136 Podgorica (Yugoslavia), 604 Podor (Senegal), 477 Pohnpei (Micronesia), 358–359 Poiana Rusca˘i Mountains (Romania), 449 Geodata.book Page 684 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 76. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA 685 Index Point Barrow (United States), 578 Point Burica (Panama), 419 Point Cosigüina (Nicaragua), 397 Point Gallinas (Colombia), 125 Point Mala (Panama), 419 Point Marzo (Colombia), 125 Point Mono (Nicaragua), 397 Point Pedro (Sri Lanka), 504 Point Solano (Colombia), 125 Point Tarifa (Spain), 501 Point Xaafuun (Somalia), 492–493 Poitou (France), 194 Poland, 436–440, 438, 439t Polar ice cap (Antarctica), 19 Polar Plateau (Antarctica), 19 Polders. See Land reclamation Polesie Lubelskie (Poland), 437 Polesye Marshes, 50–51, 559–561 Polissya. See Polesye Marshes Poljes (Slovenia), 488 Pollution Azerbaijan, 41 Bahrain, 44 Bangladesh, 48 El Salvador, 172 India, 242, 248 Micronesia, 359 Moldova, 361 Pakistan, 413 Uruguay, 581–582 Venezuela, 591 See also Air pollution; Industrial pollution; Pesticides; Water pollution Polochic River (Guatemala), 221 Polotsk Lowland (Belarus), 50 Pomeranian Lake District (Poland), 437 Ponape. See Pohnpei (Micronesia) Ponta do Pico (Portugal), 442 Ponta São Sebastião (Mozambique), 373 Pontic Mountains (Turkey), 546 Pontine Marshes (Italy), 272 Ponza Islands (Italy), 272 Pool Malebo (DROC), 131 Poole Bay (England), 567 Popocatépetl (Mexico), 353 Popovo Lake (Bulgaria), 82 Poppies, blue, 63 Population Afghanistan, 4t, 5 Albania, 7, 7t Algeria, 10, 11t Andorra, 12, 12t Angola, 15, 15t Anguilla, 17 Antarctica, 21 Antigua, 23, 23t Argentina, 27, 27t Armenia, 29, 29t Aruba, 30–31 Australia, 35, 35t Austria, 38–39, 38t Azerbaijan, 40t, 40–41 The Bahamas, 42 Bahrain, 44, 44t Bangladesh, 45, 47t, 48 Barbados, 49, 49t Barbuda, 23, 23t Belarus, 51, 51t Belgium, 54, 54t Belize, 57, 57t Benin, 59, 59t Bermuda, 61, 61t Bhutan, 64 Bolivia, 67–68, 68t Bosnia and Herzegovina, 70, 70t Botswana, 72, 72t Brazil, 77t, 78 British Virgin Islands, 79 Brunei, 81, 81t Bulgaria, 84, 84t Burkina Faso, 86, 86t Burundi, 88, 88t Cambodia, 91, 91t Cameroon, 94–95, 95t Canada, 100t, 101 Cape Verde, 102, 103t Cayman Islands, 104, 104t Central African Republic, 107, 107t Chad, 110t, 110–111 Chile, 114, 114t China, 120t, 120–121, 121t Colombia, 125t, 126 Comoros, 127t, 128 Congo, Democratic Republic of, 132, 132t Congo, Republic of, 135, 135t Costa Rica, 138, 138t Côte d’Ivoire, 141t, 141–142 Croatia, 144, 144t Cuba, 147, 148t Cyprus, 150, 150t Czech Republic, 152, 152t Denmark, 155, 155t Djibouti, 157 Dominica, 158, 158t Dominican Republic, 161, 161t East Timor, 163, 163t Ecuador, 166t, 167 Egypt, 170, 170t El Salvador, 173t, 174 Equatorial Guinea, 175, 175t Eritrea, 178, 178t Estonia, 180, 180t Ethiopia, 183, 183t Fiji, 185, 185t Finland, 188, 188t France, 193t, 194 French Guiana, 195 Gabon, 197 Gambia, 199, 199t Georgia, 201, 201t Germany, 206, 206t Ghana, 210, 210t Greece, 214, 214t Greenland, 216 Grenada, 217 Guadeloupe, 219 Guatemala, 221–222, 222t Guinea, 224 Guinea-Bissau, 226 Guyana, 229 Haiti, 231t, 232 Honduras, 234, 234t Hungary, 237t, 238 Iceland, 241 India, 247t, 247–248 Indonesia, 253t, 253–254 Iran, 258, 258t Iraq, 261, 261t Ireland, 264, 265t Israel, 268, 268t Italy, 272–273, 273t Jamaica, 275, 275t Japan, 280–281, 281t Jordan, 283 Kazakhstan, 287t, 287–288 Kenya, 291, 292t Kiribati, 294 Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of, 296t, 296–297 Korea, Republic of, 299, 299t Kuwait, 301, 301t Kyrgyzstan, 304, 304t Laos, 307, 307t Latvia, 309, 309t Lebanon, 311 Lesotho, 313, 313t Liberia, 315, 315t Libya, 318 Liechtenstein, 319 Lithuania, 321–322, 322t Luxembourg, 324, 324t Macedonia, 326, 326t Madagascar, 330 Malawi, 332t, 332–333 Malaysia, 336, 336t Maldives, 339, 339t Mali, 342, 342t Malta, 343 Marshall Islands, 345 Martinique, 347 Mauritania, 349 Mauritius, 351 Mexico, 356t, 356–357, 357t Micronesia, 359 Moldova, 361, 361t Monaco, 363 Mongolia, 366t, 367 Morocco, 369–370, 370t Mozambique, 373, 374t Myanmar, 376–377, 377t Namibia, 380, 380t Nauru, 382 Nepal, 386, 386t The Netherlands, 389 Netherlands Antilles, 390 New Zealand, 394 Nicaragua, 398 Niger, 400 Nigeria, 404, 404t Norway, 407t, 408 Oman, 410, 410t Pakistan, 414, 414t Palau, 416, 416t Panama, 419t, 420 Papua New Guinea, 423 Paraguay, 427, 427t Peru, 431t, 432 The Philippines, 436, 436t Poland, 439t, 439–440, Portugal, 442t, 443 Puerto Rico, 445, 445t Geodata.book Page 685 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 77. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA686 Qatar, 447 Romania, 450t, 451 Russia, 457, 457t Rwanda, 459 Saint Kitts and Nevis, 461 Saint Lucia, 463 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, 465, 465t Samoa, 468 San Marino, 469 São Tomé and Príncipe, 471 Saudi Arabia, 474t, 475 Senegal, 478, 478t Seychelles, 479–480, 480t Sierra Leone, 482, 482t Singapore, 484 Slovakia, 486, 486t Slovenia, 488, 488t Solomon Islands, 490, 490t Somalia, 493 South Africa, 497t, 497–498 Spain, 499t, 500 Sri Lanka, 502–503, 503t Sudan, 509t, 509–510 Suriname, 511 Swaziland, 513, 513t Sweden, 516t, 517 Switzerland, 520, 520t Syria, 522t, 523 Taiwan, 525, 525t Tajikistan, 527, 527t Tanzania, 532t, 532–533 Thailand, 536, 536t Togo, 538 Tonga, 539, 539t Trinidad and Tobago, 542, 542t Tunisia, 545, 545t Turkey, 549, 549t Turkmenistan, 550t, 551–552 Turks and Caicos Islands, 553 Uganda, 557t, 558 Ukraine, 561, 561t United Arab Emirates, 563, 563t United Kingdom, 570, 570t United States, 580, 580t Uruguay, 583, 583t Uzbekistan, 585, 585t Vanuatu, 588 Vatican City, 589 Venezuela, 593, 593t Vietnam, 596t, 597 Virgin Islands, 598 Yemen, 601, 601t Yugoslavia, 605, 605t Zambia, 608, 608t Zimbabwe, 611, 611t Porali River (Pakistan), 413 Porcupine River (United States), 576 Porsangen Fjord (Norway), 407 Port Antonio (Jamaica), 274, 275 Port Elizabeth (South Africa), 496 Port Island (Japan), 279 Port Louis (Mauritius), 351 Port Moresby (Papua New Guinea), 421, 422, 423 Port Philips Bay (Australia), 34 Port Rashid (United Arab Emirates), 563 Port Royal Mountains (Jamaica), 274 Port Sudan (Sudan), 508–509 Port-au-Prince (Haiti), 230, 231 Port-de-Paix (Haiti), 230 Portland Bight (Jamaica), 275 Porto (Portugal), 442, 443 Pôrto Alegre (Brazil), 76 Porto Novo Lagood (Benin), 58 Porto Santo (Portugal), 442 Port-of-Spain (Trinidad and Tobago), 542 Ports Argentina, 26 Bangladesh, 47 Barbados, 48 Bermuda, 60–61 Brazil, 76 Cuba, 147 Dominican Republic, 160 Ecuador, 166 Georgia, 201 Greece, 213 Guatemala, 221 India, 245 Ireland, 263 Israel, 267, 268 Kenya, 290 Libya, 316 Madagascar, 329 Malta, 343 Micronesia, 359 Monaco, 362 Paraguay, 425 Qatar, 446 Russia, 455 Saint Lucia, 463 Samoa, 467 São Tomé and Príncipe, 471 Saudi Arabia, 474 Senegal, 476–477 South Africa, 496 Sri Lanka, 504 Sudan, 508 Taiwan, 526 United Arab Emirates, 563 See also names of specific ports Portugal, 440–443, 441, 442t, 443t Port-Vila (Vanuatu), 587–588 Postonja (Slovenia), 488 Postonja Cave (Slovenia), 488 Potaro River (Guyana), 228 Pot’i (Georgia), 201, 202 Potwar Plateau (Pakistan), 413 Poverty Bangladesh, 48 India, 248 Indonesia, 254 Madagascar, 330 Myanmar, 377 Nepal, 386 Somalia, 493 Poyang Hu (China), 118 Pra River (Ghana), 208 Prague (Czech Republic), 568 Praslin Island (Seychelles), 479 Precambrian Shield. See Canadian Shield Precipitation. See Rainfall Pre-Sahel. See Chemama (Mauritania) Prespansko Jezero. See Lake Prespa Pretoria (South Africa), 498 Prilep (Macedonia), 326 Prince Edward Island (Canada), 99 Prince Edward Islands (South Africa), 496 Prince William Sound (United States), 578 Princess Sirindhorn Wildlife Sanctuary (Thailand), 535 Príncipe Island, 470–471 Príncipe Peak. See Pico de Príncipe (São Tomé and Príncipe) Pripet. See Pripyat River Pripyat Marshes. See Polesye Marshes Pripyat River, 51, 560 Proliv Dmitrya Lapteva, 455 Provence Alps (France), 190 Providencia Island (Colombia), 124 Providenciales Island (Turks and Caicos Islands), 552–553 Provinces. See Administrative divisions Pru To Daeng. See Princess Sirindhorn Wildlife Sanctuary (Thailand) Prut River, 360–361, 449 Prydz Bay (Antarctica), 21 Przewalski horses, 365 Psunj Mountains (Croatia), 142 Puerto Barrios (Guatemala), 221 Puerto Lempira (Honduras), 234 Puerto Rico, 443–445, 444, 445t, 571, 573, 577 Puerto Rico Trench, 444 Puget Sound (United States), 577–578 Pujo˘llyo˘ng Range (DPRK), 295 Pujo˘n River (DPRK), 295 Puktae Range (DPRK), 295 Pulau Muara Besar (Brunei), 80 Pulau Tekong Besar Island (Singapore), 483 Puna de Atacama (Argentina), 27 Puná Island (Ecuador), 166 Puna Tsang River. See Sankosh River (Bhutan) Puncak Jaya (Indonesia), 249 Punjab, 244, 413, 414 Puno (Peru), 430 Punta Águila (Puerto Rico), 445 Punta Brea (Puerto Rico), 445 Punta del Este (Uruguay), 582 Punta Patino (Panama), 418 Punta Remedios (El Salvador), 173 Puong Grotto (Vietnam), 595 Purari River (Papua New Guinea), 422 Purple earth, 77 Purus River, 74, 430 Putu Range (Liberia), 314 Putumayo River, 124, 165, 430 Putuo Shan (China), 117 Pyha River (Finland), 187 P’yo˘ngyang peneplain (DPRK), 296, 297 Pyramids, Sudan, 508 Pyrenees, 189–190, 499, 502 Q Qanats, Iran, 255 Qaqortoq (Greenland), 215 Qarqannah Island (Tunisia), 544 Qatar, 445–447, 446 Qattara Depression (Egypt), 168, 170 Qeshm island (Iran), 257 Geodata.book Page 686 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 78. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA 687 Index Qeys. See Kjsh (Iran) Qiantang Jiang (China), 119 Qilian Shan (China), 116 Qinghai Lake (China), 117–118 Qinling Shandi (China), 116 Qiongzhou Peninsula (China), 119 Qondsz River (Afghanistan), 3 Qoraqalpogh Autonomous Republic (Uzbekistan), 584 Qoraqalpoghistan. See Qoraqalpogh Autonomous Republic (Uzbekistan) Qormi (Malta), 343 Quatre Bornes (Mauritius), 351 Quebracho trees, 27 Queen Charlotte Islands (Canada), 99 Queen Elizabeth Archipelago (Canada), 99 Queen Mary’s Peak (United Kingdom), 568 Queen Maud Gulf (Canada), 99 Queen Maud Land (Antarctica), 20 Queens River (Dominica), 157 Quetta (Pakistan), 411 Quicama National Park (Angola), 13 Quita Sueno Island (Colombia), 124 Quito (Ecuador), 164 Qullai Ismoili Somoni (Tajikistan), 528 Qurnat as-Sawda (Lebanon), 310 R Rába River (Hungary), 236 Rabat (Morocco), 369 Rabaul (Papua New Guinea), 421 Radika canyon (Macedonia), 325 Radioactive contamination, Ukraine, 560 Radioactivity, of hot springs, 274 Ragay Gulf (The Philippines), 433, 435 Ragay Hills (The Philippines), 433 Raigye Chhu. See Raigye River (Bhutan) Raigye River (Bhutan), 63 Rainbow Reef (Fiji), 185 Rainfall Afghanistan, 4 Albania, 6 Algeria, 10 Andorra, 12 Angola, 15 Anguilla, 17 Antarctica, 21 Antigua, 22 Argentina, 27 Armenia, 29 Aruba, 30 Australia, 34–35 Austria, 38 Azerbaijan, 40 The Bahamas, 42 Bahrain, 44 Bangladesh, 47 Barbados, 49 Barbuda, 22 Belarus, 51 Belgium, 54 Belize, 57 Benin, 58–59 Bermuda, 61 Bhutan, 63–64 Bolivia, 67 Botswana, 72 Brazil, 76–77 British Virgin Islands, 79 Brunei, 81 Bulgaria, 83–84 Burkina Faso, 86 Burundi, 88 Cambodia, 91 Cameroon, 94 Canada, 100 Cape Verde, 102 Cayman Islands, 104 Central African Republic, 106–107 Chad, 109, 110 Chile, 114 China, 120 Colombia, 126 Comoros, 127 Congo, Democratic Republic of, 132 Congo, Republic of, 135 Costa Rica, 138 Côte d’Ivoire, 141 Croatia, 143 Cuba, 147 Cyprus, 149 Czech Republic, 152 Denmark, 155 Dominica, 158 Dominican Republic, 161 East Timor, 163 Ecuador, 166 Egypt, 169 El Salvador, 173 Equatorial Guinea, 175 Eritrea, 177–178 Estonia, 180 Ethiopia, 183 Fiji, 185 France, 193 French Guiana, 195 Gabon, 197 Gambia, 199 Georgia, 201 Germany, 205 Ghana, 210 Greece, 213 Greenland, 216 Grenada, 217 Guadeloupe, 218, 219 Guatemala, 221 Guinea, 224 Guinea-Bissau, 226 Guyana, 228 Haiti, 231 Honduras, 234 Hungary, 237 Iceland, 241 India, 246 Indonesia, 252 Iran, 258 Iraq, 261 Ireland, 264 Israel, 267 Italy, 272 Jamaica, 275 Japan, 280 Jordan, 283 Kazakhstan, 287 Kenya, 291 Kiribati, 293–294 Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of, 296 Korea, Republic of, 299 Kuwait, 301 Kyrgyzstan, 304 Laos, 306 Latvia, 309 Lebanon, 311 Lesotho, 313 Liberia, 315 Liechtenstein, 319 Lithuania, 321 Luxembourg, 324 Macedonia, 326 Madagascar, 329 Malawi, 332 Malaysia, 336 Maldives, 338 Mali, 341 Marshall Islands, 345 Martinique, 346 Mauritania, 348 Mauritius, 351 Mexico, 356 Micronesia, 359 Moldova, 361 Monaco, 363 Mongolia, 366 Morocco, 369 Mozambique, 373 Myanmar, 376 Namibia, 380 Nauru, 382 Nepal, 385 The Netherlands, 389 Netherlands Antilles, 390 New Zealand, 394 Nicaragua, 397 Niger, 400 Nigeria, 403 Norway, 407 Oman, 410 Pakistan, 414 Palau, 416 Panama, 419 Papua New Guinea, 423 Paraguay, 426 Peru, 431 The Philippines, 435 Poland, 439 Portugal, 443 Puerto Rico, 445 Qatar, 447 Romania, 450 Russia, 456 Rwanda, 459 Saint Kitts and Nevis, 461 Saint Lucia, 463 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, 465 Samoa, 467 São Tomé and Príncipe, 471 Saudi Arabia, 475 Senegal, 477 Seychelles, 479 Geodata.book Page 687 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 79. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA688 Sierra Leone, 482 Singapore, 483–484 Slovakia, 486 Slovenia, 488 Solomon Islands, 490 Somalia, 493 South Africa, 497 Sri Lanka, 504 Sudan, 508–509 Suriname, 511 Swaziland, 513 Sweden, 516 Switzerland, 520 Syria, 523 Taiwan, 526 Tajikistan, 528 Tanzania, 532 Thailand, 535 Togo, 539 Tonga, 540 Trinidad and Tobago, 542 Tunisia, 544 Turkey, 549 Turkmenistan, 551 Turks and Caicos Islands, 553 Tuvalu, 554–555 Uganda, 558 Ukraine, 561 United Arab Emirates, 563 United Kingdom, 569 United States, 579 Uruguay, 582 Uzbekistan, 585 Vanuatu, 587–588 Vatican City, 589 Venezuela, 592 Vietnam, 596 Virgin Islands, 598 Yemen, 601 Yugoslavia, 604 Zambia, 608 Zimbabwe, 611 Rainforests Bangladesh, 47 Benin, 59 Bolivia, 67 Brazil, 77 Brunei, 81 Cambodia, 91 Cameroon, 94 Central African Republic, 107 Chile, 114 Colombia, 125 Congo, Democratic Republic of, 132 Côte d’Ivoire, 141 Dominica, 157, 158 Dominican Republic, 161 Ecuador, 166–167 El Salvador, 173 Equatorial Guinea, 175 Grenada, 217 Guatemala, 221 Guinea, 224 Indonesia, 252–253 Laos, 306 Maldives, 338 Martinique, 346 Mexico, 356 New Zealand, 394 Nicaragua, 397 Peru, 428 The Philippines, 436 Puerto Rico, 444, 445 Saint Kitts and Nevis, 460–461 Saint Lucia, 463 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, 465 Samoa, 468 São Tomé and Príncipe, 471 Singapore, 484 Solomon Islands, 490 Sri Lanka, 504 Sudan, 507, 509 Suriname, 510–511 Togo, 538 United States, 579 Venezuela, 593 Virgin Islands, 598 See also Amazon rainforests Rainy Lake (United States), 575 Rajang River, 251, 335 Rajjaprabha Reservoir (Thailand), 534 Rajshahi Division (Bangladesh), 46 Rakha Pass (Nepal), 384 Rakhine Mountains. See Arakan Mountains (Myanmar) Ralik Group (Marshall Islands), 344 Ramalau (East Timor), 162 Ramaroshan (Nepal), 385–386 Ramla Bay (Malta), 343 Ramree Island (Myanmar), 376 Ramsar (Iran), 257 Ramsar Convention on Wetlands. See Wetlands of International Importance Ramu River (Papua New Guinea), 422 Ranching and grazing, 179 Argentina, 27 Australia, 35 Botswana, 72 Burundi, 87 Colombia, 126 Costa Rica, 138 Cuba, 147–148 Ghana, 207 Ireland, 264 Kazakhstan, 285, 286 Lesotho, 313 Mongolia, 363, 366, 367 Nepal, 386 Panama, 419 See also Agriculture Randenigala Reservoir (Sri Lanka), 503 Rangárvallasýsla (Iceland), 238 Rangitaiki River (New Zealand), 393 Rannock Moor (Scotland), 566 Ranongga Island (Solomon Islands), 489 Rapa Nui. See Easter Island (Chile) Rara Lake (Nepal), 384 Ra’s al Hadd (Oman), 409 Ras al Kathib (Yemen), 600 Ra’s al Khaymah (United Arab Emirates), 562– 563 Ras al Shi’b (Yemen), 600 Ras Al-Jabal (Oman), 408 Ra’s Al-Mat¸bakh (Qatar), 446 Ras Caseyr (Somalia), 492 Ras Deshen (Ethiopia), 182 Ras Fartak (Yemen), 601 Ras Hafun. See Point Xaafuun (Somalia) Ras Koh Range (Pakistan), 412 Ra’s Rakan (Qatar), 446 Ras Sharma (Yemen), 601 Ras Tanura (Saudi Arabia), 474 Rasa River (Croatia), 143 Rasua Garhi (Nepal), 384 Ratak Group (Marshall Islands), 344 Ratnapura (Sri Lanka), 505 Ra˘ut River (Moldova), 361 Ravi River, 244, 413 Rawdah (Syria), 523 Rawlinson Range (Papua New Guinea), 420 Rebild Bakker (Denmark), 155 Recife (Brazil), 76 Reclaimed land. See Land reclamation Recovery Glacier (Antarctica), 19 Red Desert. See Al Hamadah Al Hamra (Libya) Red Hill (United States), 577 Red Lakes (United States), 575 Red River (United States), 576 Red River (Vietnam), 595 Red River Basin (Vietnam), 594 Red River Delta (Vietnam), 594, 596 Red Sea, 176–178, 472–475 Red Sea Escarpment (Saudi Arabia), 472 Red Sea Highlands (Egypt), 167–170 Red Sea Hills (Sudan), 506–507 Red Volta River, 84–85, 208 Redang Archipelago (Malaysia), 335 Reef Islands (Solomon Islands), 489 Reforestation China, 120 Cuba, 147, 148 India, 247 Ireland, 264 Israel, 268 Italy, 272 Mongolia, 367 The Philippines, 435 Poland, 439 Puerto Rico, 445 Refugees Bosnia and Herzegovina, 70 Congo, Democratic Republic of, 132 East Timor, 163 Guinea, 224 Reggio di Calabria (Italy), 269 Reina Adelaida Archipelago (Chile), 113 Reindeer Lake (Canada), 98 Reisa River (Norway), 405 Religions Antigua, 23 Barbuda, 23 Botswana, 72 British Virgin Islands, 79 Burkina Faso, 86 Cameroon, 94 Canada, 101 Chad, 110–111 Comoros, 128 Eritrea, 178 Greece, 214t Guadeloupe, 219 Geodata.book Page 688 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 80. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA 689 Index Guinea-Bissau, 226 India, 245 Lebanon, 311 Nauru, 382 Poland, 440 Spain, 500 Swaziland, 513 United Kingdom, 570 Remedios Point. See Punta Remedios (El Salvador) Remire Island (French Guiana), 195 Rendova Island (Solomon Islands), 489 Rennell Island (Solomon Islands), 489 Rennick Glacier (Antarctica), 19 Reno River (Italy), 271 Reptiles Venezuela, 593 Zambia, 607 Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina. See Bosnia and Herzegovina Republic of Korea. See Korea, Republic of Republic of Maldives. See Maldives Republic of Singapore. See Singapore Republic of Srpska (RS), 69 Republic of the Congo. See Congo, Republic of the Rere (East Timor), 162 Research Antarctica, 18, 19, 21 Canada, 97 Namibia, 379 Reserva Biológic Indo-Maiz (Nicaragua), 397– 398 Reserva Natural Miraflor (Nicaragua), 397– 398 Reserva Pacaya Samiria (Peru), 430 Réservoir Gouin (Canada), 97 Reservoirs Australia, 33 Azerbaijan, 40 Bangladesh, 45 Brazil, 75 Côte d’Ivoire, 139 Czech Republic, 151 El Salvador, 172 Finland, 187 France, 191 Haiti, 230 Latvia, 308 Lithuania, 320 Macedonia, 326 Malaysia, 334–335 Mauritius, 351 New Zealand, 392 Panama, 418 Paraguay, 425 Portugal, 442 Russia, 454 Singapore, 483 Slovakia, 485 Sri Lanka, 503–504 Swaziland, 514 Tajikistan, 528 Thailand, 534 Togo, 537 Turkey, 548 Ukraine, 559–560 United States, 576 Uruguay, 581 Venezuela, 591 See also Lakes Retenue de Nangbéto Reservoir (Togo), 537 Réunion (France), 192 Reuss River (Switzerland), 519 Reuss Valley (Switzerland), 518 Revué River (Mozambique), 372 Rewa River (Fiji), 184 Reykjavík (Iceland), 241 Rhaetian Alps (Switzerland), 518 Rhätikon Massif (Liechtenstein), 318 Rheris River (Morocco), 369 Rhine Falls (Switzerland), 519 Rhine River, 38, 191–192, 204, 319, 388, 517, 519 Rhine River Valley, 319 Rhine Valley (Switzerland), 518 Rhineland (Germany), 204 Rhodes (Greece), 213 Rhodope Mountains, 82, 84, 211, 212 Rhon Mountains (Germany), 204 Rhone (ship), 79 Rhone Glacier (Switzerland), 519 Rhone River, 191, 517, 519 Rhone Valley (Switzerland), 518, 520 Richard Toll (Senegal), 477 Richardson Range (Canada), 97 Richmond Peak (Saint Vincent and the Grenadines), 464 Rift Valley. See Great Rift Valley Riga (Latvia), 307, 309 Rjgestan Desert (Afghanistan), 3, 4 Riiser-Larsen Ice Shelf (Antarctica), 21 Rila Mountains (Bulgaria), 82, 84 Rima River (Nigeria), 403 Rincon de la Vieja (Costa Rica), 136 “Ring of Fire” Mexico, 352 The Philippines, 433 Samoa, 466 Taiwan, 524 Vanuatu, 586–587 “Ring of Kerry” (Ireland), 263 Ringkøbing (Denmark), 154 Ringvassøy (Norway), 406 Rio Artibonito. See Artibonito River (Dominican Republic) Río Benito. See Mbini River (Equatorial Guinea) Río Bravo del Norte (Mexico), 354 Río Campo. See Ntem River (Equatorial Guinea) Rio Chagres (Panama), 418 Río Coco (Nicaragua), 396 Río de Bayamon (Puerto Rico), 444 Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), 76–78 Rio de la Plata (Uruguay), 426, 581–582 Río de la Plata basin (Brazil), 75–76 Río de las Piedras (Peru), 430 Rio Grande (United States), 354, 576 Río Grande de Arecibo (Puerto Rico), 444 Río Grande de Loiza (Puerto Rico), 444 Río Grande de San Miguel (El Salvador), 172 Río Grande de Santiago (Mexico), 354–355 Río Grande Matagalpa (Nicaragua), 396 Rio Grande River (Guinea-Bissau), 225 Rio Grande River (Jamaica), 274 Río Iguaçu. See Iguazú River Río Jiboa (El Salvador), 172 Río La Plata (Puerto Rico), 444 Río Lempa (El Salvador), 172 Río Muni. See Mbini (Equatorial Guinea) Rio Negro, 581–582 Rio Negro Dam (Uruguay), 581 Rio Nunez (Guinea), 224 Rio Sado (Portugal), 442 Río San Juan (Nicaragua), 396 Rio Santa (Peru), 428 Rio Tacuarembó (Uruguay), 582 Río Tajo. See Tagus River Rio Uruguay (Uruguay), 581–582 Rio Yi (Uruguay), 582 Rioni River (Georgia), 200 Rishiri Island (Japan), 279 Risnjak peak (Croatia), 142 Riu Valira. See Valira River (Andorra) River Clyde (Scotland), 564, 567 River Forth (Scotland), 564, 567 River gorges Ethiopia, 182 Nepal, 384 See also Canyons River Spey (Scotland), 567 River Tay (Scotland), 564, 567 River valleys. See names of specific river valleys Rivers Afghanistan, 3 Albania, 6 Angola, 13–14 Antarctica, 19 Argentina, 25–26 Armenia, 29 Australia, 33 Austria, 37–38 Bangladesh, 45–46 Belarus, 50–51 Belgium, 53 Belize, 56 Benin, 58 Bhutan, 63 Bolivia, 66–67 Bosnia and Herzegovina, 69 Botswana, 72 Brunei, 80 Bulgaria, 82–83 Burkina Faso, 85 Burundi, 88 Cambodia, 89–90 Cameroon, 94 Canada, 98 Central African Republic, 105 Chad, 108, 109–110 Chile, 113 China, 118–119 Colombia, 123–124 Congo, Democratic Republic of, 130–131 Congo, Republic of, 134 Costa Rica, 137 Côte d’Ivoire, 139 Croatia, 143 Cuba, 146 Cyprus, 149 Geodata.book Page 689 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 81. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA690 Czech Republic, 151–152 Denmark, 154 Dominica, 157–158 Dominican Republic, 160 East Timor, 162–163 Ecuador, 165 Egypt, 169 El Salvador, 172 Equatorial Guinea, 175 Eritrea, 177 Estonia, 179 Ethiopia, 182 Fiji, 184 Finland, 187 France, 191–192 French Guiana, 195 Gabon, 196 Gambia, 198 Georgia, 200 Germany, 204–205 Ghana, 208 Greece, 212 Guadeloupe, 218 Guatemala, 219, 220–221 Guinea, 223–224 Guinea-Bissau, 225 Guyana, 227–228 Haiti, 231 Honduras, 233 Hungary, 236 Iceland, 240 India, 244–245 Indonesia, 250–251 Iran, 256 Iraq, 259–261 Ireland, 263 Israel, 267 Italy, 271 Jamaica, 274 Japan, 278 Jordan, 282–283 Kazakhstan, 286 Kenya, 290 Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of, 295 Korea, Republic of, 298 Kyrgyzstan, 303 Laos, 306 Latvia, 308 Lebanon, 310–311 Lesotho, 312 Liberia, 314 Liechtenstein, 319 Lithuania, 320 Luxembourg, 323 Macedonia, 326 Madagascar, 329 Malawi, 332 Malaysia, 335 Mali, 341 Mauritania, 348 Mauritius, 351 Mexico, 354–355 Moldova, 360–361 Mongolia, 365 Morocco, 369 Mozambique, 372 Myanmar, 375–376 Namibia, 379 Nepal, 385 The Netherlands, 388 New Zealand, 393 Nicaragua, 396 Niger, 399 Nigeria, 402–403 Norway, 405 Oman, 409 Pakistan, 413 Panama, 418 Papua New Guinea, 422 Paraguay, 425–426 Peru, 428–430 The Philippines, 434 Poland, 437–438 Portugal, 442 Puerto Rico, 444 Qatar, 446 Romania, 449 Russia, 454 Rwanda, 459 Saint Kitts and Nevis, 460–461 Saint Lucia, 462–463 Samoa, 467 San Marino, 469 São Tomé and Príncipe, 470–471 Senegal, 476 Sierra Leone, 481 Singapore, 483 Slovakia, 485 Slovenia, 488 Somalia, 491 South Africa, 496 Spain, 500 Sri Lanka, 503–504 Sudan, 507–508 Suriname, 510–511 Swaziland, 512–513 Sweden, 515 Switzerland, 519–520 Syria, 522–523 Taiwan, 525 Tajikistan, 528 Tanzania, 531 Thailand, 534–535 Togo, 538 Tonga, 539 Trinidad and Tobago, 541 Tunisia, 544 Uganda, 557 Ukraine, 559–560 United Kingdom, 566–567 United States, 576 Uruguay, 581–582 Uzbekistan, 584–585 Venezuela, 591–592 Vietnam, 595 Yemen, 600 Yugoslavia, 603–604 Zambia, 607 Zimbabwe, 609–610 "Riviera of Flowers" (Albania), 6 Rivière des Créoles (Mauritius), 351 Rivière La Chaux (Mauritius), 351 Rivière Salée (Guadeloupe), 218 Riyadh (Saudi Arabia), 472, 473 Roads (Bolivia), 68 See also Highways Roanoke River (United States), 576 Roatán Island (Honduras), 233 Robben Island (South Africa), 496 Robinson Crusoe (Defoe), 113 Rock Islands (Palau), 416 Rock of Gibralter (United Kingdom), 569 Rock paintings, Namibia, 378 Rockefeller Plateau (Antarctica), 19 Rocky Mountains (United States), 571, 573– 575, 578–580 Rodna Mountains (Romania), 448 Rodrigues (Mauritius), 351 Roggeveld Mountains (South Africa), 494 ROK. See Korea, Republic of (ROK, South Korea) Rokel River (Sierra Leone), 481 Rold Forest (Denmark), 155 Rold Skov. See Rold Forest (Denmark) Roman Catholic Church (Vatican City), 588 Roman ruins, in Tunisia, 543 Romania, 447–451, 448, 450t Romanian Riviera, 450 Romblon (The Philippines), 433 Rome (Italy), 272 Romsdals Fjord (Norway), 407 Ron Point (Vietnam), 596 Rondador Island, 124 Rondane Mountains (Norway), 405 Ronde Island (Grenada), 217 Rongelap Atoll (Marshall Islands), 344 Ronne Ice Shelf (Antarctica), 20, 21 Roosevelt Island (Antarctica), 20 Ropar (India), 245 Rosalie River (Dominica), 158 Rosario Island (Colombia), 125 Rose Island (United States), 578 Roseau River (Dominica), 157 Roseau River (Saint Lucia), 462 Rosetta Channel (Egypt), 169 Ross, James C., 20 Ross Ice Shelf (Antarctica), 20, 21 Ross Island (Antarctica), 19, 20 Ross Sea (Antarctica), 20, 21 Rostov-na-Donu (Russia), 455 Rothaar Hills (Germany), 203 Roti Island (Indonesia), 252 Rotuma Island (Fiji), 185 Round Island. See Île Ronde (Mauritania) Roxa (Guinea-Bissau), 225 Royale Island (French Guiana), 195 RS. See Srpska Ruacana Falls (Namibia), 379 Ruahine Range (New Zealand), 391 Ruapehu (New Zealand), 391 Rub’ al-Khali Oman, 410 Qatar, 447 Saudi Arabia, 472, 475 United Arab Emirates, 563 Yemen, 599, 601 Rubber. See Natural resources Rufiji Delta (Tanzania), 533 Rufiji River (Tanzania), 531–532 Rügen Island (Germany), 205 Geodata.book Page 690 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 82. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA 691 Index Ruhnu Island (Estonia), 180 Ruki River (DROC), 131 Rumpungu River (Burundi), 88 Rungwe Mountain (Tanzania), 531 Rupununi region (Guyana), 227, 229 Rupununi River (Guyana), 228 Rural population. See Urban/rural population Rusizi River (Burundi), 88 Russell Island (Solomon Islands), 489 Russia, 451–458, 452, 457t Ruvironza River (Burundi), 88 Ruvubu River (Burundi), 88 Ruvuma River (Tanzania), 531 Ruwenzori Mountains (DROC), 130 Ruwenzori Mountains (Uganda), 556 Ruzizi River (Rwanda), 459 Rwanda, 458–460, 459 Rydal Lake (England), 566 Ryukyu archipelago (Japan), 276, 279, 280 S Saale River (Germany), 204 Saar basin (Germany), 206 Saaremaa Island (Estonia), 179 Saba (Netherlands Antilles), 390 Sabah (Malaysia), 333–336 Sabaragamuwa Ridges (Sri Lanka), 502, 505 Sabi River. See Save River Sabinio (DROC), 130 Sabiria (East Timor), 162 Sabka. See Salt marshes (Saudi Arabia) Sabkhat Mattj Salt Flats (Saudi Arabia), 475 Sacramento Mountains (United States), 573 Sacramento River (United States), 576, 578– 579 Sacred mountain peaks, 117 The Sacred Valley. See El Valle Sagrado (Peru) Sado Island (Japan), 279 Safed Koh Range (Pakistan), 412 Safjd River (Iran), 256 Sagara Swamp (Tanzania), 531 Sagarmatha. See Mount Everest “Sahara Air.” See Foehn (Switzerland) Sahara Desert Algeria, 8, 10 Egypt, 167, 170 Libya, 317–318 Mali, 339, 341, 342 Mauritania, 349 Morocco, 369 Niger, 400 Sudan, 509 Tunisia, 543–545 Saharan Atlas Mountains (Algeria), 8, 10 Sahel, 339, 341, 398, 400, 545 Saigon River (Vietnam), 595 Saimaa Canal (Finland), 186 St. Agnes (United Kingdom), 568 St. Ana Lake (Romania), 448 St. Andrew (Saint Vincent and the Grenadines), 464 St. Andrews Island. See James Island (Gambia) Saint Ann (Jamaica), 274 St. Brandon Group. See Cargados Carajos Shoals (Mauritius) Saint Croix. See St. Croix (Virgin Islands) St. Croix (Virgin Islands), 598 St. David Island (Bermuda), 60 Saint Elizabeth (Jamaica), 274, 275 St. Eustatius (Netherlands Antilles), 390 St. George Island (Bermuda), 60 St. George Valley (Barbados), 48 St. George’s Channel (United Kingdom), 263, 569 St. Giles Island (Trinidad and Tobago), 541 St. Helena Bay (South Africa), 496 Saint Helena (United Kingdom), 568 Saint John. See St. John (Virgin Islands) St. John River (Liberia), 314 St. John (saint), 213 St. John (Virgin Islands), 598 Saint Joseph (Martinique), 347 Saint Kitts and Nevis, 460–462, 461, 462t St. Lawrence Island (United States), 577 St. Lawrence River, 98, 575–576 St. Lawrence Valley (United States), 571 Saint Lucia, 462–464, 463, 463t St. Lucia Channel (Martinique), 346 St. Lucia Estuary (South Africa), 496 Saint Lucia Lake (South Africa), 495–496 St. Magnus Bay (United Kingdom), 568 St. Maria (Switzerland), 519 Saint Martin, 218, 390 St. Martin’s (United Kingdom), 568 St. Mary’s (United Kingdom), 568 St. Paul Island (France), 192 St. Paul River (Liberia), 314 St. Peter’s Basilica (Vatican City), 588 St. Peter’s Square (Vatican City), 588 St. Petersburg (Russia), 455, 456 St. Pierre and Miquelon (France), 192 St. Thomas (Virgin Islands), 598 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, 464–466, 465, 465t Saint Vincent Island, 464–465 Saint-Barthélemy (Guadeloupe), 218 Saint-Joseph Island (French Guiana), 195 Saint-Louis (Senegal), 477 Saint-Malo Gulf (France), 192 St.-Nazaire (France), 192 Saint-Pierre (Martinique), 347 Sajid Island (Saudi Arabia), 473 Sakhalin (Russia), 455 Sakhalin Island (Russia), 453 Sal (Cape Verde), 102 Sala y Gómez (Chile), 113 Salado River (Argentina), 26 Salamuma Beach (Samoa), 467 Saldanha Bay (South Africa), 496 Salelologa (Samoa), 467 Salentina Peninsula (Italy), 272 Salinas. See Salt lakes Salinas Chicas (Argentina), 26 Salinas River (Guatemala), 221 Saline Island (Grenada), 217 Saloum River (Senegal), 476 Salpausselkä ridge (Finland), 187, 188 Salso River (Italy), 271 Salt, as a natural resource Guinea-Bissau, 225 Morocco, 370 Netherlands Antilles, 390 United Arab Emirates, 563 Salt Cay Island (Turks and Caicos Islands), 552–553 Salt lakes Algeria, 9 Argentina, 25 Australia, 33 China, 117–118 Djibouti, 156 Egypt, 169 Iran, 255, 258 Kazakhstan, 286 Madagascar, 329 Malawi, 332 Mauritania, 348 Mongolia, 364–365 Romania, 449 Tajikistan, 528 Tunisia, 544–545 Turks and Caicos Islands, 552 Salt marshes (Saudi Arabia), 473 Salt Mountain (Dominican Republic), 161 Salt Range (Pakistan), 412 Salton Sea (United States), 576 Salvador (Brazil), 76 SalvNatura (El Salvador), 173–174 Salween River, 119, 375–376 Salzach River (Austria), 37 Salzkammergut region (Austria), 37 Safid mountains (Afghanistan), 2–3 Salang Pass (Afghanistan), 2 Samaná Peninsula (Dominican Republic), 160 Samar (The Philippines), 433, 434–435 Samar Sea (The Philippines), 434 Samara (Russia), 454 Samaria (West Bank), 266, 267 Samborombón Bay (Argentina), 26 Sambre River (Belgium), 53 Sambrini Peak (DROC), 130 Sambur Lake (India), 245 Samina River, 319 Samoa, 466–468, 467, 468t Samoan Archipelago (United States), 578 Sámos (Greece), 212 Samosir Island (Indonesia), 250 Samothrace (Greece), 212 Samothráki. See Samothrace (Greece) Samur River (Azerbaijan), 40 Samur-Abperon Canal (Azerbaijan), 40 San Ambrosio (Chile), 113 San Andreas fault (United States), 574 San Andrés Island (Colombia), 124 San Andrés y Providencia Intendency (Colombia), 124 San Bernadino Strait, 434 San Bernardino Mountains (United States), 574 San Bernardo Island (Colombia), 125 San Blas Archipelago (Panama), 419 San Carlos Plains (Costa Rica), 137 San Cristobal Island (Solomon Islands), 489 San Cristóbal Island (Galápagos), 165 San Felix (Chile), 113 San Fernando Island (Nicaragua), 396 San Francisco Bay (United States), 578 San Gabriel Mountains (United States), 574 San Jerónimo Mountains (Colombia), 122 San Joaquin River (United States), 579 Geodata.book Page 691 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 83. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA692 San Juan (Puerto Rico), 445 San Juan Bay (Puerto Rico), 445 San Juan Mountains (United States), 573 San Juan River (Argentina), 26 San Juan River (Colombia), 124 San Juan River (Costa Rica), 137 San Juan River (United States), 576 San Lucas Mountains (Colombia), 122 San Marino, 269, 468–470, 469, 469t San Marino River (San Marino), 469 San Matías Gulf (Argentina), 26 San Pedro River (Cuba), 146 San Pedro River (Guatemala), 221 San Salvador (The Bahamas), 42 San Salvador (El Salvador), 171 San Salvador Island (Galápagos), 165 San San-Pond Sak (Panama), 418 San Simón Mountains (Bolivia), 66 San Valentín (Chile), 112 Sana River (Bosnia and Herzegovina), 69 Sanaa (Yemen), 599 Sanaga River (Cameroon), 94 Sand dunes Angola, 15 Gambia, 198 Mauritania, 349 Mongolia, 366–367 Mozambique, 373 Namibia, 380 The Netherlands, 388 Oman, 410 Pakistan, 414 Portugal, 443 Qatar, 446, 447 See also Ergs Sandbars Côte d’Ivoire, 140 Germany, 205 Ghana, 209 Guyana, 228 Madagascar, 329 Sando Island (Denmark), 154 Sandstorms Iran, 258 Liberia, 315 Sandwich Harbor (Namibia), 379 Sandwjp (Bangladesh), 47 Sandy Bay (Saint Kitts and Nevis), 461 Sandy Bay Beach (South Africa), 496 Sandy Island (Grenada), 217 Sandy Point Bay (Saint Kitts and Nevis), 461 Sangha River (Cameroon), 94 Sangre de Cristo Range (United States), 573 “San’in” (Japan), 279 Sankore Mosque (Mali), 341 Sankosh River (Bhutan), 63 Santa Barbara Islands (United States), 577 Santa Carolina Island (Mozambique), 373 Santa Catalina Canyon (Venezuela), 591 Santa Catalina Island, 124 Santa Catarina Island (Brazil), 76 Santa Cruz Island (Galápagos), 165 Santa Cruz Islands (Solomon Islands), 489 Santa Cruz River (Argentina), 26 Santa Isabel (Equatorial Guinea), 175 Santa Isabel Island (Solomon Islands), 489 Santa Luzia (Cape Verde), 102 Santa Maria (Peru), 430 Santa Maria (Portugal), 442 Santa Maria Bay (Malta), 343 Santa María Island (Galápagos), 165 Santa Maria River (Panama), 418 Santiago (Chile), 114 Santiago River (Ecuador), 165 Santo Antão (Cape Verde), 102 Santo António (São Tomé and Príncipe), 471 Santos (Brazil), 76 “San’yo” (Japan), 279 Sao Din Canyon (Thailand), 534 São Francisco River (Brazil), 74–75 São Jorge (Portugal), 442 São Luis Island (Brazil), 76 São Marcos Bay, 76 São Miguel (Portugal), 442 São Nicolau (Cape Verde), 102 São Paulo (Brazil), 76, 78 São Sebastião Island (Brazil), 76 São Tiago (Cape Verde), 102 São Tomé and Príncipe, 470, 470t, 470–471, São Tomé Island, 470–471 São Tomé Peak. See Pico de São Tomé (São Tomé and Príncipe) São Vicente (Cape Verde), 102 Saona Island (Dominican Republic), 160 Saône River (France), 191 Sapadna Morava River (Yugoslavia), 604 Sapo Mountains (Panama), 417 Sapt Kosi River (Nepal), 385 Sar Mountains, 602 Sarajevo (Bosnia and Herzegovina), 69–70 Sarakana River (Vanuatu), 587 Saramacca River (Suriname), 511 Saramati, 244, 375 Sarangani Bay (The Philippines), 435 Sarawak (Malaysia), 333–335 Sarawak Chamber (Malaysia), 334 Sarawat Range (Papua New Guinea), 420 Sardinia (Italy), 269, 271, 272 Sarera Gulf (Indonesia), 252 Sarine River (Switzerland), 519 Sarstún River (Guatemala), 221 Saskatchewan plain (Canada), 100 Saskatchewan River (Canada), 98 Sassandra River (Côte d’Ivoire), 139 Satpura Range (India), 244 Saudi Arabia, 471–475, 473, 474t Saumatre Lagood. See Lake Saumâtre (Haiti) Sava River, 143, 488, 604 Sava River valleys (Bosnia and Herzegovina), 69 Savai’i Island (Samoa), 466–468 Savanna Woodland (Côte d’Ivoire), 141 Savannah River (United States), 576 Savannas Burkina Faso, 84–86 Burundi, 88 Cameroon, 94 Central African Republic, 107 Congo, Republic of, 135 Côte d’Ivoire, 141 Gambia, 198–199 Guatemala, 221 Guinea, 222 Guinea-Bissau, 226 Guyana, 227–229 Honduras, 233 India, 247 Kenya, 291 Madagascar, 329 Mauritania, 348 Mexico, 356 Mozambique, 372 Namibia, 377, 380 Nicaragua, 395 Niger, 400 Nigeria, 403–404 Panama, 419 Papua New Guinea, 423 The Philippines, 435 Senegal, 477 Sudan, 506, 509 Suriname, 510–511 See also Grasslands Save River, 372, 609 Savinja River (Slovenia), 488 Savo Island (Solomon Islands), 489 Savu Island (Indonesia), 252 Savu Sea (Indonesia), 252 Sawakin (Sudan), 508 Sayan Mountains (Russia), 453 Scafell Pike (England), 566 Scania. See Skåne (Sweden) Scarborough (Trinidad and Tobago), 542 Šar Planina (Macedonia), 325 Nawqurah Bay (Oman), 410 Šešuph River (Lithuania), 320 Šumava Mountains (Czech Republic), 151 Scarplands, in Germany, 204 Schaan (Liechtenstein), 319 Schaffhausen (Switzerland), 518 Schelde River, 53, 388 Scheldt River. See Schelde River Schiermonnikoog Island (The Netherlands), 388 Schleswig-Holstein coast (Germany), 205 Schlossberg caves (Germany), 204 Schwarz Mountains (Namibia), 378 Scotland (United Kingdom), 564, 566–569 Scrub Island (Anguilla), 16 Scylla and Charybdis (Odyssey), 269 Sea cliffs Ireland, 263 Monaco, 362 See also Cliffs Sea ice. See Glaciers Sea Islands (United States), 578 Sea of Azov (Russia), 455 Sea of Cortez. See Gulf of California Sea of Galilee (Israel), 267 Sea of Hebrides (United Kingdom), 567 Sea of Japan, 278, 298, 455 Sea of Marmara (Turkey), 546–549 Sea of Okhotsk, 278, 453, 455 Seals Antarctica, 20 Argentina, 26 McDonald Islands, 34 Namibia, 380 Southern elephant, 26 Seas. See Oceans and seas Seattle (United States), 578 Geodata.book Page 692 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 84. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA 693 Index Sebastián Vizcaíno (Mexico), 355 Sébé River (Gabon), 196 Sebei District (Uganda), 556 Sebou River (Morocco), 369 Sechura Bay. See Bahía de Sechura (Peru) Sechura Desert (Peru), 431 Sécure River (Bolivia), 66 Sedeten Mountains. See Sudety Mountains Seenu (Maldives), 338 Sefidrood River (Iran), 256 Segovia Highlands (Venezuela), 591 Seiland (Norway), 405 Seine River (France), 191 Selenge River (Mongolia), 365 Seletar River (Singapore), 483 Sélibaby (Mauritania), 348 Selkirk, Alexander, 113 Selondi Range (Zimbabwe), 609 Selvagens islet (Portugal), 442 Selwyn Range (Canada), 97 Seman River (Albania), 6 Semmering Pass (Austria), 36 Semois River (Belgium), 53 Sendai Plain (Japan), 280 Senegal, 198, 475–478, 477, 477t Senegal River, 339, 341, 348, 476 Senja (Norway), 406 Senqunyane River (Lesotho), 312 Sentarium (Indonesia), 251 Seoul (Korea, Republic of), 299 Sepik River (Papua New Guinea), 421–422 Serakhis River (Cyprus), 149 Serangoon River (Singapore), 483 Serbia (Yugoslavia), 602–605 Serekunda (Gambia), 199 Serena (Chile), 114 Serengeti Plain, 530 Seretar Reservoir (Singapore), 483 Seria (Brunei), 81 Serpents Island. See Île aux Serpents (Mauritania) Serra da Mantiqueira (Brazil), 74 Serra de Monchique (Portugal), 441 Serra do Espinhaço (Brazil), 74 Serra do Mar (Brazil), 74 Serra Geral (Brazil), 74 Serrana Island (Colombia), 124 Serranía de Baudó, 122 Serranilla Island, 124–125 Serre-Ponçon (France), 191 Serrianía de Tabasará (Panama), 417 Sese Archipelage (Uganda), 558 Setúbal Bay (Portugal), 442 Seven Hills (Germany), 203 Seven-Mile Beach (Cayman Islands), 104 Severn River (Canada), 98 Severn River (United Kingdom), 566 Severnaya Zemlya (Russia), 456 Sevier Lake (United States), 575 Sevilla. See Seville (Spain) Seville (Spain), 500 Sewa River (Sierra Leone), 481 Seward Peninsula (United States), 573, 578 Seychelles, 478–480, 479, 480t Seyhan River (Turkey), 548 Sezar River Gorges (Iran), 255 Shabeele River, 491 Shabeelle River, 182 Shackleton Ice Shelf (Antarctica), 21 Shadegan wetland (Iran), 257 Shahbazpur (Bangladesh), 47 Shamal. See Windstorms Shan Plateau (Myanmar), 375, 376 Shandong Peninsula (China), 119 Shandur-Hundrup National Park (Pakistan), 414 Shangani River Valley (Zimbabwe), 611 Shannon River (Ireland), 263 Sharjah (United Arab Emirates), 563 Shark Bay (Australia), 34 Sharqiya (Oman), 410 Shatt al Arab (Iraq), 260–261 Shatts. See Salt lakes Shebshi Mountains (Nigeria), 402 Sherbro Island (Sierra Leone), 481 Sherbro River (Sierra Leone), 481 Sherbro Strait (Sierra Leone), 481 Shetland Islands (United Kingdom), 566–568 Shey-Phoksumdo National Park (Nepal), 384 Shiga Highlands (Japan), 277 Shikoku (Japan), 276–280 Shikotan Island (Japan), 276 Shilka River (Russia), 454 Shinano River (Japan), 278 Shinjiko Lake (Japan), 278 Shipping Egypt, 170 The Netherlands, 389 Panama, 420 Russia, 455 Shipwrecks, 113 Kiribati, 293 Meduse, 347 Rhone, 79 Skeleton Coast, 380 S.S. Bianca C, 217 Shiragami (Japan), 279 Shire Highlands, 331, 332, 370 Shire Plateau. See Shire Highlands Shire River (Malawi), 331, 332 Shiroito Plateau (Japan), 278 Shishkhed River (Mongolia), 365 Shkumbin River (Albania), 6 Shortland Islands (Solomon Islands), 489–490 Siachen Glacier (India), 242 Sianok Canyon (Indonesia), 250 Siberia (Russia), 451–457 Sibun River (Belize), 56 Sibuyan Sea, 434 Sicilian Channel (Italy), 272 Sicily (Italy), 269, 270–272 Sico River (Honduras), 233 Sicre River (Honduras), 233 Sidipan Island, 335 Sierra da Estrela (Portugal), 440, 441 Sierra de Bahoruco (Dominican Republic), 159, 230 Sierra de Cayey (Puerto Rico), 444 Sierra de Chama (Guatemala), 220 Sierra de Chuacús (Guatemala), 220 Sierra de las Minas (Guatemala), 220 Sierra de la Ventana (Argentina), 25 Sierra de los Cuchumatanes, 220 Sierra de los Organos (Cuba), 145–146 Sierra de Luquillo (Puerto Rico), 444, 445 Sierra de Martin Garcfa (Dominican Republic), 159 Sierra de Neiba (Dominican Republic), 159, 230 Sierra de Nicaro (Cuba), 145 Sierra de Nipe (Cuba), 145 Sierra de San Joaquin (Paraguay), 424 Sierra de San Luis (Venezuela), 591 Sierra de Sancti Spíritus (Cuba), 145 Sierra de Santa Cruz (Guatemala), 220 Sierra de Trinidad (Cuba), 145 Sierra del Cristal (Cuba), 145 Sierra del Rosario (Cuba), 145–146 Sierra del Tandil (Argentina), 25 Sierra Highlands (Ecuador), 164–166 Sierra Leone, 480–482, 481, 482t Sierra Leone Peninsula (Sierra Leone), 480– 482 Sierra Leone River (Sierra Leone), 481 Sierra Lihuel-Calel (Argentina), 25 Sierra Madre (The Philippines), 433, 436 Sierra Madre de Chiapas (Mexico), 354 Sierra Madre del Sur (Mexico), 353, 355 Sierra Madre Occidental (Mexico), 353, 354, 356 Sierra Madre Oriental (Mexico), 353 Sierra Madre range (El Salvador), 172 Sierra Madres, 220 Sierra Maestra (Cuba), 145 Sierra Maigualida (Venezuela), 591 Sierra Nevada de Cocuy (Colombia), 122 Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta (Colombia), 123, 124 Sierra Nevada Mountains (Spain), 500–501 Sierra Nevada Mountains (United States), 574 Sierra Parima Mountains (Venezuela), 590 Sierra San Pedro Mountains (Mexico), 354 Sierra Volcanica Transversal. See Cordillera Neovolcanica (Mexico) Sigatoka River (Fiji), 184 Signal de Bortrange. See Mt. Botrange (Belgium) Sihanoukville. See Kompong Som (Cambodia) Sikhote-Alin’ Mountains (Russia), 453 Sikkim (India), 244 Silhoutte Island (Seychelles), 479 Sim Gang glacier (Pakistan), 413 Sjrrj (Iran), 257 Simbo Island (Solomon Islands), 489 Simeto River (Italy), 271 Similian Islands (Thailand), 535 Simpson Desert (Australia), 35 Sinafir Island (Saudi Arabia), 473 Sinai Peninsula (Egypt), 167, 169 Sind (Pakistan), 413 Siné River (Senegal), 476 Singapore, 482–484, 483, 484t Singapore Island (Singapore), 483 Singapore River (Singapore), 483 Singitic Gulf (Greece), 213 Singkarak (Indonesia), 250 Sinharaja (Sri Lanka), 504 Sinn River (Syria), 523 Sinnamary River (French Guiana), 195 Sint Maarten. See Saint Martin Sió River (Hungary), 236 Geodata.book Page 693 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 85. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA694 Sioma Falls. See Ngonye Falls (Zambia) Sipadan, 248 Sipaliwini River (Suriname), 511 Siple Island (Antarctica), 20 Sira River (Norway), 405 Sirba River (Burkina Faso), 85 Sirdaryo-Syr River. See Syr Darya River Siret River (Romania), 449 Sirikit Reservoir (Thailand), 534 Sirwa (Morocco), 369 Sisangan National Park (Iran), 258 Sistema Ibérico. See Iberian Cordillera Mountains (Spain) Sistema Penibético. See Baetic Cordillera Mountains (Spain) Sitrah (Bahrain), 43–44 Sittang River (Myanmar), 374–376 Sittoung River. See Sittang River (Myanmar) Sivash Lagoon (Ukraine), 561 Siwa Oasis (Egypt), 170 Siwalik Hills, 62, 383, 384 Sjælland Island (Denmark), 154 Skadar. See Lake Scutari Skadarsko Jezero (Lake Scutari), 6 Skaga Fjord (Iceland), 241 Skagerrak, 154, 405, 515, 516 Skåne (Sweden), 514–517 Skeleton Coast (Namibia), 380 Skellefte River (Sweden), 515, 517 Skellefteå (Sweden), 516 Skelton Glacier (Antarctica), 19 Skjaergard (Norway), 405–406 Skjaldbreidhur (Iceland), 239 Skjálfanda River (Iceland), 240 Skjern River (Denmark), 154 Skocjan Cave (Slovenia), 488 Skógafoss (Iceland), 240 Skopje (Macedonia), 325, 326 Skorpios (Greece), 212 Skye (United Kingdom), 566, 568 Slaettaratindur (Faeroe Islands), 154 Slash-and-burn agriculture, in Gambia, 199 Slave trade, Cape Verde, 102 Sliema (Malta), 343 Slieve Donard (Northern Ireland), 566 Slieve Mish Mountains (Ireland), 262 Slieve Mishkish Mountains (Ireland), 262 Slochteren reserve (The Netherlands), 389 Slovak Ore Mountains (Slovakia), 485 Slovak Republic. See Slovakia Slovakia, 484–486, 486t Slovenia, 486–489, 487, 488t Slovenské Rudohrie. See Slovak Ore Mountains (Slovakia) Småland (Sweden), 514–515, 517 Small Lake. See Petit Lac (Switzerland) Smallwood Reservoir (Canada), 98 Smith Sound (Canada), 99 “The Smoke That Thunders.” See Victoria Falls Snake River (United States), 574–576 Snake River Plain (United States), 574–575 Snares Islands (New Zealand), 393 Sneek Lake (The Netherlands), 388 Snohetta (Norway), 405 Snow Lake (Pakistan), 413 Sobaek Mountain Range (Korea, Republic of), 297, 298 Sobradinho Reservoir (Brazil), 75 So˘mjin River (Korea, Republic of), 298 The Society Islands (France), 193 Socotra Island (Yemen), 600–601 Sodwana Bay (South Africa), 496 Sofala Bay (Mozambique), 373 Sogeri Plateau (Papua New Guinea), 421 Sognafjorden. See Sogne Fjord (Norway) Sogne Fjord (Norway), 407 Soil erosion Belize, 56 East Frisian Islands, 205 Ethiopia, 182 India, 248 Indonesia, 250, 253 Iran, 258 Micronesia, 359 Moldova, 361 Pakistan, 414 Sokoto River (Nigeria), 403 Sola (Vanuatu), 587 Solar energy India, 248 Indonesia, 254 Iran, 258 Mongolia, 367 Nepal, 386 Pakistan, 414 Somalia, 494 Solar radiation, Antarctica, 21 Solimões River (Brazil), 74 Solomon Islands, 422, 423, 489, 489–490, 490t Solomon Sea, 422, 489 Solor River (Indonesia), 251 Solway Firth (Scotland), 569 Smya Strait, 279 Somali Plateau (Ethiopia), 181–182, 183 Somalia, 490–494, 492 Sombrero Island (Anguilla), 16 Somerset Island (Bermuda), 60 Somep River (Romania), 449 Somme River (France), 192 Somosomo Straits (Fiji), 185 Somuncurá Plateau (Argentina), 25 Song-Kul (Kyrgyzstan), 303 Song Lo River (Vietnam), 595 Song Shan (China), 117 Songea (Tanzania), 531 Sonmiani Bay (Pakistan), 413 Sonoran Desert, 356, 574, 579 Sonsorol Island (Palau), 416 Sophala (Mozambique), 372 Sorlandet. See South Country (Norway) Sorraia River (Portugal), 442 Sorsogon Peninsula (The Philippines), 435 Sotavento (Cape Verde), 102 Soufrière (Guadeloupe), 218 Soufrière (Saint Lucia), 462 Soufrière (Saint Vincent and the Grenadines), 464 Soufrière Bay (Saint Lucia), 462 Soun-kyo Gorge (Japan), 278 Sourou River (Burkina Faso), 84–85 South Africa, 313, 494–498, 495, 497–498, 497t South American Tectonic Plate Bolivia, 65 Brazil, 73 Chile, 112 Colombia, 122 Ecuador, 164 French Guiana, 194 Guyana, 227 Panama, 417 Paraguay, 424 Peru, 428 Suriname, 510 Trinidad and Tobago, 541 Venezuela, 589–590 South Australia, 33 South Caicos Island (Turks and Caicos Islands), 552–553, 553 South Country (Norway), 405 South Downs (England), 566 South Friar’s Bay (Saint Kitts and Nevis), 461 South Georgia Island (United Kingdom), 21, 568 South Hatia (Bangladesh), 47 South Island (New Zealand), 391–394 South Korea. See Korea, Republic of South Limburg Plateau (The Netherlands), 388 South Malé Atoll (Maldives), 338 South Malosmadulu Atoll (Maldives), 338 South Negril Point (Jamaica), 274 South Orkney Islands (Antarctica), 21 South Ossetia (Georgia), 200 South Point (Barbados), 49 South Pole (Antarctica), 17, 19 South Sandwich Island (United Kingdom), 568 South Sandwich Islands (United Kingdom), 21 South Saskatchewan River (Canada), 98 South Shetland Islands (Antarctica), 20 South Taranaki Bight (New Zealand), 393 South Uist (United Kingdom), 568 Southampton (United Kingdom), 570 Southern Alps (New Zealand), 391 Southern and Antarctic Lands (France), 192 Southern Bug River, 560–561 Southern elephant seals, 26 Southern Hills. See Siwalik Hills Southern Karroo. See Little Karroo Plateau (South Africa) Southern Range (Trinidad and Tobago), 541 Southern Rockies (United States), 573 Southern Sporades Islands (Greece), 213 Southern uplands (DROC), 129 Southern Uplands (Scotland), 564, 566–567 Southwest Cape (New Zealand), 393 Southwestern Plateau (Afghanistan), 1, 3 Soviet Union, 453 Sowa River (Sierra Leone), 481 Spain, 368, 498–502, 499, 499t Spanish Sahara. See Western Sahara Spencer Gulf (Australia), 34 Sperkhiós River (Greece), 212 Spice Islands. See Maluku Islands (Indonesia) Spitzbergen archipelago (Norway), 406 Spratly Islands, 80, 119, 334, 335, 432, 595–596 Sredinnyy Range (Russia), 453 Sredna Gora. See Sredna Mountains (Bulgaria) Sredna Mountains (Bulgaria), 82 Sri Lanka, 502–505, 503, 503t Srinakarin Reservoir (Thailand), 534 Srpska (RS), 69–70 Geodata.book Page 694 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 86. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA 695 Index S.S. Bianca C wreck, 217 St. See Saint Stanley Falls. See Boyoma Falls (DROC) Stanley Pool. See Pool Malebo (DROC) Stanovoy Mountains (Russia), 453 Star Mountains (Papua New Guinea), 420 Stara Planina. See Balkan Mountains (Bulgaria) Starbuck Island (Kiribati), 292, 293 Starnberger See (Germany), 204 State Barrier Fence (Australia), 33 Statia. See St. Eustatius (Netherlands Antilles) Steel industry, in Australia, 35 Steppes Hungary, 238 Kazakhstan, 287 Mongolia, 366 Niger, 400 Russia, 456 Stevenson, Robert Louis, 466 Stevn Cliff (Denmark), 154 Stewart Island (New Zealand), 393 Stockholm (Sweden), 515 Stoker, Bram, 449 Stokks Point (Iceland), 241 Stony Tunguska (Russia), 454 Storå River (Denmark), 154 Store Strait (Denmark), 154 Strait of Dover (United Kingdom), 567, 569 Strait of Georgia (Canada), 99 Strait of Gibraltar, 367, 369 Strait of Hormuz, 257, 409, 411, 563 Strait of Johore, 335 Strait of Juan de Fuca, 578 Strait of Jsbal, 169 Strait of Magellan, 26 Strait of Malacca, 251, 333, 335 Strait of Mandeb, 156, 157 Strait of Messina, 269, 271 Strait of Otranto, 6, 271, 272 Straits of Florida, 41 Strangford Lough (Northern Ireland), 566, 569 Straus, Johann, 36 Strickland River (Papua New Guinea), 422 Stromboli (Italy), 269, 272 Stromp Island (Denmark), 154 Struma River, 83, 212 Strumica River (Macedonia), 326 Sub-Apennines. See Anti-Apennines (Italy) Subantarctic Zone, 24 Subcarpathians (Romania), 449, 451 Submarine earthquakes Iceland, 241 Papua New Guinea, 422 Subsistence agriculture. See Agriculture Sudan, 505–510, 506, 509t Sudd (Sudan), 508 Sudety Mountains, 150, 437 Suez Canal, 169 Sugarcane Barbados, 49 Cuba, 148 Mauritius, 352 Suir River (Ireland), 263 Sula Islands (Indonesia), 252 Sulaiman Range (Pakistan), 412 Sulawesi (Indonesia), 248–252 Sulawesi Sea, 251, 335, 434 Sultanate of Brunei. See Brunei Sulu Archipelago (The Philippines), 435 Sulu Sea, 335, 434 Sumatra (Indonesia), 248–252 Sumba (Indonesia), 248, 252 Sumbawa (Indonesia), 248, 252 Sumpul River (Honduras), 233 Sun Coast. See Costa del Sol (Spain) Sun Kosi River (Nepal), 385 Sun Moon Lake (Taiwan), 525 Sunda Islands (Indonesia), 252 Sunda Strait (Indonesia), 251 Sundarbans, 46, 47, 245 Sundukli Desert (Turkmenistan), 551 Sunless winter, Finland, 188 Sunlight Antarctica, 21 Finland, 188 Sunrise Group. See Ratak Group (Marshall Islands) Sunset Group. See Ralik Group (Marshall Islands) Superior Upland (United States), 573 Suram Mountains (Georgia), 200, 201 Sûre River, 323 Surfers Paradise (Australia), 34 Surigao Peninsula (The Philippines), 435 Surigao Strait (The Philippines), 434 Suriname, 510–512, 511, 512t Suriname River (Suriname), 510–511 Surkohb. See Vakhsh River (Tajikistan) Surma River (Bangladesh), 46 Surma River Plain. See Sylhet Plain (Bangladesh) Surtsey Island (Iceland), 241 Sutjeska National Park (Bosnia and Herzegovina), 70 Sutlej River, 244, 413 Suur Munamägi (Estonia), 179 Suwa Canyon (Japan), 278 Svalbard archipelago (Norway), 406–407 Svealand (Sweden), 514–517 Swabian Alb (Germany), 204 Swain’s Island (United States), 578 Swakop River (Namibia), 379 Swamps. See Wetlands Swan Islands. See Cajone Cays (Honduras) The Swarms of San Jacinto. See Hervideros de San Jacinto (Nicaragua) Swat Hills (Pakistan), 412 Swaziland, 512–514, 513, 513t Sweden, 514–517, 515, 516t Switzerland, 517–521, 518, 520t Sydero Island (Denmark), 154 Sydney (Australia), 35 Sylhet District (Bangladesh), 45 Sylhet Plain (Bangladesh), 45 Syr Darya River, 286, 303, 528, 583–586 Syria, 266, 521–524, 522, 522t Syrian Desert, 259, 261, 283, 523 Szczecin (Poland), 438 T Taatsiin Tsagaan Lake (Mongolia), 365 Tabasco (Mexico), 356 Tablas (The Philippines), 433 Table Mountains (South Africa), 494 Tabuaeran Island (Kiribati), 292, 293 Tabubil Plateau (Papua New Guinea), 421 Tacana (Guatemala), 220 Tachira (Venezuela), 591 Tacitus, 439 T’aebaek Range (DPRK), 295, 297 Taedong Bay (DPRK), 296 Tafara River (East Timor), 163 Tagimaucia River (Fiji), 184 Tagus River, 440, 442, 500 Tahiti (France), 193 Tahtali Mountains (Turkey), 546 Taï National Park (Côte d’Ivoire), 141 Tai Shan (China), 117 T’ai-tung (Taiwan), 525 Taibai Shan (China), 116–117 Taieri River (New Zealand), 393 Taiga, in Russia, 456–457 Taipei (Taiwan), 525 Taita Hills (Kenya), 290 Taiwan, 115, 119, 524–526, 525, 525t Taiwan Strait, 119 Ta’izz (Yemen), 599–600 Tajikistan, 526–529, 527, 529t Tajumulco (Guatemala), 220 Takachiho Gorge (Japan), 278 Takachihokyo Plateau (Japan), 277 Takhu La (Nepal), 384 Taklimakan Desert (China), 120, 121 Talak (Niger), 400 Talish Mountains (Azerbaijan), 40 Talkeetna Mountains (United States), 574 Tapi River (India), 245 Tamaki Isthmus (New Zealand), 393 Tamarin Falls (Mauritius), 351 Tamaulipas (Mexico), 355 Tamil Nadu (India), 244 Tampa Bay (United States), 578 Tamur River (Nepal), 385 Tana Fjord (Norway), 407 Tana Plains (Kenya), 291 Tana River (Kenya), 290, 291 Tana River (Norway), 405 Tanah Karo (Indonesia), 250 Tanana River (United States), 576 Tanen Range (Thailand), 533 Tanezrouft (Mali), 342 Tanga (Tanzania), 530 Tanggula Mountains (China), 116 Tangshan (China), 115 Tanimbar Islands (Indonesia), 252 Tanna Island (Vanuatu), 587 Tannis Bay (Denmark), 154 Tano River (Finland). See Tenu River (Finland) Tano River (Ghana), 208 Tanshui River (Taiwan), 525–526 Tanzania, 529–533, 530, 532t Taoism, sacred mountain peaks, 117 Taor canyon (Macedonia), 325 Taormina (Italy), 272 Taoudenni (Mali), 342 Tapajós River (Brazil), 74 Tapanahoni River (Suriname), 511 Tapón del Chocó (Colombia), 124 Tara Canyon, 69, 602 Tara River (Yugoslavia), 602 Geodata.book Page 695 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 87. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA696 Tarai Plain (Nepal), 383, 385, 386 Tararua Range (New Zealand), 391 Tarawa (Kiribati), 294 Tarbela Dam (Pakistan), 413 Tarim Basin (China), 117, 120 Tarim River (China), 119 Tarn River (France), 191 Tarum River (Indonesia), 251 Tasek Merimbun (Brunei), 80 Tashkent (Uzbekistan), 584, 586 Tasht Lake (Iran), 256 Tasik Bera (Malaysia), 335 Tasman Bay (New Zealand), 393 Tasman glacier (New Zealand), 391 Tasmania (Australia), 31–35 Tatamailau (East Timor), 162 Tatar Strait (Russia), 455 Tatra Mountains (Poland), 437 Tatra National Park (Slovakia), 485 Tatry Mountains. See Tatra Mountains (Poland) Tatun Shan (Taiwan), 525 Tau Island (United States), 578 Taunsa Barrage (Pakistan), 413 Taunus Mountains (Germany), 203 Taurus Mountains (Turkey), 546, 549 Taveuni Island (Fiji), 185 Tawi-Tawi (The Philippines), 435 Tawkar Delta (Sudan), 508 Tayabas Bay (The Philippines), 435 Taylor Valley (Antarctica), 19 Taymyr Peninsula (Russia), 455 Taza Depression (Morocco), 369 Tbilisi (Georgia), 201 Tchigaï Plateau (Niger), 399 Tebicuary River (Paraguay), 426, 427 Technology, and Israel’s economy, 268 Tees River (United Kingdom), 566 Tegucigalpa (Honduras), 234 Tehran (Iran), 255, 258 Tehulche Indians, 24 Tejo River. See Tagus River Tekeze River, 177, 182 Tel Aviv-Jaffa (Israel), 268 The Tell (Tunisia), 544–545 Tell Atlas Mountains (Algeria), 8, 10 Tell region (Algeria), 8, 10 Temburong District (Brunei), 80 Temburong River (Brunei), 80 Temengor Reservoir (Malaysia), 335 Temne, Sierra Leone, 482 Temperature. See Climate Tempurung Cave (Malaysia), 334 Tena Kourou (Burkina Faso), 85 Tenasserim River (Myanmar), 376 Ténéré Desert (Niger), 400 Tenerife Island (Spain), 500 Tengger Mountains (Indonesia), 249 Tennessee (United States), 576 Tenochtitlán (Mexico), 354 Tensift River (Morocco), 369 Tenu River (Finland), 187 Tepes, Vlad, 449 Terai region (India), 246–247 Teraina Island (Kiribati), 292, 293 Teraja Lake (Brunei), 80 Terceira (Portugal), 442 Terhiyn Tsagaan Lake (Mongolia), 365 Ternate (Indonesia), 252 Terre de barre, Benin, 58 Territorial disputes Algeria, 8 Equatorial Guinea, 175, 176 Ethiopia, 181 India, 242 Indonesia, 248 Iran, 254–255, 257 Japan, 276 Malaysia, 333–334, 335 Morocco, 368 Nigeria, 401–402 Norway, 407 Pakistan, 411 The Philippines, 432 Qatar, 447 Russia, 453 Somalia, 491 Syria, 521 United Arab Emirates, 563 Vanuatu, 587 Venezuela, 589 Vietnam, 595–596 Territories. See names of specific countries and territories Terschelling Island (The Netherlands), 388 Tesiyn River (Mongolia), 365 Tetovo (Macedonia), 326 Texas (United States), 571 Texel Island (The Netherlands), 388 Textile industry, in Madagascar, 330 Tha River (Laos), 306 Thailand, 533–536, 534, 534t Thal Desert (Pakistan), 414 Thale Sap Songkla (Thailand), 534, 535 Thames River (England), 566, 569 Thanedar Wala (Pakistan), 413 Thanlwin River. See Salween River Thar Desert, 246, 247, 414 Thar Desert National Park (India), 247 Thásos (Greece), 212 Thermal resources Bosnia and Herzegovina, 69 Cuba, 146 Iceland, 240 Lake Hazen (Canada), 97 Portugal, 442 Turkey, 547 United States, 575 Thessaloníki (Greece), 213 Thessaly (Greece), 211, 212 Thimphu (Bhutan), 63, 64 Thingvallavatn Lake (Iceland), 240 Thíra (Greece), 213 Thirlmere Lake (England), 566 Thistil Fjord (Iceland), 241 Thiu Khao Phetchabun Range (Thailand), 534 Thjórsá River (Iceland), 240 Thjórsárver (Iceland), 240 Thong Hai Hin. See Plain of Jars (Laos) Thousand Foot Falls (Belize), 56 Thousand Hills Plateau. See Gunung Sewu Plateau (Indonesia) Thrace (Turkey), 546–549 Thracian Plain (Bulgaria), 82, 84 Three Gorges (China), 117 Three Gorges Dam (China), 118 Three Kings Islands (New Zealand), 393 Thunersee (Switzerland), 519 Thüringer Wald (Germany), 206 Thurston Island (Antarctica), 20 Tian Shan, 116, 284, 302, 584 Tianchi Lake (China), 118 Tiber River, 271, 272, 273, 588 Tibesti Massif, 108, 316, 318, 399 Tibet, 62 Tiburón (Mexico), 355 Tiburon Peninsula (Haiti), 229, 231 Ticino (Switzerland), 520 Ticino River, 519 Ticino River Valley (Switzerland), 518 Tidal bores Bangladesh, 47 Brazil, 74 Tidghine (Morocco), 369 Tiega Plateau (Sudan), 507–508 Tierra del Fuego, 24, 26, 111, 113 “Tiger Leaping” Canyon. See Hutiaojian Canyon (China) Tigre River, 165, 430 Tigris River, 259, 260–261, 522, 548 Tihama Desert (Yemen), 601 Tihamah Plain (Saudi Arabia), 472, 474 Tikal National Park (Guatemala), 221 Tikopia Island (Solomon Islands), 489 Tiladummati Atoll (Maldives), 338 Timah Hill (Singapore), 483 Timber Benin, 59 Bhutan, 64 Brazil, 78 Cameroon, 95 Canada, 101 Colombia, 126 Comoros, 128 Congo, Democratic Republic of, 133 Cuba, 148 Ecuador, 167 Equatorial Guinea, 176 Estonia, 180 French Guiana, 195 Gabon, 197 Grenada, 217 Guinea-Bissau, 227 Latvia, 309 Liberia, 315 Luxembourg, 324 Myanmar, 376 Nepal, 386 New Zealand, 394 Norway, 408 Palau, 416 Papua New Guinea, 423 Paraguay, 427 Peru, 432 Portugal, 443 Russia, 456 Slovenia, 488 Solomon Islands, 490 Suriname, 512 Swaziland, 513 Switzerland, 520–521 Geodata.book Page 696 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 88. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA 697 Index Uganda, 558 United States, 581 See also Forests Timbué Point (Mozambique), 373 Timbuktu. See Tombouctou (Mali) Timip River (Romania), 449 Timor Gap (East Timor), 163 Timor Island, 162, 248, 250, 252 Timor Lorosa’e. See East Timor Timor Sea, 251 Timor Trough, 251 Tinaca Point (The Philippines), 435 Tindore (Indonesia), 252 Tinhosa Grande Islet (São Tomé and Príncipe), 471 Tinhosa Pequena Islet (São Tomé and Príncipe), 471 Tioman Island (Malaysia), 335 Tiran Island (Saudi Arabia), 473 Tiranë (Albania), 7 Tiris Zemrnour (Mauritania), 349 Tirso River (Italy), 271 Tisza River, 236, 237, 449, 604 Titiwangsa Mountains (Malaysia), 334, 336 Tlemcen range (Algeria), 8 Toamasina (Madagascar), 329 Toba Kakar Range (Pakistan), 412 Tobacco, in Cuba, 148 Tobol River (Kazakhstan), 286 Tobruk (Libya), 316 Tocantins River (Brazil), 74 Tofo (Mozambique), 373 Tofua Island (Tonga), 539 Toghobeit Cave (Morocco), 369 Togo, 536–538, 537 Togo Mountains (Togo), 537–538 Tohoku (Japan), 279 Tokachi Plain (Japan), 279, 280 Tokai (Japan), 279 Tokelau (New Zealand), 391, 394 Tokyo (Japan), 278, 279, 281 Tokyo Bay (Japan), 279 Toltén River (Chile), 113 Tombouctou (Mali), 341 Tomini Gulf (Indonesia), 252 Tonda Wildlife Management Area (Papua New Guinea), 422 Tone River (Japan), 278 Tonga, 538–540, 539, 539t Tonga-Kermadec Trench, 466 Tonga Trench, 539 Tongatapu Island (Tonga), 539–540 Tongatapu Island Group (Tonga), 538–539 Tongjin River (Korea, Republic of), 298 Tongjoso˘n Bay (DPRK), 296 Tongno River (DPRK), 295 T’ongnyonggul cave (DPRK), 295 Tongoa (Vanuatu), 587 Tongsa Chhu. See Tongsa River (Bhutan) Tongsa River (Bhutan), 63 Tongtian River (China), 119 Tonle Basak River (Cambodia), 90 Tonle Sap (Cambodia), 89, 91 Tonle Sap River (Cambodia), 89 Tono River (East Timor), 163 Toranipata (Peru), 430 Torkestan Mountains (Afghanistan), 2–3 Tornadoes, in Kiribati, 293 Torne River (Sweden), 515 Torneå River. See Tornio River (Finland) Torngat Mountains (Canada), 97 Tornio River (Finland), 187 Torojaland (Indonesia), 250 Toros Dag˘lari. See Taurus Mountains Torres Islands (Vanuatu), 587 Torres Strait, 33, 422 Torsa Chhu. See Torsa River (Bhutan) Torsa River (Bhutan), 63 Tortola Island (British Virgin Islands), 79 Tortuga Island (Haiti), 231 Torun Archipelago. See Turku Archipelago (Finland) Tosa Bay (Japan), 279 Tosan (Japan), 279 Toulaman River (Dominica), 157 Tourism Andorra, 12 Anguilla, 16, 17 Antarctica, 21 Aruba, 30–31 The Bahamas, 42 Barbados, 49 Bermuda, 61 British Virgin Islands, 79 Brunei, 81 Cape Verde, 102 Cayman Islands, 104 China, 118 Colombia, 123, 124 Cyprus, 150 Eritrea, 177, 178 Estonia, 179 Fiji, 185 Gambia, 198 Greece, 214 Grenada, 217 Guadeloupe, 219 Ireland, 263, 264–265 Italy, 272 Jamaica, 275 Japan, 279 Jordan, 283 Kenya, 292 Maldives, 339 Mali, 340 Martinique, 347 Mauritius, 352 Mexico, 355, 357 Micronesia, 358 Mozambique, 372 Namibia, 381 Nepal, 385, 386 Palau, 415, 416 Paraguay, 427 Romania, 450 Saint Lucia, 463–464 Samoa, 466 San Marino, 469 South Africa, 496 Spain, 501–502 Switzerland, 521 Thailand, 535–536 Tonga, 540 Trinidad and Tobago, 543 Turks and Caicos Islands, 553 Ukraine, 561 Vanuatu, 588 Venezuela, 593 Virgin Islands, 598 Town Hill (Bermuda), 60 Toxic gases, in Cameroon, 94 Tozeur (Tunisia), 545 Trade routes Bahrain, 43 Cuba, 144 India, 245 Iran, 254 Japan, 276 Mongolia, 364 Oman, 410–411 Panama, 420 Poland, 438 Trans Alai Mountains, 302–303, 527–528 Transantarctic Mountains, 18–19 Transcaucasia Armenia, 28–29 Azerbaijan, 39–41 Georgia, 200–202 Transdanubia (Hungary), 235, 238 Transmigration, Indonesia, 253–254 Transvaal Basin. See Bushveld (South Africa) Transverse Ranges (United States), 574 Transverse Volcanic Range. See Cordillera Neovolcanica (Mexico) Transylvanian Alps, 448, 449, 602, 604 Transylvanian Basin (Romania), 448 Transylvanian Plateau (Romania), 449, 450 Trarza (Mauritania), 348 Trás-os-Montes (Portugal), 441, 442 Traunsee (Austria), 37 Treaties Antarctic, 18, 22 Indonesia and Malaysia, 251 Trees. See Forests; Vegetation Trincomalee (Sri Lanka), 504 Trinidad and Tobago, 540–543, 541, 542t Trinity Hills (Trinidad and Tobago), 541 Tripoli (Lebanon), 311 Tripoli (Libya), 318 Tripolitania (Libya), 316, 318 Tristan da Cunha (United Kingdom), 568 Trobriand Islands (Papua New Guinea), 422, 423 Trollhätten Falls (Sweden), 515 Trøndelag Depression. See Trondheim Depression (Norway) Trondheim Depression (Norway), 405, 408 Trondheim Fjord (Norway), 407 Troodos Mountains (Cyprus), 148, 149 Tropical rainforests Brazil, 73, 77 Colombia, 126 Congo, Democratic Republic of, 129 Congo, Republic of, 135 Equatorial Guinea, 175 French Guiana, 195 Guyana, 228 India, 247 Kenya, 291 Malaysia, 336 Myanmar, 376 Geodata.book Page 697 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 89. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA698 Nicaragua, 395 Nigeria, 403 Panama, 419 Papua New Guinea, 423 Peru, 430 Venezuela, 593 See also Rainforests Tropical storms Anguilla, 17 Cayman Islands, 104 Haiti, 231 Trucial Coast (United Arab Emirates), 562 Truk Islands. See Chuuk Islands (Micronesia) Truk Lagoon (Micronesia), 358, 359 Truong Son Mountians (Vietnam), 594, 596 Trziska Bistrica River (Slovenia), 488 Tsaratanana Massif (Madagascar), 327, 329 Tsavo National Park (Kenya), 290 Tsing’i Bemahara nature reserve (Madagascar), 328 Tsiribihina River (Madagascar), 329 Tsodilo Hills (Botswana), 71 Tsugaru Strait (Japan), 279 Tsunamis, in Japan, 279 Tsushima Island (Japan), 279 Tuamotu Island (France), 193 Tubauai Island (France), 193 Tubbataha Reefs National Marine Park (The Philippines), 434 Tugela River (Lesotho), 312 Tuira River (Panama), 418 Tumuc-Humac Mountains, 195, 510 T¸unb al Kubrá. See Greater Tunb Island (United Arab Emirates) T¸unb ap Nughrá. See Lesser Tunb Island (United Arab Emirates) Tundra Canada, 100 Norway, 408 Russia, 456 Sweden, 517 United States, 579 Tundzha River (Bulgaria), 83 Tunis (Tunisia), 543 Tunisia, 8, 543–545, 544, 545t Tunulliarfik (Greenland), 215 Tunuyán River (Argentina), 26 Tupinambarama Island (Brazil), 76 Turabo Valley (Puerto Rico), 444, 445 Turan Lowlands, 285, 585 Turatao Island (Thailand), 535 Turba (Yemen), 600–601 Turkey, 148, 150, 545–549, 547, 547t Turkmenistan, 549–552, 550, 551t Turks and Caicos Islands, 552–553, 553, 568 Turks Island Passage (Turks and Caicos Islands), 553 Turku Archipelago (Finland), 188 Turkwel River (Kenya), 290 Turneffe Islands (Belize), 56 Turquoise reefs, in Samoa, 467 Turrialba volcano (Costa Rica), 136 Turtle Islands (Sierra Leone), 481 Turtles, 409, 418 Tuscan Archipelago (Italy), 272 Tuscan plains (Italy), 272 Tuscany (Italy), 271 Tutong District (Brunei), 80 Tutong River (Brunei), 80 Tutuala Beach (East Timor), 163 Tutuila Island (United States), 578 Tuul River (Mongolia), 365 Tuvalu, 554, 554–555, 555t Tuwayq Mountains (Saudi Arabia), 472–473 Tuy River (Venezuela), 592 Tuz Gölü. See Lake Tuz (Turkey) Tweed River (Dominica), 157 Tweed River (United Kingdom), 567 Twelve Bens of Bennebeola (Ireland), 262 Twyfelfontein (Namibia), 378 Tyne River (United Kingdom), 566 Typhoons Japan, 280 Micronesia, 359 Palau, 416 The Philippines, 434, 435 Vietnam, 596 Tyre (Lebanon), 311 Tyrrhenian Sea, 269, 271–272 U Ubangi River, 105, 131, 134 Ucayali River (Peru), 429, 430 Uchira Bay (Japan), 279 Udi Plateau (Nigeria), 402, 404 Ufipa Plateau (Tanzania), 531 Ugab River (Namibia), 379 Uganda, 555–558, 556, 557t Uia Mountain (DROC), 130 Uinta Range (United States), 573 Uisku˘r River (Bulgaria), 82 Ujelang Atoll (Marshall Islands), 344 U.K. See United Kingdom Ukerewe Island (Uganda), 558 Ukraine, 558–562, 559, 561t Ulaanbaatar (Mongolia), 365, 367 Ulcinj (Yugoslavia), 604 Uldz River (Mongolia), 365 Ulithi (Micronesia), 359 Ullswater Lake (England), 566 Ullung-do (Korea, Republic of), 298 Ullung Island. See Ullung-do (Korea, Republic of) Ulrichen (Switzerland), 519 Ulu Dag˘ (Turkey), 546 Ulúa River (Honduras), 233 Ulúa River valley (Honduras), 234 Uluguru Mountains (Tanzania), 531 Ulungur River (China), 119 Uluru Rock (Australia), 33 Ulysses (Joyce), 264 Umbeluzi River. See Mbuluzi River (Swaziland) Umboi (Papua New Guinea), 422 Umbrail Pass (Switzerland), 519 Ume River (Sweden), 515 Umm al Qaywayn (United Arab Emirates), 562 Umm an-Na’san (Bahrain), 43–44 Umm as-Samjm Salt Flats (Saudi Arabia), 475 Umm Said (Qatar), 446, 447 Umtalis (Zimbabwe), 609 Umvukwe Range (Zimbabwe), 609 Una River, 69, 143 Unare River (Venezuela), 590 ’Unayzah (Saudi Arabia), 473 Underground Palace. See Kosudonggul (Korea, Republic of) UNESCO Man and the Biosphere Program, Kenya, 291 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. See World Heritage Sites Union Island (Saint Vincent and the Grenadines), 464 Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.), 453 United Arab Emirates, 562, 562–564, 563t United Kingdom, 564–570, 565, 570t Anguilla, 16–17 Antigua and Barbuda, 22–23 Bermuda, 59–61, 568 British Virgin Islands, 78–79, 568 Cayman Islands, 103–104, 568 Jamaica, 273–275 Maldives, 338 Turks and Caicos Islands, 552–553, 568 United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization. See UNESCO United States of America, 570–581, 572, 580t Panama Canal, 418 Puerto Rico, 443–445, 571, 573, 577 Virgin Islands, 571, 577, 597–599, 598 Unjon Plain (DPRK), 296 Uno (Guinea-Bissau), 225 Unst (United Kingdom), 568 Upemba (DROC), 130, 132 Upolu Island (Samoa), 466–468 Upper Congo (DROC), 131 Upper Galilee (Israel), 266 Upper Guinea, 222 Upper Karabakh Canal (Azerbaijan), 40 Upper Lough Erne (Northern Ireland), 566– 567 Upper Pierce Reservoir (Singapore), 483 Upper Rhine River (Switzerland), 519 Upper Sûre Lake (Luxembourg), 323 Upper Volta. See Burkina Faso Uppland (Sweden), 516 Upsala glacier (Argentina), 25 Ural Mountains, 284–285, 451, 453 Ural River, 284–285, 286, 454 Urban/rural population Armenia, 29 Austria, 38–39 Azerbaijan, 41 Bahrain, 44 Barbados, 49 Belarus, 51 Benin, 59 Brazil, 78 Bulgaria, 84 Cambodia, 91 Central African Republic, 107 Congo, Democratic Republic of, 132 Costa Rica, 138 Côte d’Ivoire, 142 Cyprus, 150 Czech Republic, 152 Denmark, 155 Dominican Republic, 161 Ecuador, 167 Estonia, 180 Geodata.book Page 698 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 90. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA 699 Index Fiji, 185 France, 194 Gabon, 197 Georgia, 201 Greece, 214 Haiti, 232 Hungary, 238 Iceland, 241 India, 248 Indonesia, 253–254 Iran, 258 Ireland, 264 Israel, 268 Italy, 272–273 Jamaica, 275 Japan, 280–281 Jordan, 283 Kazakhstan, 287–288 Kenya, 291 Kiribati, 294 Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of, 297 Korea, Republic of, 299 Kuwait, 301 Kyrgyzstan, 304 Laos, 307 Latvia, 309 Lebanon, 311 Lesotho, 313 Lithuania, 321 Luxembourg, 324 Madagascar, 330 Malawi, 333 Malaysia, 336 Mali, 342 Marshall Islands, 345 Mauritania, 349 Mauritius, 351 Mexico, 356–357 Micronesia, 359 Moldova, 361 Monaco, 363 Mongolia, 367 Morocco, 369–370 Myanmar, 377 Namibia, 380 Nepal, 386 New Zealand, 394 Niger, 400 Nigeria, 404 Norway, 408 Oman, 410 Pakistan, 414 Palau, 416 Panama, 420 Papua New Guinea, 423 Paraguay, 427 The Philippines, 436 Portugal, 443 Qatar, 447 Romania, 451 Russia, 454, 457 Rwanda, 459 Saint Lucia, 463 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, 465 Samoa, 467 San Marino, 469 São Tomé and Príncipe, 471 Singapore, 484 Slovenia, 488 Somalia, 493 Spain, 500 Swaziland, 513 Taiwan, 526 Tajikistan, 529 Thailand, 536 Togo, 538 Tonga, 540 Turkmenistan, 552 Tuvalu, 555 Uganda, 558 United Arab Emirates, 563 United Kingdom, 570 Vanuatu, 588 Venezuela, 593 Yemen, 601 Zimbabwe, 611 Ürgüp (Turkey), 547 Urubamba River (Peru), 430 Uruguay, 581–583, 582, 583t Uruguay River, 26, 76 Urukthapel Island (Palau), 416 U.S. Virgin Islands, 571, 577, 597–599, 598 U.S.A. See United States Usambara Range (Tanzania), 530 Usk River (Wales), 566 Ussari River (Russia), 454 U.S.S.R. (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics), 453 Ust-Urt Plateau, 285, 550–551, 584 Ustyurt. See Ust-Urt Plateau Ustyurt Plateau. See Ust-Urt Plateau Usululi (East Timor), 162 Usumacinta River basin (Guatemala), 221 Utah (United States), 575 Utah Lake (United States), 575 Utamboni River (Equatorial Guinea), 175 Utila Island (Honduras), 233 Utma (Yemen), 601 Utonai-ko (Japan), 278 Utupua Island (Solomon Islands), 489 Uummannarsuaq (Greenland), 215 Uva Basin (Sri Lanka), 504 Uvs Lake (Mongolia), 364–365 Uzaym River (Iraq), 260 Uzbekistan, 583–584, 585, 585t Uzun-Aral Strait, 285 V Va’aifetu. See Mauga Fito Vaal River (South Africa), 496 Vaalserberg (The Netherlands), 388 Vache Island (Haiti), 231 Vacoas-Phoenix (Mauritius), 351 Vaduz (Liechtenstein), 318, 319 Vago Island (Denmark), 154 Váh River (Slovakia), 485 Vailima (Samoa), 466 Vaitupu Island (Tuvalu), 554 Vaiusu Bay (Samoa), 467 Vakhsh River (Tajikistan), 528 Vakuta (Papua New Guinea), 422 Valanai Island (Sri Lanka), 504 Valdai Hills (Russia), 453 Valdés Peninsula (Península Valdés), 26 Valdivia (Chile), 114 Valira del Norte (Andorra), 12 Valira d’Orient (Andorra), 12 Valira River (Andorra), 12 Valles (Bolivia), 66 Valletta (Malta), 343 Valley of Roses (Bulgaria), 82 Valley of the Lakes (Mongolia), 365 Valleys. See names of specific valleys The Valleys (Andorra), 12 Vals Bay (South Africa), 496 Vakhan corridor (Afghanistan), 2 Van Asch Van Wijck Mountains (Suriname), 510 Van Diemen Gulf (Australia), 34 Van Gölü. See Lake Van (Turkey) Vancouver Island (Canada), 99 Vangunu Island (Solomon Islands), 489 Vangvieng (Laos), 306 Vanikolo Island (Solomon Islands), 489 Vanua Levu (Fiji), 184, 185 Vanua Levu Island (Fiji), 185 Vanuatu, 586–588, 587 Varanger Fjord (Norway), 407 Vardar River, 212, 325, 326 Varde River (Denmark), 154 Vardenis Mountains (Armenia), 28 Väster Gotland (Sweden), 516 Västmanland (Sweden), 516 Vasyugan’ye Swamp (Russia), 455 Vatican. See Vatican City Vatican City, 269, 588–589, 589 Vatican Gardens (Vatican City), 588–589 Vatnajökull (Iceland), 239, 240 Vaupés River (Colombia), 124 Vavu’u Island Group (Tonga), 538–539 Vegetation Afghanistan, 4 Albania, 6–7 Algeria, 10 Angola, 15 Anguilla, 17 Antigua, 23 Argentina, 26, 27 Australia, 35 Austria, 38 The Bahamas, 42 Barbados, 49 Barbuda, 23 Belarus, 51 Belgium, 54 Belize, 57 Benin, 59 Bermuda, 61 Bhutan, 64 Bolivia, 67 Bosnia and Herzegovina, 70 Botswana, 72 Brazil, 77–78 Brunei, 81 Bulgaria, 84 Burkina Faso, 86 Burundi, 88 Cambodia, 91 Cameroon, 94 Canada, 100–101 Geodata.book Page 699 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 91. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA700 Cape Verde, 102 Central African Republic, 107 Chad, 110 Chile, 114 China, 120 Colombia, 122, 126 Comoros, 127–128 Congo, Democratic Republic of, 129 Congo, Republic of, 135 Costa Rica, 138 Côte d’Ivoire, 139 Croatia, 143–144 Cuba, 147 Cyprus, 149 Czech Republic, 152 Denmark, 155 Dominica, 158 Dominican Republic, 161 East Timor, 163 Ecuador, 166–167 Egypt, 169–170 El Salvador, 173 Equatorial Guinea, 175 Eritrea, 178 Estonia, 180 Ethiopia, 183 Fiji, 185 Finland, 188 France, 193–194 Gabon, 197 Gambia, 199 Germany, 205–206 Ghana, 209 Greece, 213 Greenland, 216 Guadeloupe, 219 Guatemala, 221 Guinea, 224 Guinea-Bissau, 226 Guyana, 228–229 Haiti, 231–232 Honduras, 234 Hungary, 237–238 Iceland, 240 India, 244, 246–247 Indonesia, 252–253 Iran, 258 Iraq, 261 Ireland, 264 Israel, 267–268 Italy, 272 Jamaica, 275 Japan, 280 Jordan, 283 Kazakhstan, 287 Kenya, 291 Kiribati, 294 Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of, 296 Korea, Republic of, 299 Kuwait, 301 Kyrgyzstan, 304 Laos, 306 Latvia, 309 Lebanon, 311 Lesotho, 313 Liberia, 315 Libya, 317–318 Liechtenstein, 319 Lithuania, 321 Luxembourg, 324 Macedonia, 326 Madagascar, 327, 329–330 Malawi, 332 Malaysia, 336 Maldives, 338 Mali, 341–342 Marshall Islands, 345 Martinique, 346–347 Mauritania, 348–349 Mexico, 356 Moldova, 361 Mongolia, 366–367 Morocco, 369 Mozambique, 373 Myanmar, 376 Namibia, 380 Nauru, 382 Nepal, 385–386 The Netherlands, 389 New Zealand, 393, 394 Nicaragua, 397–398 Niger, 400 Norway, 407–408 Oman, 409 Pakistan, 414 Palau, 416 Panama, 419 Papua New Guinea, 423 Paraguay, 427 Peru, 431 The Philippines, 435–436 Poland, 439 Portugal, 443 Puerto Rico, 445 Romania, 450 Russia, 456–457 Rwanda, 459 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, 465 Samoa, 467–468 San Marino, 469 Senegal, 477 Slovakia, 486 Solomon Islands, 490 Somalia, 493 Spain, 501–502 Sri Lanka, 504 Sudan, 509 Sweden, 517 Switzerland, 520 Syria, 523 Taiwan, 526 Tajikistan, 528 Tanzania, 529, 532 Thailand, 535–536 Togo, 538 Tonga, 540 Tunisia, 545 Tuvalu, 555 Uganda, 558 Ukraine, 561 United Kingdom, 570 United States, 579–580 Vatican City, 589 Vietnam, 596–597 Virgin Islands, 598 Yemen, 601 Yugoslavia, 605 Zambia, 606, 608 Zimbabwe, 611 See also Forests Veimandu Channel (Maldives), 337, 338 Veld. See Grasslands Velebit Mountains (Croatia), 142 Velebit National Park (Croatia), 144 Velika Kapela Mountains (Croatia), 142 Velika Kapela peak (Croatia), 142 Velika Ljubuša (Bosnia and Herzegovina), 69 Velika Morava River (Yugoslavia), 604 Velika Plaza (Yugoslavia), 604 Velká Domaša Reservoir (Slovakia), 485 Velky Litny Ostrov. See Great Rye Island (Slovakia) Vella Lavella Island (Solomon Islands), 489– 490 Venada Island (Nicaragua), 396 Venetian Alps. See Eastern Alps (Italy) Venezuela, 589–594, 590, 593t Venice (Italy), 271, 272 Venta River, 308, 320 Ventuari River (Venezuela), 591 Veracruz (Mexico), 355, 356 Verde Island Passage (The Philippines), 434 Verde River (Paraguay), 426 Verkhoyansk (Russia), 456 Verkhoyanskiy Range (Russia), 453 Vermont (United States), 574 Vesterålen (Norway), 406 Vestlandet. See West Country (Norway) Vestmannaeyjar crater (Iceland), 241 Vestur-Skaftafellssýsla (Iceland), 238 Vesuvius (Italy), 269 Victor Emmanuel Range (Papua New Guinea), 420 Victoria (Seychelles), 480 Victoria Falls, 605, 607–610 Victoria Falls Reservoir (Sri Lanka), 503 Victoria Island (Canada), 99 Victoria Nile River (Uganda), 557 Victoria Nyanza. See Lake Victoria Victoria Peak (Belize), 56 Victoria Valley (Antarctica), 19 Victory Peak. See Jengish Chokusu (Kyrgyzstan) Vidzeme Uplands (Latvia), 308 Vienna Basin (Austria), 36, 38 Vientiane (Laos), 306 Vieques Island (Puerto Rico), 444 Vieques Sound (Puerto Rico), 444 Vietnam, 594–597, 595, 596t Vieux Fort (Saint Lucia), 463 Vijosë River (Albania), 6 Vilnius (Lithuania), 320, 321 Vilyui River (Russia), 454 Viña del Mar (Chile), 114 Vindel River (Sweden), 515 Vindhya Range (India), 244 Vinson Massif (Antarctica), 19 Virgin Gorda (British Virgin Islands), 79 Virgin Islands British, 78–80, 79 United States, 571, 577, 597–599, 598 Geodata.book Page 700 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 92. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA 701 Index Virgin Islands National Park, 598–599 Virgin Passage (Puerto Rico), 444 Virginia (United States), 576 Virunga Mountains, 130, 458 Visayan Islands (The Philippines), 434–435 Visayan Sea, 434 Visby (Sweden), 516 Viscount Melville Sound (Canada), 99 Vishakapatnam (India), 245 Viskan River (Sweden), 515 Visoke (DROC), 130 Vistula River (Poland), 437–438, 439 Viti Levu (Fiji), 184, 185 Vitiaz Strait, 422 Vitim River (Russia), 454 Vitória (Brazil), 76 Vitosha Mountains (Bulgaria), 8 Vlad Tepes, 449 Vladivostok (Russia), 455, 456, 457 Vlašic´ Mountains (Bosnia and Herzegovina), 69 Vlieland Island (The Netherlands), 388 Vltava River (Czech Republic), 152 Vojvodina (Yugoslavia), 602, 604 Volcán Barú (Panama), 417 Volcán Casita (Nicaragua), 395 Volcán Chiriquí. See Volcán Barú (Panama) Volcán Concepción (Nicaragua), 395 Volcán de San Miguel (El Salvador), 172 Volcán de San Salvador (El Salvador), 172 Volcán de San Vicente (El Salvador), 172 Volcán de Santa Ana (El Salvador), 172 Volcán Izalco (El Salvador), 172 Volcán Masaya (Nicaragua), 395, 396 Volcán Misti (Peru), 428 Volcán San Cristóbal (Nicaragua), 395 Volcán Telica (Nicaragua), 395, 396 Volcán Yucamani (Peru), 428 Volcanic Highlands (Honduras), 233 Volcanic Plateau (New Zealand), 391–394 Volcano Islands (Japan), 279 Volcanoes Antarctica, 19, 21 Antigua, 22 Argentina, 24 Cameroon, 92–93 Chile, 112 Colombia, 122, 124 Comoros, 127 Congo, Democratic Republic of, 130 Costa Rica, 136 Djibouti, 156 Dominica, 157–158 Ecuador, 164–165 El Salvador, 171–172 Ethiopia, 182 Greece, 212 Guadeloupe, 218 Guatemala, 220 Iceland, 238–239 Indonesia, 249–250 Italy, 269, 272 Japan, 276 Kenya, 289–290 Madagascar, 328–329 Martinique, 346 Mauritius, 350 Mexico, 352–353 Myanmar, 374 New Zealand, 391 Nicaragua, 395–396 Papua New Guinea, 421 Peru, 428 The Philippines, 433 Russia, 453 Saint Kitts and Nevis, 460 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, 465 Samoa, 466–467 Solomon Islands, 489 Tonga, 539 United Kingdom, 568 United States, 573–575 Vanuatu, 586–587 Volga River (Russia), 454 Volgograd (Russia), 454 Volta Basin (Ghana), 207–208 Volta Delta (Ghana), 209 Volta River (Ghana), 208 Volujak Mountain (Bosnia and Herzegovina), 69 Von Moltkeblick (Namibia), 379 Vopna Fjord (Iceland), 241 Vormsi Island (Estonia), 180 Võrtsjarv. See Lake Võrts (Estonia) Vosges Massif (France), 191 Vostok Island (Kiribati), 293 Vpadina Akchanaya (Turkmenistan), 550 Vrana Lake (Croatia), 142 Vrbas River (Bosnia and Herzegovina), 69 Vulcano (Italy), 269 Vysoké Tatry. See High Tatras Mountains (Slovakia) W Waal River (The Netherlands), 388 Waddenzee (The Netherlands), 388 Wadi al Arabah (Jordan), 281 Wadi al Jayb. See Wadi al Arabah (Jordan) Wadi Al-Ku (Sudan), 508 Wadi al-Malih (Yemen), 600 Wadi Azum (Sudan), 508 Wadi Bjshah (Saudi Arabia), 473 Wadi Dahero Canyon (Yemen), 599 Wadi Hadhramawt (Yemen), 600 Wadi Hajar (Yemen), 600 Wadi Halfa (Sudan), 507–509 Wadi Howar (Sudan), 508 Wadi Jahr (Yemen), 600 Wadi Mawr (Yemen), 600 Wadi Mawza (Yemen), 600 Wadi Rasyan (Yemen), 600 Wadi Rima (Yemen), 600 Wadi Rum (Jordan), 283 Wadi Sana’il (Oman), 409 Wadi Sarhan (Jordan), 283 Wadi Sihan (Yemen), 600 Wadi Surdud (Yemen), 600 Wadi Tathljth (Saudi Arabia), 473 Wadi Warazan (Yemen), 600 Wadi Zabid (Yemen), 600 Wahiba Sands (Oman), 410 Waikato River (New Zealand), 393, 394 Wairau River (New Zealand), 393 Wakasa Bay (Japan), 279 Walachian Plain (Romania), 448, 450, 451 Walauwa Watta Wathurana (Sri Lanka), 504 Waldviertel (Austria), 37 Wales (United Kingdom), 564, 566–569 “The Wall” (Turks and Caicos Islands), 553 Wallace Line, 251 Wallaman Waterfall (Australia), 33 Wallis and Futuna (France), 193 Walloons, in Belgium, 54 Wamb River (Vanuatu), 587 Wadj as Sirhan (Saudi Arabia), 472 Wami River (Tanzania), 531 Wanerie River (Dominica), 158 Wang River (Thailand), 534 Wanganui River (New Zealand), 393 Warbah (Kuwait), 301 Warburton-Diamantina River, 33 Wars Afghanistan, 5 Angola, 15 Bosnia and Herzegovina, 70 Congo, Democratic Republic of, 132 East Timor, 162, 163 Eritrea, 176 Hungary, 235 India, 242 Israel, 266 Jordan, 281 Lebanon, 311 Maldives, 338 Marshall Islands, 344 Pakistan, 411 Poland, 440 Warsaw (Poland), 438 Warta River (Poland), 438 Wasatch Range (United States), 573 The Wash (England), 567, 569 Washington, D.C. (United States), 580 Washington (United States), 574, 579 Washington Island. See Teraina Island (Kiribati) Wast Water Lake (England), 566 Water loss China, 118 Lake Chad, 108, 110, 111 See also Desertification; Droughts Water pollution Azerbaijan, 40 Congo, Republic of, 135 Gulf of Oman, 257 India, 244, 245 Japan, 278 Myanmar, 376 Pakistan, 413 Papua New Guinea, 421 Persian Gulf, 257 The Philippines, 433, 434 Venezuela, 591 See also Pollution Waterberg Plateau (Namibia), 379 Waterfalls Argentina, 24, 26 Australia, 33 Belize, 56 Congo, Democratic Republic of, 130–131 Croatia, 143 Geodata.book Page 701 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 93. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA702 Estonia, 179 Guyana, 227 Iceland, 240 Laos, 306 Lesotho, 312 Liberia, 314 Malaysia, 335 Mauritius, 351 Micronesia, 358 Namibia, 379 Suriname, 511 Swaziland, 512–513 Sweden, 515 Switzerland, 519 Turkey, 548 Uganda, 557 Venezuela, 591 Zambia, 607–608 Zimbabwe, 609–610 Watford Island (Bermuda), 60 Watumu (Kenya), 290 Watzmann (Germany), 202 Waziristan Mountains (Pakistan), 412 Weddell, James, 20 Weddell Sea, 20, 21 Weisshorn (Switzerland), 518 Wellington (New Zealand), 394 Wellington Island (Chile), 113 Weser River (Germany), 204 West Antarctica, 18–19, 21 West Bank, 266, 281 West Bengal. See Bangla State (India) West Caicos Island (Turks and Caicos Islands), 553 West Country (England), 564, 566 West Country (Norway), 405 West Falkland (United Kingdom), 568 West Frisian Islands (The Netherlands), 388 West Germany, 206 West Gotland. See Väster Gotland (Sweden) West Island (Australia), 34 West Lake. See Ho Tay (Vietnam) West Malaysia. See Peninsular Malaysia West River. See Xi Jiang (China) West Siberian Plain (Russia), 451, 455, 456, 457 Westerly Desert (United Arab Emirates), 563 Western Alps (Italy), 269 Western Atlas Mountains. See High Atlas Mountains (Morocco) Western Channel (Korea, Republic of), 298 Western Cordillera (Bolivia). See Cordillera Occidental Western Cordillera (Canada). See Canadian Rockies Western Desert (Egypt), 167, 170 Western Dvina River (Belarus), 51 Western Ghats (India), 243 Western Group. See Ralik Group (Marshall Islands) Western Hajar. See Hajar al-Gharbi (Oman) Western High Plains (Nigeria), 402, 403 Western Islands (Micronesia), 358 Western Lowlands (Lesotho), 313 Western Mountains (Nepal), 384 Western Paraguay, 424 Western Plateau (Australia), 31–35 Western Plateau Region (Kenya), 290 Western Sahara, 368, 369, 370 Western Samoa. See Samoa Westerschelde (The Netherlands), 388 Westman Islands (Iceland), 238, 240–241 Westmoreland Plain (Jamaica), 275 Wetar (Indonesia), 252 Wetar Strait (East Timor), 163 Wetlands Albania, 6 Argentina, 26 Bangladesh, 46–47 Belarus, 50–51 Belgium, 53–54 Belize, 56 Benin, 58 Bolivia, 67 Botswana, 71, 72 Brazil, 76 Brunei, 80 Cameroon, 94 Canada, 98–99 Chad, 110 China, 119 Colombia, 124 Congo, Republic of, 134 Costa Rica, 137 Côte d’Ivoire, 139 Cuba, 146 Dominican Republic, 160 East Timor, 163 El Salvador, 172 Eritrea, 177 Estonia, 179 Ethiopia, 183 Fiji, 184 Finland, 186, 187 France, 192 French Guiana, 195 Gabon, 197 Germany, 205 Ghana, 208 Guatemala, 221 Guinea, 224 Guinea-Bissau, 225 Guyana, 228 Haiti, 231 Honduras, 233 Hungary, 236–237 Iceland, 240 India, 245 Indonesia, 251 Iran, 256–257 Iraq, 261 Ireland, 263 Italy, 271 Jamaica, 274 Japan, 278 Latvia, 308 Liechtenstein, 319 Lithuania, 320 Malawi, 332 Malaysia, 335 Mali, 341 Mauritania, 348 Mexico, 355 Moldova, 361 Mongolia, 365 Mozambique, 372 Myanmar, 376 Namibia, 379 Nepal, 385 The Netherlands, 388 New Zealand, 393 Nicaragua, 396 Nigeria, 403 Pakistan, 413 Palau, 415 Panama, 418 Papua New Guinea, 422 Paraguay, 426 Peru, 430 The Philippines, 434 Poland, 438 Romania, 449 Russia, 455 Rwanda, 458–459 Saint Kitts and Nevis, 461 Samoa, 467 Senegal, 476 Sierra Leone, 481 Slovakia, 485–486 Somalia, 491 Sri Lanka, 503, 504 Sudan, 508 Sweden, 515 Syria, 523 Tanzania, 531 Thailand, 535 Trinidad and Tobago, 541 Turkey, 548 Uganda, 557–558 Ukraine, 560 United Kingdom, 567 United States, 576 Uruguay, 582 Venezuela, 592 Yemen, 600 Zambia, 607 Wetlands of International Importance India, 245 Indonesia, 251 Iran, 257 Japan, 278 Mongolia, 365 Nepal, 385 Pakistan, 413 Panama, 418 Papua New Guinea, 421, 422 The Philippines, 434 Wexford Bay (Ireland), 263 Wexford Slobs (Ireland), 264 Whaling, in Antarctica, 20 White Carpathian Mountains. See Bíle Karpaty Mountains (Czech Republic) White Lady rock painting (Namibia), 378 White Mountains (United States), 574 White Nile (Sudan), 506–507, 509 White River Badlands (United States), 575 White Sea, 455 White Volta River, 84–85, 208 Wicklow Mountains (Ireland), 262 Wielkopolska-Kujawy Lowland (Poland), 437 Wielkopolski National Forest (Poland), 439 Geodata.book Page 702 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 94. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA 703 Index Wildlife habitats Brunei, 80–81 Côte d’Ivoire, 141 crocodile, 160 Haiti, 230 India, 245, 246 Indonesia, 251, 252–253 Iran, 258 Japan, 278 Laos, 305–306 Madagascar, 327 Mali, 342 Mongolia, 363, 364, 365 Nepal, 384, 385 Pakistan, 413 Papua New Guinea, 422 Paraguay, 426 Romania, 449 Wildlife protection Antarctica, 20 Bangladesh, 47 El Salvador, 172, 173–174 Estonia, 180 Gabon, 197 India, 242, 245, 247 Iran, 257 Lithuania, 321 Mozambique, 373 Namibia, 379 Pakistan, 413 Panama, 418, 419 The Philippines, 434 Tanzania, 531 Thailand, 535 Venezuela, 592 Wilhelmina Canal (The Netherlands), 388 Wilhelmina Gebergte (Suriname), 510 Willamette River (United States), 576 Willebroek Canal (Belgium), 53 Willis Islets (Australia), 34 Williston Lake (Canada), 98 Wimbi Beach (Mozambique), 373 Wind energy India, 248 Indonesia, 254 Iran, 258 Japan, 281 Korea, Democratic People’s Republic of, 297 Mongolia, 367 Sri Lanka, 505 Wind River Range (United States), 573 Windermere Lake (England), 566 Windhoek (Namibia), 380 Winds Austria, 38 Bolivia, 67 Burkina Faso, 85–86 Israel, 267 Jordan, 283 Libya, 316 Liechtenstein, 319 Switzerland, 520 United Arab Emirates, 563 Uruguay, 582 “Winds of 120 Days” (Afghanistan), 3 Windstorms Argentina, 27 Iceland, 241 Saudi Arabia, 474 Sierra Leone, 482 United Arab Emirates, 563 Yemen, 601 Windward Islands Grenada, 216–217 Netherlands Antilles, 390 Saint Lucia, 462 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, 464 Windward Passage (Haiti), 231 Wingfield River (Saint Kitts and Nevis), 461 Winter Highlands (Tanzania), 530 Wisconsin (United States), 573 Wisla River. See Vistula River (Poland) Witwatersrand (South Africa), 495, 498 W.J. van Blommestein Lake (Suriname), 510 Woleai (Micronesia), 359 Wollomombi Waterfall (Australia), 33 Wologizi Range (Liberia), 314 Wong Chhu. See Wong River (Bhutan) Wong Kadir (Brunei), 80 Wong River (Bhutan), 63 Woodlark Islands (Papua New Guinea), 422 World Bank, on Indonesia deforestation, 253 World Heritage sites Malaysia, 334 Panama, 419 The Philippines, 435 World War I, Hungary and, 235 World War II Maldives, 338 Marshall Islands, 344 Poland, 440 World Wildlife Fund, Gabon and, 197 Wörther See (Austria), 37 Wotje Atoll (Marshall Islands), 344 Wouri River (Cameroon), 94 Wrangell Mountains (United States), 574 Wright Valley (Antarctica), 19 Wular Lake (India), 244, 245 Wutai Shan (China), 117 Wye River (United Kingdom), 566 Wyoming Basin (United States), 573, 579 X Xarayes swamps (Bolivia), 67 Xi Jiang (China), 118 Xiangkhoang Plateau (Laos), 306 Xingu River (Brazil), 74 Xizang Gaoyuan. See Plateau of Tibet (China) Y Yabakei Gorge (Japan), 278 Yablonovyy Range (Russia), 453 Yacaré Norte River (Paraguay), 426 Yadé Massif. See Karre Mountains (Central African Republic) Yaguas River (Peru), 430 Yaks, 384 Yallahs River (Jamaica), 274 Yalong River (China), 119 Yalu Jiang (China), 118 Yalu River (DPRK), 295 Yamuna River (India), 245 Yan River (Sri Lanka), 503 Yangtze River. See Chang Jiang River (China) Yansang Bhanjyang (Nepal), 384 Yantra River (Bulgaria), 82 Yaochi Lake. See Tianchi Lake (China) Yap Islands (Micronesia), 358–359 Yapacani River (Bolivia), 66 Yaque del Norte (Dominican Republic), 160 Yaque del Sur (Dominican Republic), 160 Yaqui River (Mexico), 355 Yarlung Zangbo (China), 119 Yarmsk (Syria), 523 Yarmsk River (Jordan), 283 Yarqon River (Israel), 267 Yasawa Group (Fiji), 185 Yasuni National Park (Ecuador), 167 Yatsu-higata (Japan), 278 Yavarí River (Peru), 430 Yawri Bay (Sierra Leone), 481 Yding Forest Hill (Denmark), 154 Yding Skovhoj. See Yding Forest Hill (Denmark) Yell (United Kingdom), 568 Yellow Mountains. See Huang Shan (China) Yellow River. See Huang He (China) Yellowstone National Park (United States), 574–575 Yellowstone Plateau (United States), 574–575 Yemen, 599–602, 600, 601t Yenisey River (Russia), 454, 455 Yepl River (Turkey), 548 Yialias River (Cyprus), 149 Yin Shan (China), 117 Yo˘nghu˘ng Bay (DPRK), 296 Yo˘ngil Bay (Korea, Republic of), 298 Yo˘ngsan River (Korea, Republic of), 298 Yokohama (Japan), 278, 279 Yol canyon. See Yolym Am (Mongolia) Yolaina Mountains (Nicaragua), 395 Yolym Am (Mongolia), 364 Yom River (Thailand), 534 Yonbaek Plain (DPRK), 296 Yonne River (France), 191 Yorke Peninsula (Australia), 34 Yosemite Lake (United States), 575 Ypané River (Paraguay), 426 Yü Shan (Taiwan), 525 Yucatán Channel (Channel), 355 Yucatán Peninsula (Mexico), 352, 355, 356 Yugoslavia, 602–605, 603, 605t Yukon River, 98, 576 Yukon Territory (Canada), 97 Yuma, Arizona (United States), 579 Yuna River (Dominican Republic), 160 Yungas (Bolivia), 66–67 Yunnan-Guizhou plateau (China), 117 Z Zagorje Hills (Croatia), 142 Zagros Mountains, 255, 258, 259, 523 Zaire. See Democratic Republic of the Congo Zákinthos (Greece), 212 Zaltan Oil Field (Libya), 318 Zambales Mountains (The Philippines), 433 Geodata.book Page 703 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM
  • 95. Ind ex GEO-DATA: THE WORLD GEOGRAPHICAL ENCYCLOPEDIA704 Zambezi Escarpment (Zimbabwe), 609 Zambezi River Angola, 13 Botswana, 72 Mozambique, 370, 372 Namibia, 379 Zambia, 605, 607 Zimbabwe, 609–611 Zambezi River Valley (Zambia), 606 Zambezia (Mozambique), 372 Zambia, 605–608, 606, 608t Zamboanga Peninsula (The Philippines), 435 Zamora River. See Santiago River (Ecuador) Zanderij. See Hills Zangezur Mountains (Armenia), 28 Zanskar (India), 244 Zanzibar (Tanzania), 531–532 Zarga River (Jordan), 283 Zavadovski Island (Antarctica), 21 Zayande River (Iran), 256 Žemaicai Upland (Lithuania), 320 Zemgale Plain (Latvia), 309 Zemplínska Reservoir (Slovakia), 485 Zeravshan River, 528, 583–586 Zeya Reservoir (Russia), 454 Zêzere River (Portugal), 442 Zhambyl (Kazakhstan), 288 Zharghat (Saudi Arabia), 475 Zhob River (Pakistan), 413 Zhu Jiang (China), 118 Zhumulangma Feng. See Mount Everest Ziguinchor (Senegal), 477 Zillertal Alps (Austria), 36 Zimbabwe, 609–612, 610, 611t Ziz River (Morocco), 369 Zomba (Malawi), 331, 333 Zomba Mountain (Malawi), 331 Zufaf Island (Saudi Arabia), 473 Zufar Plain. See Dhofar Plain (Oman) Zug Lake (Switzerland), 519 Zugspitze (Germany), 202 Zuid-Willems Canal (The Netherlands), 388 Zuider Zee. See IJsselmeer (The Netherlands) Zürichsee (Switzerland), 519 Geodata.book Page 704 Tuesday, October 15, 2002 8:25 AM

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