Wintel ppt for dhcp


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Wintel ppt for dhcp

  1. 1. Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol(DHCP)
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>What is DHCP? </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the DHCP lease and renewal process </li></ul><ul><li>Install and authorize the DHCP service </li></ul><ul><li>Configure DHCP scopes </li></ul><ul><li>Create DHCP reservations for client computers </li></ul><ul><li>Configure DHCP options </li></ul><ul><li>Understand and describe the purpose of a DHCP relay </li></ul><ul><li>Install and configure a DHCP relay </li></ul>
  3. 3. What is DHCP? <ul><li>It stands for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol </li></ul><ul><li>DHCP automatically assign the IP address to the computer </li></ul><ul><li>The ipconfig /all command will indicate whether the configuration came from a DHCP server computer </li></ul>
  4. 4. How to assign IP address to a computer?
  5. 5. Leasing an IP Address <ul><li>An IP address is leased during the boot process </li></ul><ul><li>Default lease period is 8 days </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum lease period is 999 days </li></ul><ul><li>Leasing an IP address is performed by DORA process </li></ul>
  6. 6. DORA Process <ul><li>DORA process means </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DHCP DISCOVER </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DHCP OFFER </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DHCP REQUEST </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DHCP ACK </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Simple network DHCP server discover DHCP server offer DHCP request DHCP acknowledge DHCP protocol is a mainly 4-step process: DHCP Server DHCP Clients Hello Mr. Server, I need to connect to the Internet, could you be kind to hook me up with an IP address? Ok dude, I got some in my pool of address, I lend you it. Check it out? Your IP : Thank you Mr. Server, I like your offer. I will use it. You’re welcome, here is your configuration but it’s only for 3 days. Router Internet DHCP Server UDP Port 68 UDP Port 68 UDP Port 68 UDP Port 67 DHCP Clients Broadcast Unicast
  8. 8. DHCP Message Types DHCP Message Use DHCPDISCOVER Client broadcast to locate available servers DHCPOFFER Server to client response offering configuration parameters DHCPREQUEST Client broadcast requesting offered parameters DHCPDECLINE Client to server notification that IP address is in use DHCPACK Server to client response confirming a request DHCPNAK Server to client response denying a request DHCPRELEASE Client to server request to relinquish IP address DHCPINFORM Client to server request for configuration parameters
  9. 9. Renewing an IP Address <ul><li>The IP address can either be permanent or timed </li></ul><ul><li>A permanent address is never reused for another client </li></ul><ul><li>Timed leases expire after a certain amount of time </li></ul><ul><li>Windows clients attempt to renew their lease after 50% of the lease time has expired </li></ul><ul><li>A DHCP server may either honor or reject a renew request </li></ul>
  10. 10. Renewing an IP Address (continued)
  11. 11. Installation of DHCP <ul><li>Install DHCP on Windows Server 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Make sure your network connection is statically configured </li></ul><ul><li>Install the service using the Add/Remove Windows Components utility </li></ul>
  12. 12. Installing DHCP service
  13. 13. Authorizing the DHCP Service
  14. 14. Authorizing the DHCP Service <ul><li>Unauthorized DHCP servers can hand out bad information </li></ul><ul><li>DHCP will not start unless authorized </li></ul><ul><li>If Active Directory is used, authorization takes place in Active Directory </li></ul><ul><li>DHCP servers are automatically authorized under certain conditions </li></ul>
  15. 15. Creating a Scope <ul><li>Create a scope to distribute IP addresses to client computers </li></ul><ul><li>Manually enter the IP configuration settings as directed by the text </li></ul><ul><li>Create a new scope using the configuration settings provided </li></ul>
  16. 16. Configuring DHCP Scope <ul><li>Scope is a range of IP address </li></ul><ul><li>Each scope is configured with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Description </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Starting IP address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ending IP address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subnet mask </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exclusions Range </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lease duration </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Configuring DHCP Scope
  18. 18. Types of Scope <ul><ul><li>Super Scopes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multicast Scopes </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Super scopes <ul><li>It is a collection of individual scope </li></ul><ul><li>Combine two scopes into a single logical unit using a super scopes </li></ul><ul><li>First, create a second scope in addition to the scope already created in a previous activity </li></ul><ul><li>Create a super scopes to encompass the two scopes </li></ul><ul><li>Use the DHCP snap-in for this activity </li></ul>
  20. 20. Super scopes
  21. 21. Multicast scopes <ul><li>It is used to deliver multicast address to a group of computers </li></ul><ul><li>It is defined by using the following parameters </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Starting IP address </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ending IP address </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>TTL </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exclusions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lease duration </li></ul></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Creating DHCP Reservations <ul><li>Reservations are used to hand out a specific IP address to a particular client </li></ul><ul><li>Reservations are created based on MAC addresses </li></ul>
  23. 23. Vendor and User classes <ul><li>Used to differentiate between clients within a scope </li></ul><ul><li>Vendor classes are based on the operating system </li></ul><ul><li>User classes are defined based on network connectivity or the administrator </li></ul><ul><li>You can use the ipconfig /setclassid command to set the DHCP user class ID </li></ul>
  24. 24. Configuring Relay agents <ul><li>DHCP packets cannot travel across a router </li></ul><ul><li>A relay agent is necessary in order to have a single DHCP server handle all leases </li></ul><ul><li>Relay agents receive broadcast DHCP packets and forward them as unicast packets to a DHCP server </li></ul><ul><li>The DHCP relay cannot be installed on the same server as the DHCP service </li></ul>
  25. 25. Example with Relay Agent Router Internet Relay agent Router 67 UDP Broadcast Source123.45.67.8 Destination : Client IP : DHCPOFFER Broadcast Source : Destination : DHCPDISCOVER Unicas t Source : Destination : 123.45.55. 3 Unicas t Source : Destination : 123.45.55. 3 DHCP Server Unicas t Source : Destination : 123.45.55. 3 Client IP: DHCPOFFER Unicas t Source : 123.45.53 Destination : 123.45.68 Client IP : New DHCP Client 68 UDP
  26. 26. Advantage <ul><ul><li>It minimize the administrative burden </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There is no chance to conflict IP address </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It supports multiple scope like multicast scope and super scope </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The machine name does not change when you get a new IP address </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When DHCP server is unavailable client unable to access the network </li></ul></ul></ul>