By the pharmacist Ayia nazum kamal بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم
refers to the medical treatment of the infectious disease tuberculosis(TB). Active tuberculosis will kill about 2 of every 3 people affected if left untreated. Treated tuberculosis has a mortality rate of less than 5%.
The standard "short" course treatment for TB is isoniazid , rifampicin , pyrazinamid e and ethambuto l for 2 months, then isoniazid and rifampicin alone for a further 4 months. The patient is considered cured at six months (although there is still a relapse rate of 2 to 3%).
For latent tuberculosis ,
the standard treatment is six to
nine months of isoniazid alone.
If the organism is known to be fully
sensitive, then treatment is with isoniazid , rifampicin and pyrazinamide for two months, followed by isoniazid and rifampicin for four months. Ethambutol need not be used
Drug regimens :
means isoniazid, rifampicin, ethambutol, pyrazinamide daily for two months, followed by four months of isoniazid and rifampicin given three times a week.
There are six classes of second-line drugs (SLDs) used for the treatment of TB. A drug may be classed as second-line instead of first-line for one of three possible reasons :
* it may be less effective than the first-line drugs
(e.g., p -aminosalicylic acid)
* it may have toxic side-effects (e.g., cycloserine)
* it may be unavailable in many developing countries (e.g., fluoroquinolones)
Other drugs that may be useful, but are not on the WHO list of SLDs:
macrolides e.g .clarithromycin
These drugs may be considered "third-line drugs" and are listed here either because they are not very effective (e.g., clarithromycin) or because their efficacy has not been proven (e.g., linezolid). Rifabutin is effective, but is not included on the WHO list because for most developing countries, it is impractically expensive