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intro unix/linux 12


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accessing and exploring graphical desktops

accessing and exploring graphical desktops

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  • 1. Lesson 12-Accessing and Exploring Graphical Desktops
  • 2. Overview
    • The UNIX/Linux graphical desktop.
    • Starting the X Window system from a terminal.
    • Exploring the graphical desktop environment.
  • 3. The UNIX/Linux Graphical Desktop
    • UNIX and Linux support both graphical and character-based terminals.
    • GNOME (GNU Network Object Model Environment) and KDE (K Desktop Environment) are the two most popular flavors of the graphical desktop.
    • The X Window system is the fundamental graphical tool that enables particular desktop window managers such as GNOME and KDE to operate.
  • 4. Starting the X Window System from a Terminal
    • Launching X Window system from Linux:
      • The “startx” command starts the fundamental graphics program, the X Window system, and then launches your account’s default window manager.
      • A desktop with icons, menu bar, and an active mouse is displayed.
      • The startx utility flags an error if X Windows is not properly installed.
  • 5. Starting the X Window System from a Terminal
    • Launching X Window system from UNIX:
      • In UNIX environment, the “xinit &” command starts the fundamental graphics program, the X Window system.
      • A full graphical desktop environment is displayed once the X Window session is started.
  • 6. Starting the X Window System from a Terminal
    • Launching X Window system from UNIX (continued):
      • The "gnome &" or the "kde &" command can be used for selecting a particular graphical interface or desktop.
      • The Motif Window Manger ("mwm &") or the blackbox "blackbox &" desktop program can also be started.
  • 7. Exploring the Graphical Desktop Environment A generic GNOME desktop
  • 8. Exploring the Graphical Desktop Environment
    • Navigating the Task Bar.
    • Accessing applications through the Main Menu.
    • Moving, resizing, and iconifying Windows.
    • Starting programs with icons.
  • 9. Exploring the Graphical Desktop Environment
    • Using the menu bar.
    • Customizing the desktop environment.
    • Exiting a session from the desktop.
  • 10. Navigating the Task Bar
    • The Task Bar, by default, appears at the bottom of the desktop.
    • In the GNOME and KDE interface, various icons on the desktop allow a user to access the Terminal Emulator, Help, web browser, and other features.
    • The Task Bar contains a wide variety of configurable settings and features.
  • 11. Navigating the Task Bar
    • The Terminal Emulator or the Console icon opens a terminal window where shell commands can be executed.
    • Multiple terminal windows can be created on the screen to work in two or more environments at the same time.
    • A terminal window uses a default font unless the –fn option has been specified.
  • 12. Navigating the Task Bar
    • The r16 and r24 font can be used for configuring the font size.
    • The Task Bar also contains a set of four clustered buttons that allows a user to switch to an alternate desktop.
  • 13. Accessing Applications through the Main Menu
    • The Main Menu in GNOME or the Start Application in KDE pops up a menu that provides access to various programs, utilities, settings, and other system menus.
    • The Main Menu provides access to various programs and utilities for working, like spreadsheets, address book, word processor, calculator programs, games, etc.
  • 14. Moving, Resizing, and Iconifying Windows
    • The window manager interprets mouse clicks and drags in the usual ways.
    • The handle on the sidebar of the window allows the window to be reshaped.
    • The minimize button is located at the top-right corner of the window, and is represented in the form of an underscore.
  • 15. Moving, Resizing, and Iconifying Windows
    • The icon of the active window is placed at the center of the Task Bar.
    • A Help or Documentation browser is an interface to the various forms of documentation on the computer as well as the Internet.
    • A web browser such as Netscape, Mozilla, or Galeon is usually included with X Windows and can be accessed either through the Task Bar or the Main Menu.
  • 16. Starting Programs With Icons
    • The icons on the desktop can be customized or removed according to the user’s preferences.
    • The Trash icon in the desktop is similar to a Recycle bin and can be used for recovering documents that get accidentally deleted.
    • The “Empty Trash” option deletes the files permanently from the system.
  • 17. Using the Menu Bar
    • The menu bar has functions like a quick reference location for frequently used applications, configurations, and even favorite web sites.
    • Application, Utilities, Development, and Games are some of the topics that appear in the drop-down menu when the Programs icon on the Task Bar is clicked.
    • A web page saved as favorites in the browser also appears for quick reference.
  • 18. Customizing the Desktop Environment
    • The appearance of the desktop can be easily changed with the help of the pop-up menu that appears when the mouse is right-clicked on the desktop.
    • The screen saver and various other options can be configured with the help of the Main Menu.
    • X Windows also allows shortcuts to be created on the desktop for frequently used programs with a simple drag-and-drop operation.
  • 19. Exiting a Session From the Desktop
    • A desktop session in GNOME can be exited by using the Main Menu, while in KDE, the Start Application is used to achieve the same.
    • The “Lock Screen” option keeps the current session alive, but requires the user to provide a password to unlock the screen.
  • 20.
    • The “Logout” option can be selected either from the pop-up menu that appears when the desktop is right-clicked, or from the Main Menu.
    Exiting a Session From the Desktop
  • 21. Summary
    • In UNIX and Linux, the X Window system provides users with a full graphical environment.
    • Login accounts can be configured to start up in the graphical or terminal mode.
    • In the graphical desktop, the dashboard, or Task Bar, provides a series of menus and icons for easy access to programs.