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Lesson 12-Accessing and Exploring Graphical Desktops
Overview  <ul><li>The UNIX/Linux graphical desktop. </li></ul><ul><li>Starting the X Window system from a terminal. </li><...
The UNIX/Linux Graphical Desktop  <ul><li>UNIX and Linux support both graphical and character-based terminals. </li></ul><...
Starting the X Window System from a Terminal  <ul><li>Launching X Window system from Linux: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The “sta...
Starting the X Window System from a Terminal  <ul><li>Launching X Window system from UNIX: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In UNIX e...
Starting the X Window System from a Terminal  <ul><li>Launching X Window system from UNIX (continued): </li></ul><ul><ul><...
Exploring the Graphical Desktop Environment  A generic GNOME desktop
Exploring the Graphical Desktop Environment  <ul><li>Navigating the Task Bar. </li></ul><ul><li>Accessing applications thr...
Exploring the Graphical Desktop Environment  <ul><li>Using the menu bar. </li></ul><ul><li>Customizing the desktop environ...
Navigating the Task Bar  <ul><li>The Task Bar, by default, appears at the bottom of the desktop. </li></ul><ul><li>In the ...
Navigating the Task Bar  <ul><li>The Terminal Emulator or the Console icon opens a terminal window where shell commands ca...
Navigating the Task Bar  <ul><li>The r16 and r24 font can be used for configuring the font size. </li></ul><ul><li>The Tas...
Accessing Applications through the  Main Menu  <ul><li>The Main Menu in GNOME or the Start Application in KDE pops up a me...
Moving, Resizing, and Iconifying Windows  <ul><li>The window manager interprets mouse clicks and drags in the usual ways. ...
Moving, Resizing, and Iconifying Windows  <ul><li>The icon of the active window is placed at the center of the Task Bar. <...
Starting Programs With Icons  <ul><li>The icons on the desktop can be customized or removed according to the user’s prefer...
Using the Menu Bar  <ul><li>The menu bar has functions like a quick reference location for frequently used applications, c...
Customizing the Desktop  Environment  <ul><li>The appearance of the desktop can be easily changed with the help of the pop...
Exiting a Session From the Desktop  <ul><li>A desktop session in GNOME can be exited by using the Main Menu, while in KDE,...
<ul><li>The “Logout” option can be selected either from the pop-up menu that appears when the desktop is right-clicked, or...
Summary  <ul><li>In UNIX and Linux, the X Window system provides users with a full graphical environment. </li></ul><ul><l...
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intro unix/linux 12

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accessing and exploring graphical desktops

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Transcript of "intro unix/linux 12"

  1. 1. Lesson 12-Accessing and Exploring Graphical Desktops
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>The UNIX/Linux graphical desktop. </li></ul><ul><li>Starting the X Window system from a terminal. </li></ul><ul><li>Exploring the graphical desktop environment. </li></ul>
  3. 3. The UNIX/Linux Graphical Desktop <ul><li>UNIX and Linux support both graphical and character-based terminals. </li></ul><ul><li>GNOME (GNU Network Object Model Environment) and KDE (K Desktop Environment) are the two most popular flavors of the graphical desktop. </li></ul><ul><li>The X Window system is the fundamental graphical tool that enables particular desktop window managers such as GNOME and KDE to operate. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Starting the X Window System from a Terminal <ul><li>Launching X Window system from Linux: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The “startx” command starts the fundamental graphics program, the X Window system, and then launches your account’s default window manager. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A desktop with icons, menu bar, and an active mouse is displayed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The startx utility flags an error if X Windows is not properly installed. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Starting the X Window System from a Terminal <ul><li>Launching X Window system from UNIX: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In UNIX environment, the “xinit &” command starts the fundamental graphics program, the X Window system. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A full graphical desktop environment is displayed once the X Window session is started. </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Starting the X Window System from a Terminal <ul><li>Launching X Window system from UNIX (continued): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The &quot;gnome &&quot; or the &quot;kde &&quot; command can be used for selecting a particular graphical interface or desktop. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Motif Window Manger (&quot;mwm &&quot;) or the blackbox &quot;blackbox &&quot; desktop program can also be started. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Exploring the Graphical Desktop Environment A generic GNOME desktop
  8. 8. Exploring the Graphical Desktop Environment <ul><li>Navigating the Task Bar. </li></ul><ul><li>Accessing applications through the Main Menu. </li></ul><ul><li>Moving, resizing, and iconifying Windows. </li></ul><ul><li>Starting programs with icons. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Exploring the Graphical Desktop Environment <ul><li>Using the menu bar. </li></ul><ul><li>Customizing the desktop environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Exiting a session from the desktop. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Navigating the Task Bar <ul><li>The Task Bar, by default, appears at the bottom of the desktop. </li></ul><ul><li>In the GNOME and KDE interface, various icons on the desktop allow a user to access the Terminal Emulator, Help, web browser, and other features. </li></ul><ul><li>The Task Bar contains a wide variety of configurable settings and features. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Navigating the Task Bar <ul><li>The Terminal Emulator or the Console icon opens a terminal window where shell commands can be executed. </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple terminal windows can be created on the screen to work in two or more environments at the same time. </li></ul><ul><li>A terminal window uses a default font unless the –fn option has been specified. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Navigating the Task Bar <ul><li>The r16 and r24 font can be used for configuring the font size. </li></ul><ul><li>The Task Bar also contains a set of four clustered buttons that allows a user to switch to an alternate desktop. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Accessing Applications through the Main Menu <ul><li>The Main Menu in GNOME or the Start Application in KDE pops up a menu that provides access to various programs, utilities, settings, and other system menus. </li></ul><ul><li>The Main Menu provides access to various programs and utilities for working, like spreadsheets, address book, word processor, calculator programs, games, etc. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Moving, Resizing, and Iconifying Windows <ul><li>The window manager interprets mouse clicks and drags in the usual ways. </li></ul><ul><li>The handle on the sidebar of the window allows the window to be reshaped. </li></ul><ul><li>The minimize button is located at the top-right corner of the window, and is represented in the form of an underscore. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Moving, Resizing, and Iconifying Windows <ul><li>The icon of the active window is placed at the center of the Task Bar. </li></ul><ul><li>A Help or Documentation browser is an interface to the various forms of documentation on the computer as well as the Internet. </li></ul><ul><li>A web browser such as Netscape, Mozilla, or Galeon is usually included with X Windows and can be accessed either through the Task Bar or the Main Menu. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Starting Programs With Icons <ul><li>The icons on the desktop can be customized or removed according to the user’s preferences. </li></ul><ul><li>The Trash icon in the desktop is similar to a Recycle bin and can be used for recovering documents that get accidentally deleted. </li></ul><ul><li>The “Empty Trash” option deletes the files permanently from the system. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Using the Menu Bar <ul><li>The menu bar has functions like a quick reference location for frequently used applications, configurations, and even favorite web sites. </li></ul><ul><li>Application, Utilities, Development, and Games are some of the topics that appear in the drop-down menu when the Programs icon on the Task Bar is clicked. </li></ul><ul><li>A web page saved as favorites in the browser also appears for quick reference. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Customizing the Desktop Environment <ul><li>The appearance of the desktop can be easily changed with the help of the pop-up menu that appears when the mouse is right-clicked on the desktop. </li></ul><ul><li>The screen saver and various other options can be configured with the help of the Main Menu. </li></ul><ul><li>X Windows also allows shortcuts to be created on the desktop for frequently used programs with a simple drag-and-drop operation. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Exiting a Session From the Desktop <ul><li>A desktop session in GNOME can be exited by using the Main Menu, while in KDE, the Start Application is used to achieve the same. </li></ul><ul><li>The “Lock Screen” option keeps the current session alive, but requires the user to provide a password to unlock the screen. </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>The “Logout” option can be selected either from the pop-up menu that appears when the desktop is right-clicked, or from the Main Menu. </li></ul>Exiting a Session From the Desktop
  21. 21. Summary <ul><li>In UNIX and Linux, the X Window system provides users with a full graphical environment. </li></ul><ul><li>Login accounts can be configured to start up in the graphical or terminal mode. </li></ul><ul><li>In the graphical desktop, the dashboard, or Task Bar, provides a series of menus and icons for easy access to programs. </li></ul>
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