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intro unix/linux 11


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user files: locate | print | archive

user files: locate | print | archive

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  • 1. Lesson 11-Locating, Printing, and Archiving User Files
  • 2. Overview
    • Creating a long file.
    • Splitting long files.
    • Locating files with find.
    • Printing a file.
    • Archiving files.
  • 3. Creating a Long File
    • The “ls –R ~” command is used to list all the files contained in the user’s home directory.
    • The “cut –c range of characters ~/file name” command is used to read a particular number of characters from each line in a file.
    • The “cat –n file name” command is used to add numbers to the left of all lines in a copy of the file.
  • 4. Splitting Long Files
    • The “split” utility is used to read a long file and break up the contents into a series of small files of specified size.
    • Each small file has an extension starting with “aa” and going through the alphabet as far as needed to hold a copy of the whole file.
  • 5. Splitting Long Files Splitting Long Files into Pieces
  • 6. Splitting Long Files
    • Reassembling the files:
      • The “cat filename*” command is used to read all the small files and output data that matches the original long file.
      • The last part of the file names, such as “aa”, “ab”, etc., is in ASCII order.
      • The ASCII order is used by the shell for the filenames when it replaces the * in the command line.
  • 7. Locating File with Find
    • The “find” utility is used to locate a particular file in several directories.
    • The find utility displays the output and any error message that is appropriate.
    • The pathnames of files and information about directories that cannot be examined because of their assigned permissions are also displayed by the find utility.
  • 8. Locating File with Find
    • The command to be given is “find ~ -name filename –print”.
    • The “~” specifies the target starting point directory.
    • The “–print” specifies that the full pathname of each occurrence of the file(s) matching the selection criterion should be output to the screen.
  • 9. Locating File with Find
    • Locating files by owner.
    • Locating and acting on files by owner.
    • Locating additional options.
    • Acting on all files in a directory tree.
  • 10. Locating Files by Owner
    • The “ls –ld /directory name/$USER” command is used to determine if the user has a directory with the same name as the login name in a particular directory.
    • The “find” utility can also be used to identify files owned by a particular user.
    • The output of the find utility can be redirected to a file or a printer.
  • 11. Locating Files by Owner Command Line Interpretation find Utility
  • 12. Locating and Acting on Files by Owner
    • The find utility can also be used to remove located files, change file permissions, or employ any shell file-manipulation command.
    • The “-exec” option is used with the utility to execute any command utilizing the file names that are selected.
  • 13. Locating and Acting on Files by Owner Using the find Utility to Locate Files by Owner
  • 14. Locating Additional Options Additional Options
  • 15. Acting on all Files in a Directory Tree
    • The find utility can be used as an agent to go through the directory tree recursively and execute another utility on all files.
    • The utility shows a user to search through the specified directory trees, based on a variety of criteria, and perform actions on the located files.
  • 16. Printing a File
    • Printing the output of a pipeline.
    • Printing multiple copies.
    • Adding a title line to the banner page.
    • Checking the status of print jobs.
    • Canceling a print request.
  • 17. Printing the Output of a Pipeline
    • A pipe can be used to connect the output of a utility as an input to the print utility.
    • The “col –bx” and the “colcrt” utilities are used to remove control characters that are of value to the terminal.
  • 18. Printing Multiple Copies
    • Any of the following commands can be used to print multiple copies of a file:
        • lp –n (number of copies to be printed in numeric value) file name.
        • lpr -# (number of copies to be printed in numeric value) file name.
  • 19. Adding a Title Line to the Banner Page
    • A banner page, also called the burst page, contains information about the printer and the user issuing the print request.
    • The “lp –t‘numbers file’ file name” or the “lpr –Pprinter –J’numbers file’ file name” command can be used to add a title and print the file.
  • 20. Adding a Title Line to the Banner Page
    • The “lp –dprinter –ttitle filename” or the “lpr –Pprinter –J’title’ filename” are the two formats of the print commands.
  • 21. Checking the Status of Print Jobs
    • All print requests are administered by a spooler.
    • A spooler is a program that receives print requests from multiple users and sends jobs one at a time to the printer.
    • The spooler makes it possible for the system to process simultaneous print job requests for several users.
    • The “lpstat” or the “lpq –Pprinter username” command can be use to examine the queue.
  • 22. Canceling a Print Request
    • The “cancel” or the “lprm” command can be used to remove jobs from the queue.
    • On a Linux system, all printing jobs owned by the user are removed from the queue.
    • On a UNIX system, the “–u” option is used to indicate jobs owned by the user.
  • 23. Archiving Files
    • Archiving files on floppy disks.
    • Creating archives with tar.
  • 24. Archiving Files on Floppy Disks
    • Copying a file to and from a floppy:
      • Mtools is a set of programs that facilitate the copying of files to a floppy drive without going through the process of mounting the drive.
      • The “mcopy” command is used to copy a file to and from a floppy.
      • The command requires two arguments the file name from the current directory, and a:, which is an agreed name for the floppy.
  • 25. Archiving Files on Floppy Disks
    • Copying a file to and from a floppy (continued):
      • Multiple files can be copied by using the * sign in place of a particular filename.
      • Attributes such as permissions are not included in the copy.
      • When a file is copied from a floppy, the permissions for the newly copied file may not match its original permissions.
      • When the mcopy command creates a new file on the system, the default permissions for the new file are applied.
  • 26. Archiving Files on Floppy Disks
    • Removing files and directories from a floppy:
      • The “mdel” command is used to delete files.
      • The mdel command requires an argument, the name of the file(s) to be deleted.
      • The “mdeltree” command is used to delete directories.
      • This command requires one argument, the name of the directory to be deleted.
  • 27. Archiving Files on Floppy Disks
    • Formatting a floppy disk:
      • The “mformat” command is used to format a floppy.
      • The floppy is formatted in the DOS format.
  • 28. Creating Archives with tar
    • The “tar” (tape archiving) utility is used extensively for making archive files on most systems.
    • The utility can be used to create a single file, called archive, which contains the files in a directory tree and all information about each file.
  • 29. Creating Archives with tar
    • The command used to create a tar archive is “tar –cvf filename.tar”.
    • The command instructs tar to create an archive in verbose mode and use a file to hold the archive.
    • The dot (.) is the source directory, from which all files are archived.
    • The “tar –tf filename” can be used to list the contents of the tar archive.
  • 30. Creating Archives with tar
    • Extracting files from an archive:
      • The extension “.tar” is called a “tarball”.
      • A tarball can be moved, mailed, or placed on portable media.
      • The “tar –xvf filename.tar” is used to extract the directory tree from the archive.
      • The command provides instructions to extract the structure from the archive in verbose mode, from a file.
  • 31. Summary
    • The split utility is used to break the contents of a long file into a series of small files.
    • The lp and the lpr utilities manage files directed to the printer.
    • The find utility searches through a directory tree for files based on specific criteria, and then takes action on each identified file.
  • 32. Summary
    • The mtools utility facilitates the copying of files to and from a floppy drive using a DOS-formatted floppy.
    • The tar utility is used to make an archive of a directory tree or a file.
    • The archive can be stored on permanent media, sent to a remote machine, or just used to move a structure from one location in a system to another.