intro unix/linux 10
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  • 1. Lesson 10-Controlling User Processes
  • 2. Overview
    • Managing and processing processes.
    • Managing jobs.
    • Exiting/quitting when jobs have been stopped.
  • 3. Managing and Processing Processes
    • Every running program is a separate entity, called a process.
    • A process consists of several components working together, including the code, data, CPU activity, memory, input, output, and error handling.
  • 4. Managing and Processing Processes
    • Each process involves reading instructions, accessing computer memory, reading from input, evaluating arguments, performing calculations, and writing to output.
    • Every process on the system has its own unique process ID number.
  • 5. Managing and Processing Processes
    • Obtaining detailed information on system processes.
    • Identifying processes connected to a terminal.
    • Starting a new shell process.
    • Obtaining detailed data about user processes.
  • 6.
    • Genealogy of processes.
    • Ending foreground processes.
    • Ending background processes.
    • Terminating a process that is not responding.
    Managing and Processing Processes
  • 7. Obtaining Detailed Information on System Processes
    • The “ps –aux” and the “ps –ef” commands can be used to get a list of all processes currently running on the system.
    • The “ps –u $USER” command can be used to list only the processes owned by a particular user.
    • The “ps –u root” command can be used to list the processes that are started when the system is booted up, and that are owned by the root user.
  • 8. Identifying Processes Connected to a Terminal
    • User processes must be informed of the port to which they are attached.
    • The “tty” command can be used to determine the terminal port used by a user.
    • The “ps –t port” command can be used to display the running processes, the shell, a process running sleep, and the process running the ps utility.
  • 9. Identifying Processes Connected to a Terminal Output of ps Utility
  • 10. Identifying Processes Connected to a Terminal
    • PID – The PID, called the Process IDentification number, is a unique number assigned to each process when it gets created.
    • CPU – It refers to the CPU time consumed by a process.
    • CMD – The command mode contains the names of the utilities associated with each running process.
  • 11. Starting a New Shell Process
    • The “sh” command is used to start a child shell.
    • The “echo $$” command can be used to obtain the PID of the current shell.
    • The “exit” command or the CTRL-D keys can be used to exit the child shell.
  • 12. Obtaining Detailed Data about User Processes Output of ps –l Command
  • 13. Obtaining Detailed Data about User Processes
    • Flags (F) – This field contains a number indicating the Flags or options set for a process.
    • State (S) – It indicates the state of the process, which includes sleeping (S), running (R), idle (I), and traced (T).
    • Size (SZ) – It contains a number indicating the size of the process in memory.
    • Command (CMD) – It refers to the actual command being run by the process.
  • 14. Genealogy of Processes
    • Processes inherit data from their parent process.
    • Every utility or executable file name that is typed is executed by a process that is a child of the shell process.
    • The child process inherits data such as tty, user ID, and the current directory from the parent process.
  • 15. Ending Foreground Processes
    • The “stty –a” command can be used to display the settings for a system.
    • The “echo $?” and the “echo $status” commands can be used to ask for the exit status sent by the process running sleep to the shell.
    • The “echo $?” command is used by the sh and the recent csh family shells.
  • 16. Ending Foreground Processes
    • The “echo $status” command is used by the older csh family of shells.
    • The CTRL-D key is used to mark the end-of-file character, while the CTRL-C key is used to interrupt a process.
    • The CTRL-D key displays an output, but the CTRL-C does not generate any output.
  • 17. Ending Foreground Processes
    • The keyboard signal “quit” can be used to stop a foreground process.
    • The “CTRL-” keys can also be used to quit a process.
    • The quit signal destroys the process and sometimes makes a copy of the CPU memory associated with the process at the time of exit. The copy is called a core file.
  • 18. Ending Background Processes
    • The “kill” command can be used to terminate a process running in the background.
    • The command requires the PID of the process as the second argument.
    • The “kill –l” command can be used to list all the kill signals available for the current system.
  • 19. Ending Background Processes Listing of All Signals
  • 20. Terminating a Process that is not Responding
    • The following tasks should be carried out to terminate a process:
        • A new terminal should be started.
        • The current terminal port should be identified at the new login or terminal.
        • All the processes should be listed.
        • The PID of the particular process should be identified and the ‘kill’ command should be used to terminate it.
  • 21. Managing Jobs
    • A command-line that instructs the shell to start several processes with the output from the first connecting to the second and so on, is called a job.
    • All modern shells allow users to start, suspend, make active, and kill the processes associated with a job.
  • 22. Managing Jobs
    • Suspending a job.
    • Identifying the most recent job.
    • Killing a particular job.
  • 23. Suspending a Job
    • The “stty –a” command is used to describe a list of CTRL key settings used by the terminal and the shell for communication.
    • The CTRL-Z key is used to suspend a job.
    • The suspended job does not use the system memory.
    • The “fg” command is used to bring the last suspended job into the foreground.
  • 24. Suspending a Job
    • The “jobs” program lists all background and suspended jobs and their status.
    • The “jobs” command is a shell built-in command.
    • A job’s output is divided into four columns – the job number, the order, the status, and the command being executed.
  • 25. Identifying the Most Recent Job
    • The “fg %+” is used to bring the most recently suspended job to the foreground.
    • The “fg %-” is used to bring the second most recently suspended job to the foreground.
  • 26. Identifying the Most Recent Job
    • The job number can also be used to get a job to the foreground.
    • For example, “fg %2”, where %2 specifies the job with the job number 2.
    • The job name can also be used to get a job to the foreground.
  • 27. Killing a Job
    • The “kill %+” command is used to kill the most recent job in the job list.
    • The job number can also be passed as an argument to kill that particular job.
    • The job name can also be passed as an argument to kill a job.
    • Care should be taken while killing a job. We must not kill wrong jobs.
  • 28. Exiting/Quitting When Jobs Have Been Stopped
    • Job control is a very useful method of managing processes.
    • UNIX job control provides a method of warning the users of stopped or running background jobs when an attempt is made to log out or exit a process.
    • It logs out without warning when we issue the same command again, resulting in loss of unsaved data.
  • 29. Summary
    • Programs running in a system are executed by a process that reads the appropriate code and accomplishes the tasks.
    • All the processes have their own unique PID, the PID of their parent, an owner, group, memory, code, input, output, error, and their tty port.
  • 30.
    • A command-line that consists of one process or a series of processes connected by pipes is called a job.
    • The kill command terminates processes identified by either their process ID or job number/job name.
    Summary