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intro unix/linux 02


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touring essential programs

touring essential programs

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  • 1. Lesson 2-Touring Essential Programs
  • 2. Overview
    • Development of UNIX and Linux.
    • Commands to execute utilities.
    • Communicating instructions to the shell.
    • Navigating the file system.
    • Examining and managing files.
    • Accessing the programmer’s manual.
    • Accessing Internet resources.
  • 3. Development of UNIX and Linux
    • UNIX os, developed in 1970s at Bell Laboratories, features:
        • main program, called kernel , to control CPU and other hardware.
        • collection of user and system programs called utilities .
        • structure, called file system , for keeping and locating data on hard drive.
        • Unix was a multi-user and multi-tasking os
  • 4. Development of UNIX and Linux
    • Linus Torvalds wrote a UNIX look-alike operating system called Linux .
    • The operating system is available for free in its basic form for download, or at a low cost from several distributors.
  • 5.
    • fundamental programs in Linux employ same code , but different distributors add special features and installation programs.
    • Some of different flavors of Linux operating system are RedHat, Lindows, SuSe, Mandrake, etc.
    Development of UNIX and Linux
  • 6. Commands to Execute Utilities
    • Introduction to the shell.
    • Issuing commands to a shell.
    • Passing information to a utility.
    • Listing processes.
  • 7. Introduction to the Shell
    • shell: program which displays prompt on screen.
    • shell reads instructions of user and interprets them to the remainder of the system.
    • Usually $ sign is the prompt in many systems.
    • shell processes and executes command keyed in by user.
  • 8. Issuing Commands to a Shell
    • Various utilities can be executed from the shell prompt.
    • “ whoami ” utility displays user’s login name or username on screen.
    • “ date ” utility displays current date and time on screen.
    • “ hostname ” utility display name of system user working on.
  • 9. Issuing Commands to a Shell
    • “ clear ” utility to clear all text on screen and display the prompt at top of screen or window.
    • Delete or Ctrl-H to correct errors that occur while entering commands.
    • “ who ” utility to display list of users currently logged on.
  • 10. Issuing Commands to a Shell Output of who Command
  • 11. Issuing Commands to a Shell
    • port: physical location at back of computer.
    • Each port has designation- usually begins with tty and number
    • terminal connected through network uses electronic or pseudo port named pts .
  • 12. Issuing Commands to a Shell
    • command/utility keyed in by a user is followed by the ENTER key.
    • shell interprets ENTER as end of command/utility.
    • shell starts child process to execute command/utility.
  • 13. Issuing Commands to a Shell
    • shell locates path of utility/command and executes it.
    • output, by default, connected to screen, unless redirect it.
    • After executing command/utility, it returns command prompt again.
  • 14. Issuing Commands to a Shell How the shell works
  • 15. Passing Information to a Utility
    • When information passed to a utility, shell runs utility, and passes information that comes after the command to utility.
    • Information passed to utility called argument .
    • Arguments provide instructions to utilities.
    • Multiple arguments can also be passed to a utility.
  • 16. Passing Information to a Utility
    • “ cal ” program provides users current month’s calendar.
    • Multiple arguments can be passed to cal utility.
    • When two arguments are passed to cal program, the program interprets first argument as month and second as year.
  • 17. Passing Information to a Utility
    • “ look ” command to locate words in dictionary file that begin with that word, and output all matching words.
    • look command requires one argument – word to locate.
  • 18. Listing Processes
    • A process is an instance of a running program code.
    • “ ps ” command to list all current processes, with some info about each process.
    • output displays process id , port , CPU time , and code process is running.
  • 19. Listing Processes
    • “ – aux ” and “ –ef ” options used with “ ps ” command to display processes running on entire system, including system processes, and list of currently logged on users.
    • Arguments that begin with minus (-) sign are options .
    • ps option useful for sys-admin trouble-shooting system.
  • 20. Communicating Instructions to the Shell
    • Every user is given a place, called home directory , to work with and save files.
    • home directory: default workspace of user.
    • home directory contains names of files and subdirectories created by and owned by a user.
  • 21. Communicating Instructions to the Shell
    • Working with files.
    • Redirecting output from a utility.
    • Determining the role of tokens on command-lines.
    • Starting a child shell.
    • Reissuing commands.
    • Using nicknames for commands.
  • 22. Working with Files
    • “ ls ” (list) command lists contents of current directory’s standard files.
    • “ more ” command displays contents of file one part at a time.
    • command requires one argument – name of the file.
  • 23.
    • spacebar: display additional text in file displayed by more.
    • “ q ” key can to quit ‘ more ’ utility.
    • “ wc ” ( word count ) utility: count number of lines, words, and characters in file.
    • command requires one parameter – name of the file.
    Working with Files
  • 24. Working with Files
    • “– l” option used with wc command to only count number of lines in file.
    • “ -c” option: count characters in file.
    • “ -w” option : count number of words in file.
  • 25. Redirecting Output from a Utility
    • By default, results provided by any utility are displayed on user’s screen.
    • Instructions can be given to redirect output of utility to file.
    • command- redirect output of file: “utility > filename” .
    • > is instruction to redirect output to new file
  • 26. Redirecting Output from a Utility
    • double redirect (>>): append output of utility to end of existing file
    • | (pipe) command: redirect output of one utility to another utility.
    • The argument following the pipeline must be a utility.
  • 27. Determining the Role of Tokens on Command-Lines
    • Each word or object on a command-line is called a token .
    • shell is programmed to read initial token as utility program to run or some action to take
    • location on command-line determines how shell interprets each token.
  • 28. Starting a Child Shell List of Various Shells in UNIX/Linux
  • 29. Reissuing Commands
    • “ !!” command or “r” command: re-execute previously entered command.
    • “ !!” command works only on csh , tch , or bash shell.
    • The “r” command works only on a Korn shell.
    • The sh shell does not allow user to re-execute previously entered commands.
  • 30. Reissuing Commands
    • Up arrow key: display previously entered commands one at a time.
    • shell keeps track of commands we issue at prompt.
    • “ history ” command: list all commands entered previously, and every command has a number associated with it.
  • 31. Reissuing Commands Various Options to Execute Previous Commands
  • 32. Using Nicknames for Commands
    • An “ alias ” or alternate name used for commands hard to remember.
    • alias command can list all current aliases.
    • command “ unalias alias name ” can remove an alias.
  • 33. Using Nicknames for Commands Nicknames for commands in UNIX/Linux Command Shell alias alias name utility name Csh and tch alias alias name=utility name Bash and ksh
  • 34. Navigating the File System
    • arrangement of files and folders in system: file system
    • “ pwd ” ( present working directory ) command can get location of user’s home directory
    • result displays path from root to present working directory
  • 35.
    • topmost directory: “ root ” (identified as / )
    • “ ls / ” command can obtain a list of all files and directories in root directory
    Navigating the File System
  • 36. Navigating the File System
    • “ mkdir ” ( make directory ) command: create new directory
    • command requires 1 argument – name to give to directory
    • “– F” option used with ‘ ls ’ command to include a / (slash) after all directory names and also to identify other kinds of files.
  • 37. Navigating the File System
    • “ cd ” command can make directory the current directory.
    • command requires 1 parameter – name of directory to become current directory
    • cd command: return to home directory. no required parameters
  • 38. Examining and Managing Files
    • Find matching text:
      • A particular word in a file can be located by giving the command “ /word to be located ” .
      • “ n ” key can locate next instance of same word in file.
      • “ b ” key can be used to move one screen backwards.
  • 39. Examining and Managing Files
    • “ head ” utility: read first 10 lines of file
    • “ tail ” utility”: view last 10 lines of file
    • Both utilities require 1 argument – name of file to read
    • number of lines to read can be passed as argument to utilities.
  • 40. Examining and Managing Files
    • cat utility: view entire contents of file
    • utility requires 1 argument – name of file to read.
    • utility is preferable when file small
  • 41. Examining and Managing Files
    • Copy files:
      • “ cp ” command: make copy of existing file, as well as copy files to another subdirectory.
      • 2 arguments are required to duplicate file – name of existing file and name to give duplicated file.
      • arguments required to copy file to another subdirectory are – name of file to copy and target directory
  • 42. Examining and Managing Files
    • Removing files:
      • “ rm ” command: delete file
      • command requires 1 argument – name of file to delete
  • 43. Examining and Managing Files
    • Removing files (cont):
      • rm command does its work and displays prompt. It displays no message.
      • “ -i” option: ask for confirmation before deleting any filenames listed as an argument.
      • command also accepts multiple file names as arguments.
  • 44. Examining and Managing Files
    • Renaming files:
      • “mv” command: rename files, as well as move files from one location to another.
      • 2 arguments are required while renaming files – current name of file and new name to give file
      • arguments required for moving files – name of files to move and destination directory
  • 45. Examining and Managing Files
    • Deciphering utility error messages:
      • Error messages due to failure of utility are shown in screen by default.
      • Every process has " output door ", where it writes output, and an error door, where it writes error messages.
      • By default, " error door " connected to screen unless we redirect it.
  • 46. Examining and Managing Files
    • Printing file:
      • “ lp ” or “ lpr ” command: print file
      • command requires 1 argument – name of file to print.
      • “– P” option with “ lpr ” command, and “-d” option with the lp command, can specify name of printer to use
  • 47. Accessing the Programmer’s Manual
    • UNIX and Linux systems include extensive collection of powerful utility programs, system features, application languages, and support libraries.
    • The UNIX programmer’s manual provides info needed to employ exact syntax of a particular option or command format for a utility.
  • 48. Accessing the Programmer’s Manual
    • manual contains detailed documentation on use and function of utility programs, application programs, and libraries.
    • manual also contains info on UNIX system files and system programming libraries.
    • includes supplementary info on related special files and commands for each entry.
  • 49. Accessing the Programmer’s Manual
    • man command: provide online manual entry for utility or command
    • command requires 1 argument – name of utility or command
    • “ man –k” command: search manual pages’ descriptions for keywords.
  • 50. Accessing Internet Resources
    • Internet includes many useful sites that provide info on:
        • Recent news in Linux world (
        • Interactive Web tutorials
        • Recent software updates and Linux code documentation.
  • 51. Summary
    • shell: process that interprets commands entered by user
    • Each word or object on command-line: token
    • All shells, except for sh, allow users to create alias names for commands
    • file system: collection of files and folders
  • 52. Summary
    • We can work on many utilities, print files, and access system folders from a shell.
    • Files can be printed from shell prompt.
    • Online manual pages provide detailed description of system utilities, files, and functionalities.
    • Internet includes useful sites that provide info on various aspects of UNIX and Linux.