Comprehensive Review Of Whey Vs Casein Protein

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  • Mean (±SEM) blood concentrations of essential amino acids (A) and leucine (B) after ingestion of whey protein as a single bolus (BOLUS; 1 × 25 g) or as a repeated pulse (PULSE; 10 × 2.5 g every 20 min) (n = 8). Inset shows the AUC. *Significantly greater than PULSE, P < 0.05; †significantly greater than BOLUS, P < 0.05. Data were analyzed by using a 2-factor (time × condition) repeated-measures ANOVA with Tukey's post hoc test (time × condition interactions for A and B, P < 0.001). The AUC was analyzed by using a paired t test. Pre, preexercise and prior to protein consumption.
  • Mean (±SEM) myofibrillar protein synthesis [fractional synthetic rate (FSR)] in the fasted state (Fasted) and after a protein bolus (BOLUS; 1 × 25 g) and protein pulses (PULSE; 10 × 2.5 g every 20 min) after resistance exercise (n = 8). Data were analyzed by using a 2-factor (time × condition) repeated measures ANOVA with Tukey's post hoc test (time × condition interaction: P = 0.066). *Significantly greater than Fasted, P < 0.05; †significantly greater than PULSE at the same time point, P < 0.05.
  • Comprehensive Review Of Whey Vs Casein Protein

    1. 1. FROM GUTTER TO GOLD: WHEY vs. CASEIN York University Nutrition in Sport Seminar Series PRESENTED BY: KYLE DUNLOP
    2. 2. LIQUID GOLDhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0G6JymgFusw&fea
    3. 3. WHAT IS PROTEIN ?
    4. 4. Protein Structure• Composed of Amino Acids ▫ Amino Group – NH2 ▫ Carboxylic Group – COOH ▫ Residual Group – R• Different types of protein ▫ Structural (bone matrix) http://legacy.owensboro.kctcs.edu/GCaplan/anat/Notes/API%20Notes%20D ▫ Connective tissue %20organic%20chem.htm ▫ Regulatory (enzymes)• 20 amino acids, 9 of which are essential Driskell J.A, Sports Nutrition 2007; 109-163
    5. 5. Protein Synthesis• Protein cell regeneration• Protein Synthesis ▫ Cell sends command to DNA ▫ Forms mRNA -> translated by ribosomes ▫ Three distinct steps Initiation Elongation Termination Driskell J.A, Sports Nutrition 2007; 109-163 Howley ET and Powers SK. Exercise Physiology: Theory and Application to Fitness and Performance. Seventh Edition, McGraw Hill, CA 2008 pg 25.
    6. 6. Protein Turnover and MetabolicFates of AA Phillips SM. Nutrition 2004;20:689–695
    7. 7. FROM FOOD TO PROTEIN
    8. 8. PROTEIN QUALITYHigh Quality (Complete Low Quality (Incomplete Protein) Protein)• Contains ALL ESSENTIAL • Contains LITTLE NON-EAA AA or particular ones ▫ Milk ▫ Legumes ▫ Yogurt ▫ Vegetables ▫ Cheese ▫ Cereals ▫ Eggs ▫ Grain products ▫ Meat ▫ Fish ▫ Poultry ▫ Soy* Driskell J.A, Sports Nutrition 2007; 109-163
    9. 9. PROTEIN QUALITY Hoffman and Falvo, JSSM, 2004; 3: 118-130
    10. 10. Amino Acid Levels Paul GL, JACN, 2009; 28,4,464S-472S
    11. 11. Health Benefits Thompson et al, Milk Proteins 2009; p.57
    12. 12. Recommended Protein Intake forAdults (70 kg) (55 kg) Whitney E and Rolfes SR. Fitness: Physical Activity, Nutrients, and Body Adaptations. In Understanding Nutrition. Eleventh Edition, Thomson Wadsworth Belmont, CA 2008 pg 188 .
    13. 13. NO WAY!...WHEEEEEEY!
    14. 14. WHEY•Discovered 3000 years ago•Considered waste by the dairy industry Smithers GW. International Dairy Journal 18 (2008) 695– 704•Contains ALL 20 amino acids•Highest naturally occurring BCAA’s•“Fast” Protein •Rate of digestibility can influence protein synthesis •Causes plasma amino acids to rise quickly Driskell J.A, Sports Nutrition 2007; 109-163
    15. 15. THREE MAIN TYPES OF WHEY• Undenatured whey concentrate ▫ 25 -40 % protein• Current whey concentrate ▫ 50-89% protein• Whey protein isolate ▫ 90-95% protein Driskell J.A, Sports Nutrition 2007; 109-163
    16. 16. CASEIN“Mooooo!”ve over Whey
    17. 17. • Research began in 19th century▫1830 Braconnot coined the word “casein” Thompson et al, Milk Proteins 2009; p.19-20• Synthesized in the mammary gland Hoffman and Falvo, JSSM, 2004; 3: p.118-130• Major component in bovine milk▫Casein = 70-80% total protein Thompson et al, Milk Proteins 2009; p.22
    18. 18. CASEIN• Ability to form clots• “Slow” protein ▫ Longer and lower blood plasma AA concentrations Muted peaks Hoffman and Falvo, JSSM, 2004; 3: p.118-130• Found as caseinates ▫ Native casein does not dissolve well
    19. 19. STRUCTURE•Structure/properties/ stability technologically important Thompson et al, Milk Proteins 2009; p.36-37•Scattering of light by micelle gives milk white colour Thompson et al, Milk Proteins 2009; p.26•Very Flexible nature amphipathic structure = good emulsifying/foaming properties http://www.foodscience.uoguelph.ca/deicon/casein.html
    20. 20. http://www.solae.com/en/Soy-Markets/Sports-Nutrition/Building-Muscle-Mass.aspx
    21. 21. Anobolic Signaling of SkeletalMuscle Pimentel GD and Zemdegs JCS. Leucine stimulates mTOR and muscle protein synthesis in both animal and human http://www.efdeportes.com/efd131/leucine-stimulates-mtor-and-muscle-protein-synthesis.htm Date accessed March 14 2011
    22. 22. Leucine Increases Muscle Protein Synthesis(MPS) 6 FOLD! ~500% 67% 280% 150% Atherton PJ et al. Amino Acids (2010) 38:1533–1539
    23. 23. Bottom Line…• Leucine is distinct amongst the BCAA/EAA ▫ Potent stimulation of anabolic signaling in Skeletal Muscle cells through the mTORC1 pathway. Atherton PJ et al. Amino Acids (2010) 38:1533–1539
    24. 24. Rapid ingestion of Protein is more effective atincreasing MPS West DW et al. American Journal Clinical Nutrition 2011;94:795-803
    25. 25. Continued… 193% 95% 121% 42% West DW et al. American Journal Clinical Nutrition 2011;94:795-803
    26. 26. Bottom Line…• Rapid ingestion of Whey Bolus > than time delayed ingestion at increasing MPS. ▫ Important implications for supplement timing/eating patterns and protein choice post exercise ▫ Tang et al (2009) found Whey ~122% > Casein, Whey ~ 31% > Soy isolate @ stimulating MPS post exercise• This is NOT a true representation of Casein protein West DW et al. American Journal Clinical Nutrition 2011;94:795-803
    27. 27. mTOR signaling increases in Young and Oldpost exercise with WPI! Farnfield MM et al. Appl. Physiol. Nutr. Metab. 37: 21–30 (2012)
    28. 28. BUT WAIT… ~35%n.s difference between WH and CS Tipton KD et al. MSSE. Vol. 36, Iss. 12, (2004), pg 2073-2081
    29. 29. WHEYLiquid Gold
    30. 30. Subjects Outcome Exercise Dosage Diet Measures Modalityn= 19 Males Δ STRENGTH High intensity Casein = 90 g Nutritional(13 finished) (1RM) compound protein, 3 g intake was Squat exercises CHO 1.5 g monitored byRec. Body Lat pull down fat/100g dietary recallsbuilders Bench press Prep (wk 1-2) Overload (wk WI = CS2 groups Body 2-4) Composition Overload (wk 1.5 g/kg/day (4Casein (CS) 5-10) equal servings Plasma throughout theWhey Isolate glutamine 3 d/wk for 10 day) + diet(WI) wks 80 kg person consumed 4 30g servings (Br,L, PT, D) Cribb PJ et al, International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 2006, 16, 494-509
    31. 31. RESULTS Body Comp. 482% ~900% Cribb PJ et al, International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 2006, 16, 494-509
    32. 32. 1 RM Strength Results 27% 171% 69% Cribb PJ et al, International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 2006, 16, 494-509
    33. 33. Conclusion• Study demonstrated WI > CS  strength, LBM, decreasing FM• Limitations  Mean weight of WI group was ~4.5 kg heavier to start than CS group, low subject number• LBM results can be attributed to cysteine in WI ▫ 3-4 fold higher than in CS ▫ WI augments urea biosynthesis pathways to preserve muscle AA pool Cribb PJ et al, International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 2006, 16, 494-509
    34. 34. Hydrolysate vs. Non HydrolysateReference Exercise Dosage Outcome Results Comments Measure(s)Buckley et al, 100 maximal 25g of WPI Peak isometric PIT recovery: “RecoverySupplementation with eccentric torque (PIT) WPIHD > WPI and attributable to thea whey protein contractions of 25g of WPIH supplement FWhydrolysate enhances right leg Muscle soreness - Returned 6hrs stimulating repairrecovery of muscleforce-generating Flavoured water post Ex of damaged skeletalcapacity following 5kg on ankle Serum creatine muscle tissue”eccentric exercise, J of kinase Muscle Soreness:Science and Med. in 1,2,6,24 hrs n.s difference Short study (24 hrs)Sport 13 (2010) 178– Plasma TNFα between the groups - DOMS lasts ~72181 hours post Ex.Whey vs CaseinReference Exercise Dosage Outcome Results Comments Measure(s)Allison AG. The Effects of 12 week study/ 3 d a WP: 20 g + 5 g CHO 1 RM (kg) Vol. Incr. (wk 4 – 12) -For Both 1RM WPa 12-week Resistance week WP = 26% started at a much higherTraining Program Bench Press baseline measure than CS CS: 20 g + 5 g CHO CS = 36%Combined withCasein or Whey Full body Leg Press WP & CS sig. differentProtein Progressive RT 1RM BP (Δ base) than CHO supplement for CHO: 25 g WP = 33%Supplementaion on 80% 1RM (3 sets -10 1RM LPBody Composition, CS = 54% reps) Ingested everydayMuscle Strength, and n.S difference betweenMarkers of Satellite Cell for 12 wks, 30 mins 1RM LP (Δ base) groups for 1RM BPActivation in Older load increased >10 WP = 69% post Ex.Males. MSc Thesis, reps completed CS = 89% Age: 55- 75 yrsBaylorUniversity, 2010, pp. 128
    35. 35. Pre and Post SupplementationReference Exercise Dosage Outcome Results Comments Measure(s)Hulmi et al, Acute 2 week control period 2 week control Muscle strength CSA n.s difference betweenand long-term (maintained normal period VL: all other measures ofeffects of activities) mCSA mCSA WP = 14.8 ± 6.8%,resistance exercise WP = 30 g (pre vs -QF PL = 11.2 ± 5.6% Total body heavy RT All other measures of 1with or without (40–85% 1 RM) post) -VI, VM, VL Significant RM (leg ext, benchprotein ingestion Reps R , Sets ,on muscle press and unilateralhypertrophy and PL = Non energetic Iso. Leg Ext. iso. knee ext and 2 d/wk for 21 weeksgene expression, WP = 24.3 ± 12.3% Flex.) increasedAmino Acids (2009) 2 days rest between PL = 19.3 ± 15.5% significantly over37:297–308 Over a control control group Subjects were Focus on knee untrained extensors and flexorsWhey Protein and RecoveryReference Exercise Dosage Outcome Results Comments Measure(s)Cooke et al, Whey 4 sets x 10 reps @ 14 day Isometric knee See next slide Used untrainedprotein isolate 120% 1RM w/ 3 supplementation extension strength individuals toattenuates minute rest periods post exercise maximize musclestrength decline damage Isokinetic kneeafter eccentrically- Leg press, leginduced muscle WPIHD vs CHO stregnth WPI attenuated extension/flexion exercise-induced forcedamage in healthyindividuals, JISSN 1.5 g/kg.bw/day (@ Plasma CK and LDH reduction compared to(2010), 7:30 breakfast, lunch, muscle damage CHO mid afternoon and markers WPIHD resulted in after dinner) much lower CK levels from 2-7 post exercise
    36. 36. Cooke MB et al, Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition, 2010,7:30 http://www.jissn.com/content/7/1/30
    37. 37. CASEINMilk Powerhouse
    38. 38. Subjects Outcome Exercise Dosage Diet Measures Modalityn= 13 1RM 8 weeks TFR: Followed strict(males 18-19) Squat 10am & 3:50pm regimen of supp. Bench press Multi-joint (10 mins pre) timingUntrained exercises FFM Larger muscle TDR: Normal diet2 groups groups 10am & 10:30pm food records (5hrs post)Time focused Warm up on MaintainedReg. (TFR) cycle ergometer 80.8±1.4 g ordinary eating protein powder habitsTime divided 3-4 sets, 6-10 (70 g proteinReg. (TDR) reps @75-80% 82% Casein) 1RMCrossover study = 1.08 g/kg Familiarization – protein correct technique Burk et al, Nutrition Research 29 (2009) 405 - 413
    39. 39. Big Gains with Casein Relative 66% Relative 31% Absolute Absolute Burk et al, Nutrition Research 29 (2009) 405 - 413
    40. 40. Bottom Line•1st study to investigate timing pattern of pure protein based supplement and RT•ΔFFM: TDR>TFR = increase in 1RM squat strength (r = 0.569, P = .041) (Pearson product analysis)•Casein improved 1RM squat and bench press ▫ n.s difference between timing regimens
    41. 41. VS. WHEY (hydrolysate)Reference Exercise Dosage Outcome Results Comments Measure(s)Demling et al, Effect Progressive Casein = 37 g Body composition Casein Δ strength = Sig difference btwnof a Hypocaloric resistance training (25% caloric intake) 59 ± 9% (mean: groupDiet, Increased (supervised by Δ STRENGTH (1RM) shoulder, chest, legs)protein intake and trainer Whey = Casein Chest press LBM Strengthresistance training Shoulder press Whey Δ strength = (r=0.65)on lean mass gains 4 d/wk (1 day rest Post work out, and Leg press 29 ± 9%and FM loss in btwn)  12 wks 8-10hr after 1st dose CP > WPoverweight policeofficers, Ann Nutr Control = non- “likely due toMetab 200;44:21-29 lipogenic, improved nitrogen hypocaloric diet retention and anti (80% pred. needs) catabolic effects of casein hyd.”RT in ElderlyReference Exercise Dosage Outcome Results Comments Measure(s)Verdijk LB et al, Protein RT: 3 d/wk PL = water 1RM 1RM n.s difference btwnsupplementation before Leg Press: CS = PL groupsand after exercise does Wk 1 - 4: 60% of 1RM 24%not further CS = 20 g (pre & (10–15 reps) to 75% Muscle Hypertrophy Timed ingestion w/augment skeletal muscle post)hypertrophy after 1RM (8-10 reps) Leg Extension RT did not enhanceresistance training in CS = 38 ± 4% skeletal muscle masselderly Wk 5 – 12: 75 – 85% PL = 27 ± 3% and strength gains inmen, Am J Clin Nutr 1RM (4 – 8 reps) elderly men2009;89:608–16 CSA (%) Type I: no diff Participants age: 72 ± Type II: CS 38% 2 yrs
    42. 42. AND THE WINNER IS…•No specific protein is best ▫Each has own benefits•Whey – initial spike, BCAA’s and anabolic effects?•Casein – attenuating protein degradation, anabolic effects
    43. 43. Adaptations to Resistance training
    44. 44. THANK YOU!

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