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  • 1. Inclusive Education Session 2:Historical developments
  • 2. Response to set reading: Having read: Armstrong, F. (2002) ‘The historical development of special education: humanitarian rationality or ‘wild profusion of entangled events?’ History of Education 31, 5, 437 –456Answer the following questions:5. In what ways has special education informed the inclusion debate?6. What are the characteristics of inclusion?7. What might inclusive education in practice look like?Record your thoughts and then share them on the discussion board.
  • 3. Consider the ‘Timeline of Inclusion’ (resource book). This gives a snapshot of policy development.Note any policies or developments that you are particularly familiar with or have heard about.What:e) Internationalf) Nationalg) Localh) Schoolpolicies do you know about? Share your responses on the discussion area.
  • 4. Every Child Matters (UK) and No Child Left Behind (USA) Common themes: • Child protection and safe guarding children • Attainment in school for ALL children • Supported child development • Integrated and inter-agency team working • Early intervention and support • Universal services (working together) 4
  • 5. What do you know about the recent Green paper on Inclusion and SEN (2011)?Information on the new proposals can be found at: Special educational needs (SEN)And:Support and aspiration: A new approach to special e
  • 6. Here is one interpretation of the proposals:SEN green paperWill it set back inclusion twenty years?? Share your response on the discussion area.
  • 7. The SEN Code of Practice (DfES, 2001)The main points are:• Guidance for schools• Areas of Need• A graduated response to needs• Individual Education Plans (IEP’s)• School Action (SA) and School Action Plus (SAP)• StatementsWe will re-visit these in more detail in the next module.For now, ensure you know what each point might mean.Talk with your school Senco if you need further information.
  • 8. Code of Practice (2001)Areas of Need:• Communication & Interaction• Cognition & Learning• Behaviour, Emotional & Social Development• Sensory & Physical• Medical ConditionsIn relation to the child, or group, you are considering for your assignment, which area of need will you be looking at? Share your responses on the discussion area.
  • 9. Alongside policy developments, we canidentify what Clough and Corbett (2000) callroutes or perspectives of inclusion. Thefollowing slides provide a summary of eachroute or perspective. As you read through,note the historical dimension (the dateswhere each route or perspective is situated).
  • 10. Routes and perspectives• Psycho-medical legacy• Sociological response• Curricular approaches• School improvement strategies• Disability studies
  • 11. Psycho-medical legacy (1960’s and 1970’s)• Constructs disability as a problem to be contained or ‘cured’ by certain procedures• Played a central role in ‘special’ provisionCharacterised by:- Testing (by psychologists)- Separate provision, ‘remedial’ services etc.- Individual or ‘within child’ deficit (environment, curriculum or educational tasks not questioned
  • 12. Sociological response (1970’s –1980’s)• Social disadvantage is the theme here, rather than individual deficit• Sees special need as outcome of social processesInvolves:• Sociological critique of roles and practices of SEN• Argument that there is a ‘vested interest’ in SEN by those who are involved in SEN ‘industry’
  • 13. Curricular approaches (1980’s –1990’s)• Form of ‘treatment’ –the ‘special’ curriculum. This has echoes of the psycho-medical perspective.• Development of learning objectives• Despite advances, ‘special’ is still different and still has a separate curriculum
  • 14. School improvement strategies (1990’s- 2000)Set of approaches involving:• A focus on teacher research and evaluation as a means of improvement• The emergence of the notion of differentiation and entitlement• A focus on schools and curriculum as being related to (and sometimes productive of) learning difficulties• Role of pedagogy (knowledge, teaching and learning) in creating inclusion/exclusion
  • 15. Disability studies (1990’s –2000’s)• Critique by sociology; disability movements have impacted upon education• Disability is a social creation• Oppressive attitudes disable people (people are not ‘disabled’; they have impairments. They are disabled by attitudes, the environment and barriers that exclude.)
  • 16. From the brief summaries of each of the routes or perspectives, which ones do we still see in operation today? Share you ideas on the discussion area.
  • 17. Watch this video about the inclusion debate:Special Needs: InclusionWhere do you stand in the debate?Explain and justify your answer on the discussion board.
  • 18. The Disability Rights Act (2005) builds on Special Educational Needs and Disability Act (2001) and relates to issues to do with access and buildings.How have the SENDA and the Disability Rights Act (2005) impacted in your school in terms of:d. buildings and accesse. ethos?Make and share notes on the above as these may help in writing your assignment.
  • 19. Set tasks for next session:Read:Dunne, L. (2009) ‘Discourses of Inclusion: A critique’, Power and Education, 1 (1) 46-56.