UGS1001: Inclusive EducationSession 1: Introduction to the module
Watch this video about professional development: Effective Inclusion - Additional Training for TAs What are the challenges of your role? What you hoping to gain from this course? Share your responses on the discussion area.
Consider the Learning Outcomes for this module:• reflect on inclusive education policies and their implications for practice• deploy effective teaching and learning support strategies to meet learning needs• analyse and evaluate the appropriateness and effectiveness of teaching and learning support strategies• relate theoretical perspectives on teaching and learning to practice• plan for appropriate educational provision and support in a specified area of schooling to meet the specific needs of a pupil or group of pupils. What will you need to do to meet these outcomes?
To meet the learning outcomes you will need towork your way through the online content of thismodule and follow the guidance and suggestionsas and when they appear.You will need to read and begin your readingnow! Read in the area of inclusive education,policy and theory.You will also need to begin to be aware of yourschool surroundings and practices, and to gatherevidence of ‘inclusion’.
AssignmentYou will show how you have addressed the threelearning outcomes of this module by writing a 3,000word assignment:A case study that demonstrates how to addressparticular learning needs and relates theory to practice.The case study may involve a pupil, a group or asituation.Learning outcomes 1-5
A case study is an example.It involves detail.In the assignment you are showing, through aspecific example, how a child’s learning needswere met.
In order to approach the assignment, you will need to:- have read around the notion and concept of inclusion and ‘inclusive education’- have some idea of a working definition of ‘inclusion’ that suits you.- locate school documentation relating to special educational needs and inclusion, such as inclusion statements and policies; mission statements and departmental working policies.- recognise how particular support approaches can meet learner needs.- show awareness and understanding of social / medical models of disability. (i.e. how might policy into practice create medical models that are barriers to inclusion?)
Think about what inclusion means to you.Think of a time when you felt included and really part of agroup that you wanted to be with, such as being picked fora team event?What feelings are associated with the experience?Now think of a time when you were excluded, perhaps froma social group, a team or a family situation. How did youfeel then? Share your responseson the discussion board.
Associated feelings Inclusion Exclusion valued rejected at ease upset content angry happy frustrated useful unhappy hard done by useless 4
‘Inclusion’….makes us:• Think!• Question. Question our own values. Question accepted and taken for granted assumptions, for example, about difference• Reflect. Reflect upon how we approach difference and diversity in our daily lives and professional practice• Change. Change our attitudes and ways of thinking and change practice
Values…What values do you associate with ‘inclusion’? Make a five point list and share your list on the discussion board, saying why you decided upon these values.
Values associated with inclusion might include:: • Respect –for difference / diversity • Voice • Participation • Access • Acceptance (not accommodation or tolerance) • Rights • Equity • Independence • Equality of opportunity
Some adults who have a disability or a learning difficulty− many of whom were educated in special schools −experience the feelings associated with exclusion. Theyfeel cut off to some extent, perhaps because ofaccessibility issues, such as access to public transport orpublic buildings, or perhaps because of other people’sattitudes to them. Considerable ignorance about disability still exists inour society. UK government policy has sought to changethis through legislation, such as the DisabilityDiscrimination Act, and through policy. It wishes to buildthe capacity of mainstream schools to meet the needs ofpupils with SEN and/or disabilities. It sees a continuingrole for special schools as part of a broader range ofprovision including co-located special and mainstreamschools, as well as specially resourced provision within orattached to mainstream schools.
Principles of an inclusiveeducation service Inclusion is a process by which schools, LAs and others develop their cultures, policies and practices to include all pupils With the right training, strategies and support nearly all children with SEN and/or disabilities can be included successfully in mainstream education An inclusive education service offers excellence and choice and incorporates the views of parents and children The interests of all pupils must be safeguarded.
It would be helpful to you if you can decideupon your own working definition of inclusion(with the assistance of things you encounter inreading). The following slide offers just onedefinition of inclusion offered by the Centrefor Inclusive Education (CSIE). What are yourthoughts on this definition?
Defining inclusion“Inclusion in education involves the processes ofincreasing the participation of students in, and reducingtheir exclusion from, the cultures, curricula andcommunities of local schools. Inclusion is concerned withthe learning participation of all students vulnerable toexclusionary pressures, not only those with impairmentsor categorised as having SEN. Inclusion is concernedwith improving schools for staff as well as for students.”‘Index for inclusion: developing learning and participationin schools’, CSIE, 2002 7
Inclusive education is....• ‘about the participation of ALL children and young people and the removal of all forms of exclusionary practice’. (Barton, 1997: p. 84-85)• A process of change• A change in cultures that are often driven by deeply embedded negative values and beliefs• The social transformation of education systems and communities.• Driven by social justice and the need to remove all forms of inequalities from our education system.• ‘A challenge to deficit thinking and practice which too often lead many to believe that some children have to be dealt with in a separate way’. (Ainscow, 1999, in Armstrong, 2003) Interpretations of what inclusion means are contentious 17
Consider the following:• Inclusion is not a single movement it is made up of many strong currents of belief, many local struggles and a myriad forms of practice.• It is not something that can be ‘done’ or enacted. It is more to do with school cultures and ethos. It is a feeling or a social phenomenon. We can’t say that we ‘do’ inclusion as that misunderstands what it is. Do you agree or disagree with the above statements? Share your views on the discussion board.
Consider ‘The journey from segregation to inclusion’ diagram in resource book.What are the differences betweensegregation, integration and inclusion?Is integration inclusion?If not, why not? Share your thoughts on the discussion area.
Activity: Read ‘The Staffroom’ extract (resource book) What are the ‘buts’ of inclusion and are they justifiable? Post your thoughts on the discussion board See the following article for a further exploration of the ‘buts’ of inclusion: Lawson, H., Parker, M., and Sikes, P. (2006) ‘Seeking stories: reflections on European Journal of Special Needs Education, 21(1), 55-68. This article is available under ‘Readings’ area.
Reading activity 1:Read:Dunne, L. (2009) ‘Inclusion’ in A. Walton and G. Goddard (Eds) Supporting the Whole Child London: Learning MattersThis is located in your resource book.Complete the practical and reflective tasks.
Reading activity 2:Read:Berlach, R., and Chambers, D. (2011) ‘Interpreting inclusivity: an en International Journal of Inclusive Education 15, 5 This is also in your resource book and online under ‘Readings’ Did this help you in thinking about inclusion and what it might mean? Post your thoughts on the article on the discussion board.
In session 10, you will present yourassignment draft to the rest of your group,online, as a single powerpoint slide. There issome guidance on this in your resource book.
For next session:In preparation for the next session, please read:Armstrong, F. (2002) ‘ The historical development of special education: ? History of Education 31, 5, 437 -456Available in ‘Reading’ area or in resource book.