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The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business)
 

The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business)

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3-hour talk I gave on behalf of Social Bits and the Irish Internet Association (IIA). Contains an introduction to the general idea of the Semantic Web and Linked Data, its relevance and opportunities ...

3-hour talk I gave on behalf of Social Bits and the Irish Internet Association (IIA). Contains an introduction to the general idea of the Semantic Web and Linked Data, its relevance and opportunities for businesses, and a look under the hood - how does it all work?

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  • - documents and web pages are great for humans <br /> - structured and semantic data is in the background, and makes machines happy <br />
  • - documents and web pages are great for humans <br /> - structured and semantic data is in the background, and makes machines happy <br />
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  • - just creating lots of RDF is easy <br /> - establishing the links is hard <br />
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  • - Freebase is interesting: somewhat like Wikipedia, but based on a structured database, rather than &#x201C;just&#x201D; a wiki <br /> - Freebase is also used by Microsoft&#x2019;s Bing search engine <br />
  • - Yahoo! will find semantic information in Web pages with a technology called &#x201C;Search Monkey&#x201D; <br /> - they use this information to enrich their search results <br />
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  • - data.gov.uk: several hundred datasets from different ministries and departments and other public bodies <br /> - all fully implemented using standard Web and Semantic Web technologies and formats <br />
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  • - machine understandable as opposed to human-readable web site <br /> - can talk about things on the Web, but also about anything else, as long as we give it a URI <br /> <br />
  • - machine understandable as opposed to human-readable web site <br /> - can talk about things on the Web, but also about anything else, as long as we give it a URI <br /> <br />
  • - machine understandable as opposed to human-readable web site <br /> - can talk about things on the Web, but also about anything else, as long as we give it a URI <br /> <br />
  • - machine understandable as opposed to human-readable web site <br /> - can talk about things on the Web, but also about anything else, as long as we give it a URI <br /> <br />
  • - machine understandable as opposed to human-readable web site <br /> - can talk about things on the Web, but also about anything else, as long as we give it a URI <br /> <br />
  • - machine understandable as opposed to human-readable web site <br /> - can talk about things on the Web, but also about anything else, as long as we give it a URI <br /> <br />
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  • - often best when the domain/use case is clearly defined, rather than capturing everything <br /> - good relations: not every aspect of e-commerce, but "offers for goods and services&#x201D; <br />
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  • - started in 2000 <br /> - one of the &#x201C;success stories&#x201D; of the SW, very widely known and used <br /> - become a defacto standard: If you want to talk about people, you always use foaf:Person <br /> - livejournal, boards.ie, external converters for other networks, etc. <br />
  • - now the RDF code I showed in the beginning probably makes a bit more sense. <br /> - (explain) <br /> - you can also see an example here of how terms from different vocabularies and ontologies can be mixed <br />
  • - basic idea of GoodRelations <br /> - there are Business Entities and there are Products/Services <br /> - a particular business entity can offer a particular product or service: that is an offering <br /> - attached to the offering there are prices, quantities, etc. <br /> - there is a lot more, but that&#x2019;s the basic idea <br />
  • - as you can see, this is much more elaborate than FOAF <br />
  • - again: no need to understand all of this <br /> - these are the kinds of things you can do with GoodRelations <br />
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  • - if those principles or rules aren&#x2019;t followed, what we get are isolated data islands that that cannot be found. That defeats the whole purpose of the Semantic Web. <br /> - O&#x2019;Reilly URI - this is an example of how not to do it. Works perfectly fine in RDF, but software programs (and humans) won&#x2019;t know how to get more information about this thing. <br />
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  • - file: hard to keep Web pages and RDF (what people see and what machines see) in sync <br /> - content-negotiation: elegant solution, but not so easy to implement <br /> - (illustrate with Web browser) <br />
  • - technically easy: this is important to understand! <br /> - the ability to just embed the semantics in normal web pages appeals to many people who were previously critical of the Semantic Web, because they felt it was too complicated to implement <br /> - always in sync: e.g., people have often published an RDF file somewhere and then never updated it again, because they don&#x2019;t see it. They forget about it. <br /> - BestBuy: increased traffic, better page rank, ... <br /> - Drupal: very popular CMS, integrates RDFa out-of-the-box with the upcoming version 7 <br />
  • - so, what does RDFa look like? <br /> - not sure how familiar you are with HTML, but here is a very simple example Web page. <br /> <br />
  • - this is the same Web page with some embedded RDF, or RDFa <br /> - in your browser it will look exactly the same, but SW software will be able to <br />
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The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) Presentation Transcript

  • The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) Knud Möller, DERI and Social Bits  Copyright 2010 Knud Möller Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ http://www.socialbits.net/
  • The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) Knud Möller, DERI and Social Bits  Copyright 2010 Knud Möller Except where otherwise noted, this work is licensed under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0/ http://www.socialbits.net/
  • About me (in plain text) •Knud Möller •Web and Semantic Web researcher at DERI by day ... •... consultant for SocialBits at night! •PhD from NUI Galway on “Lifecycle support for Data on the Semantic Web” •involved in the W3C RDFa Working Group •Website: http://kantenwerk.org •LinkedIn: http://www.linkedin.com/in/knudmoeller •I’m not on Twitter... The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 2
  • About me (as a graph) foaf:Online foaf:Person swrc:Phdthesis Account http:// www.linkedin.com http:// /in/knudmoeller kantenwerk.org df:deri-nui- a a a galway foaf: foaf:homepage foaf:homepage depiction swrc:school foaf: foaf: :linkedin :me :phd_thesis account made foaf:account foaf:workplace dcterms:subject foaf:workplace ServiceHomepage Homepage Homepage foaf: dcterms:title accountName foaf:name http:// category: http:// www.socialbits.net Semantic_Web http:// www.deri.ie www.linkedin.com Lifecycle Support for knudmoeller Knud Möller Data on the Semantic Web The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 3
  • About me (in RDF code) :me a foaf:Person ; foaf:name “Knud Möller” ; foaf:workplaceHomepage <http://www.deri.ie> ; foaf:Online foaf:Person swrc:Phdthesis Account foaf:workplaceHomepage <http://www.socialbits.net> ; http:// foaf:made www.linkedin.com :phd_thesis ; http:// /in/knudmoeller kantenwerk.org df:deri-nui- a foaf:homepage <http://kantenwerk.org> ; a a galway foaf:account :linkedin ; foaf: foaf:homepage foaf:homepage depiction swrc:school foaf:depiction <http://kantenwerk.org/images/talk_isemantics.jpg> . foaf: foaf: :linkedin :me :phd_thesis account made :linkedin a foaf:OnlineAccount ; foaf:account foaf:workplace dcterms:subject foaf:accountName “knudmoeller” ; foaf:workplace Homepage ServiceHomepage Homepage foaf:homepage <http://www.linkedin.com/in/knudmoeller> dcterms:title foaf: ; accountName foaf:name http:// category: foaf:accountServiceHomepage <http://www.linkedin.com> . http:// www.socialbits.ie Semantic_Web http:// www.deri.ie www.linkedin.com :phd_thesis a swrc:Phdthesis ; Lifecycle Support for knudmoeller Knud Möller Data on the dcterms:title “Lifecycle Support for Data on the Semantic Web” ; Semantic Web swrc:school df:deri-nui-galway ; dcterms:subject category:Semantic_Web. The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 4
  • Some things I want to talk about today •What is the Semantic Web? •What are some of the buzz words and what do they mean? •Are there any serious players involved in the Semantic Web right now? •Who are they and what do they do? •What can businesses do today with the Semantic Web and how can it benefit them? •What might happen in the next few years in the field? The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 5
  • UK to spend £30.000.000 on SW Research 22/03/2010 The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 6
  • Buzz words in Gordon Brown’s speech The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 7
  • Buzz words in Gordon Brown’s speech “Next Generation of the Web” aka “Semantic Web” aka “Web of Linked Data” The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 7
  • Buzz words in Gordon Brown’s speech “Next Generation of the Web” aka “Semantic Web” aka “Web of Linked Data” disruptive for business The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 7
  • Buzz words in Gordon Brown’s speech “Next Generation of the Web” aka “Semantic Web” aka “Web of Linked Data” disruptive for business documents/files vs. data/information The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 7
  • Buzz words in Gordon Brown’s speech “Next Generation of the Web” aka “Semantic Web” aka “Web of Linked Data” disruptive for business direct answers to direct requests documents/files vs. data/information The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 7
  • Buzz words in Gordon Brown’s speech “Next Generation of the Web” aka “Semantic Web” aka “Web of Linked Data” disruptive for business “Web Science” direct answers to direct requests documents/files vs. data/information The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 7
  • Semantic Web: The General Idea •Today’s Web is the “Eyeball Web” - a web of interlinked documents and services that are made for humans to see and interact with. •The Semantic Web is a web of interlinked data, in formats that software agents can make sense of. •The Semantic Web does not replace our current Web - it will extend it. •The Semantic Web will be (and already is) under the hood of the current Web and make it smarter. •It’s the next generation, but it will probably look the same. The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 8
  • Documents vs. Data Document Data The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 9
  • Documents vs. Data Document Data The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 9
  • Documents vs. Data Document Data The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 9
  • The idea is not completely new...* Memex (Vannevar Bush) A memex is “a device in which an individual stores all his books, records, and communications.” Open Hypertext System (Doug Engelbart) “The open hyperdocument system (OHS) is a standards- based, open source framework for developing collaborative, knowledge management applications.” WWW (Tim Berners-Lee) “There was a second part of the dream […] we could then use computers to help us analyse it, make sense of what we re doing, where we individually fit in, and how we can better work together.” The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 10
  • But the time wasn’t right* *original slides from http://www.stefandecker.org/files/2006/cweeurope.ppt The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 11
  • Now it probably is The ingredients are there: •the internet and the WWW, a globally interconnected information network •fast computers •enormous data storage •representation standards •methods for automatic information extraction (NLP, ...) •“digital natives” The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 12
  • Linked Open Data •for a long time, the Semantic Web community focussed on logics, ontologies and stand-alone use-cases •however, without massive amounts of actual instance data, we won’t get anywhere •individual datasets need to be linked to each other (that’s the hard part), otherwise we have isolated islands The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 13
  • Linked Open Data (ctd.) •The Linked Open Data cloud - the set of interlinked, Semantic Web datasets - is growing rapidly February 2008 July 2009 The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 14
  • Who is using SW Technology now? • Companies using or producing semantic data, e.g. – Google (enhanced search results based on RDFa) – Yahoo! (enhanced search results based on RDFa) – Tesco (product pages enriched with RDFa) – BestBuy (semantic descriptions of shop locations) – O’Reilly (semantic descriptions of book catalogue) – Adobe (embedded RDF annotations of documents) • Companies doing business in Semantic Web, e.g. – OpenLink Software (Virtuoso Triple Store) – Talis Group (Talis Platform) – TopQuadrant (TopBraid Composer) – Metaweb (Freebase) The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 15
  • Who is using SW Technology now? (ctd.) Improved Search Results in Yahoo! The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 16
  • Who is using SW Technology now? (ctd.) •Governments, e.g. – UK public sector data at http://data.gov.uk – US open government data at http://www.data.gov (not quite Semantic Web, but close) – more at http://linkeddata.deri.ie/node/72 •Research prototypes, e.g. – Sindice and Sig.ma (a “semantic Google”) at DERI: – http://sindice.com/ •more examples at – http://www.w3.org/2001/sw/sweo/public/UseCases/ The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 17
  • Who is using SW Technology now? (ctd.) The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 18
  • How can all this affect businesses? •Business Intelligence – easier to harvest and analyse data from competitors – easier to do integrated querying of different data sources (population data, product data, political data, etc.) •Search Engine Optimisation (SEO) – BestBuy experienced 30% traffic increase after adding semantic metadata – Yahoo! reported higher click-through rate for search results with semantic metadata •Reduced Costs – Gordon Brown: savings of over £20bn in public sector? – improved communication, collaboration through technologies such semantic desktop, semantic office The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 19
  • How can all this affect businesses? (ctd.) •New forms of businesses, e.g. – new kinds of services – data handling: extract, maintain and link data – applications around linked data – specialised search engines for specific domains – ensuring data security, evaluate trustworthiness of sources (authority) •Consumer Pull – consumers will specify what they want and match with offers – contextualised, personalised advertisement (only offer products and services that the consumer wants) The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 20
  • Linked Data Business Models Scott Brinker, http://www.chiefmartec.com/2010/03/business-models-for-linked-data-and-web-30.html The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 21
  • The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 22
  • The Semantic Web - Under the Hood RDF Principles of Linked Data URI RDFa Vocabularies and Ontologies Datasets Image: http://www.flickr.com/photos/johnkay/3393069595/ © Copyright 2009 John Krzesinski This work is licensed under http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/deed.en The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 23
  • URIs - Unambiguous Names for Things •URIs are Uniform Resource Identifiers •You know them from your Web browser - “these names for things that start with ‘http’” (mostly) – (Tim Berners-Lee talk at TED2009) ambiguous unambiguous Apple Apple, the fruit Apple Apple, the computer company “Java in a Nutshell” “Java in a Nutshell”, 5th edition “Java in a Nutshell” “Java in a Nutshell”, 3rd edition to have a title to have a title, such as the title of a book to have a title to have a title, such as “Prof.” or “PhD” The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 24
  • URIs - Unambiguous Names for Things •URIs are Uniform Resource Identifiers •You know them from your Web browser - “these names for things that start with ‘http’” (mostly) – (Tim Berners-Lee talk at TED2009) ambiguous URIs Apple http://dbpedia.org/resource/Apple Apple http://dbpedia.org/resource/Apple_Inc. “Java in a Nutshell” urn:x-domain:oreilly.com:product:9780596007737.IP “Java in a Nutshell” urn:x-domain:oreilly.com:product:9781565924871.IP to have a title http://purl.org/dc/terms/title to have a title http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/title The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 25
  • RDF - Resource Description Framework •If the Semantic Web had a language, RDF would be its grammar •The main rules of the grammar: – every sentence has three words: subject, predicate and object – instead of English words, use unambiguous URIs for words (also called resources) •a sentence in RDF is also called a triple or a statement •RDF lets you say “anything about anything” Knud’s homepage is at http://kantenwerk.org. Knud’s full name is “Knud Möller”. The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 26
  • RDF - Resource Description Framework •If the Semantic Web had a language, RDF would be its grammar •The main rules of the grammar: – every sentence has three words: subject, predicate and object – instead of English words, use unambiguous URIs for words (also called resources) •a sentence in RDF is also called a triple or a statement •RDF lets you say “anything about anything” human-understandable Knud’s homepage is at http://kantenwerk.org. Knud’s full name is “Knud Möller”. The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 26
  • RDF - Resource Description Framework •If the Semantic Web had a language, RDF would be its grammar •The main rules of the grammar: – every sentence has three words: subject, predicate and object – instead of English words, use unambiguous URIs for words (also called resources) •a sentence in RDF is also called a triple or a statement •RDF lets you say “anything about anything” human-understandable Knud’s homepage is at http://kantenwerk.org. Knud’s full name is “Knud Möller”. The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 26
  • RDF - Resource Description Framework •If the Semantic Web had a language, RDF would be its grammar •The main rules of the grammar: – every sentence has three words: subject, predicate and object – instead of English words, use unambiguous URIs for words (also called resources) •a sentence in RDF is also called a triple or a statement •RDF lets you say “anything about anything” human-understandable <http://kantenwerk.org/knud> <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage> <http://kantenwerk.org>. Knud’s homepage is at http://kantenwerk.org. <http://kantenwerk.org/knud> <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name> “Knud Möller”. Knud’s full name is “Knud Möller”. The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 26
  • RDF - Resource Description Framework •If the Semantic Web had a language, RDF would be its grammar •The main rules of the grammar: – every sentence has three words: subject, predicate and object – instead of English words, use unambiguous URIs for words (also called resources) •a sentence in RDF is also called a triple or a statement •RDF lets you say “anything about anything” <http://kantenwerk.org/knud> <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage> <http://kantenwerk.org>. Knud’s homepage is at http://kantenwerk.org. <http://kantenwerk.org/knud> <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name> “Knud Möller”. Knud’s full name is “Knud Möller”. The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 26
  • RDF - Resource Description Framework •If the Semantic Web had a language, RDF would be its grammar •The main rules of the grammar: – every sentence has three words: subject, predicate and object – instead of English words, use unambiguous URIs for words (also called resources) •a sentence in RDF is also called a triple or a statement •RDF lets you say “anything about anything” machine-understandable <http://kantenwerk.org/knud> <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage> <http://kantenwerk.org>. Knud’s homepage is at http://kantenwerk.org. <http://kantenwerk.org/knud> <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name> “Knud Möller”. Knud’s full name is “Knud Möller”. The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 26
  • RDF - Resource Description Framework •If the Semantic Web had a language, RDF would be its grammar •The main rules of the grammar: – every sentence has three words: subject, predicate and object – instead of English words, use unambiguous URIs for words (also called resources) •a sentence in RDF is also called a triple or a statement •RDF lets you say “anything about anything” machine-understandable :knud foaf:homepage <http://kantenwerk.org>. <http://kantenwerk.org/knud> <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/homepage> <http://kantenwerk.org>. Knud’s homepage is at http://kantenwerk.org. :knud foaf:name is “Knud Möller”. <http://kantenwerk.org/knud> <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/name> “Knud Möller”. Knud’s full name “Knud Möller”. The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 26
  • RDF - Resource Description Framework •lots of triples make up a graph "Tom Heath" foaf:name foaf:Person dbpedia: rdf:type Semantic_Web people:tom-heath http:// foaf:topic rdf:type http:// foaf:maker foaf:maker data.semanticweb.org/ data.semanticweb.or http:// people:knud- foaf:maker foaf:name data.semanticweb.org conference/aswc-iswc/g/conference/aswc- moeller /conference/aswc- iswc/2007/tracks/in- people:knud- moeller "Knud Möller" use/papers/795 2007/tracks/in-use/iswc/2007/tracks/in- use/papers/795 papers/795 rdf:type swrc:title rdfs:subClassOf "Recipes for swrc: Semantic Web swc:Paper InProceedings Dog Food - The […]" Resource Statement Graph The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 27
  • SPARQL - Querying RDF •language to query RDF graphs (“direct answers to direct requests”) •looks a bit like SQL SELECT DISTINCT ?organisation ?employee WHERE { ?organisation a foaf:Organization . ?organisation foaf:member ?employee . } Find all organisations and their employees SELECT DISTINCT ?employee WHERE { org:deri-nuig-alway foaf:member ?employee } Find all employees of DERI The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 28
  • Vocabularies and Ontologies •the words in the Semantic Web: its nouns, verbs and adjectives, each as a URI •grouped together according to topics and use cases •usually types of things and relations (“Person”, “Product”), not specific instances (“Brian Cowen”, “iPhone 3GS”) •use logic-based languages such as OWL and RDFS to define the meaning of terms – People and their relations: •FOAF (Friend of a Friend), http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/ – E-Commerce (businesses, products, offers, shops, ...): •Good Relations, http://purl.org/goodrelations/ The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 29
  • Vocabularies and Ontologies – General purpose annotations (author, topics, dates, licenses, ...): •DCMI Metadata Terms (Dublin Core) •http://dublincore.org/documents/dcmi-terms/ – Online Communities and Communication: •SIOC (Semantically Interconnected Online Communities) •http://sioc-project.org/ – Address and Contact Information • vCard-RDF, http://www.w3.org/TR/vcard-rdf/ – Geo-locations: •Geo Vocabulary: http://www.w3.org/2003/01/geo/ – Events: •RDF Calendar: http://www.w3.org/TR/rdfcal/ – ... and many more - or create your own! – The beauty of RDF: you can mix all of those together as you like! The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 30
  • FOAF (Friend of a Friend) { Properties/Relations Classes/Types Person :knud a foaf:Person Organization :socialbits a foaf:Organization OnlineAccount :linkedin a foaf:OnlineAccount Project nasa:apollo11 a foaf:Project name :knud foaf:name “Knud Möller” { mbox :knud foaf:mbox <mailto:dunken69@gmail.com> homepage :knud foaf:homepage <http://kantenwerk.org> knows :knud foaf:knows :ina account :knud foaf:account :linkedin accountName :linkedin foaf:accountName “knudmoeller” member :socialbits foaf:member :knud @prefix foaf: <http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/> . The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 31
  • About me (in RDF code) :me a foaf:Person ; foaf:name “Knud Möller” ; foaf:workplaceHomepage <http://www.deri.ie> ; foaf:workplaceHomepage <http://www.socialbits.net> ; foaf:made :phd_thesis ; foaf:homepage <http://kantenwerk.org> ; foaf:account :linkedin ; foaf:depiction <http://kantenwerk.org/images/talk_isemantics.jpg> . :linkedin a foaf:OnlineAccount ; foaf:accountName “knudmoeller” ; foaf:homepage <http://www.linkedin.com/in/knudmoeller> ; foaf:accountServiceHomepage <http://www.linkedin.com> . :phd_thesis a swrc:Phdthesis ; dcterms:title “Lifecycle Support for Data on the Semantic Web” ; swrc:school df:deri-nui-galway ; dcterms:subject category:Semantic_Web. The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 32
  • Good Relations Business Product • Company Entity OrService • Car • Shop • Book • Restaurant • Consulting • Person • Waffles • ... • ... The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 33
  • Good Relations Offering Business Product • Company Entity OrService • Car • Shop • Book • Restaurant • Consulting • Person • Waffles • ... • ... The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 33
  • Good Relations BusinessEntity :waffle_company a gr:BusinessEntity . { LocationOfSalesOr :waffle_shop a Classes/Types ServiceProvisioning gr:LocationOfSalesOrServiceProvisioning . ProductOrService :maple_syrup_waffles a gr:ProductOrServiceModel . Model Offering :waffle_offering a gr:Offering . UnitPriceSpecification :waffle_price a gr:UnitPriceSpecification . TypeAndQualityNode :waffle_type_and_quality a gr:TypeAndQualityNode. Properties/Relations legalName :waffle_company gr:legalName “Super Waffles Ltd.” . { hasPOS :waffle_company gr:hasPOS :waffle_shop . offers :waffle_shop gr:offers :waffle_offering . :waffle_offering hasPriceSpecification gr:hasPriceSpecification :waffle_price . hasCurrency :waffle_price gr:hasCurrency “EUR” . :waffle_type_and_quality typeOfGood gr:typeOfGood :maple_syrup_waffles . @prefix gr: <http://purl.org/goodrelations/v1#> . The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 34
  • Good Relations gr:LocationOfSales OrService gr:Offering We sell tasty waffles with EUR Provisioning maple syrup, only €2.99! gr:has a a rdfs:comment Currency gr:has :waffle_shop gr:offers :waffle_offering Price :waffle_price enu Specification gr:legalName M a gr:has Currency gr:includesObject Value Super Waffles gr:UnitPrice Galway Specification 2.99 gr:hasPOS :waffle_type_and gr:amountOf 1 _quantity ThisGood Super Waffles a Ltd. gr:typeOfGood gr:TypeAnd gr:legalName QuantityNode :waffle_company :maple_sirup_ The “Super Waffles Galway” waffles café of the “Super Waffles Ltd.” a a rdfs:label chain sells waffles with maple syrup for €2.99 a piece. gr:ProductOr gr:BusinessEntity Waffles with maple syrup ServiceModel The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 35
  • Good Relations :waffle_company a gr:BusinessEntity ; gr:legalName "Super Waffles Ltd." ; gr:hasPOS :waffle_shop . :waffle_shop a gr:LocationOfSalesOrServiceProvisioning ; gr:legalName "Super Waffles Galway" ; gr:offers :waffle_offering . :waffle_offering a gr:Offering ; rdfs:comment "We sell tasty waffles with maple syrup, only €2.99!" ; gr:hasPriceSpecification :waffle_price ; gr:includes_object :waffle_type_and_quality . :waffle_price a gr:UnitPriceSpecification ; gr:hasCurrency "EUR" ; gr:hasCurrencyValue "2.99" . :waffle_type_and_quality a gr:TypeAndQualityNode ; gr:amountOfThisGood "1" ; gr:typeOfGood :maple_sirup_waffles . :maple_sirup_waffles a gr:ProductOrServiceModel ; rdfs:label "Waffles with Maple Sirup" . The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 36
  • Principles of Linked Data •we have URIs, we have RDF - shouldn’t we be fine now? •not quite - in order for Linked Data to work, the following principles should be followed: 1. Identify everything with a URI. 2. Use “http://” URIs - otherwise they cannot be found! 3. Provide useful information at each URI. 4. Include links between datasets. The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 37
  • Principles of Linked Data •we have URIs, we have RDF - shouldn’t we be fine now? •not quite - in order for Linked Data to work, the following principles should be followed: 1. Identify everything with a URI. 2. Use “http://” URIs - otherwise they cannot be found! 3. Provide useful information at each URI. 4. Include links between datasets. Bad URI! urn:x-domain:oreilly.com:product:9780596007737.IP The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 37
  • Data Hubs: DBpedia, Freebase & Co. •Linked Datasets providing a massive amount of instance data, covering many domains •URIs in these datasets can function as common names for things •Complementing ontologies and vocabularies (the types of things and relations) – http://dbpedia.org/resource/Republic_of_Ireland – http://dbpedia.org/resource/Brian_Cowen – http://dbpedia.org/resource/Volkswagen – http://dbpedia.org/resource/1969 The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 38
  • Data Hubs: DBpedia, Freebase & Co. •DBpedia: – complete mirror of all Wikipedia data “as is” – facts and relations extracted and represented as linked RDF – Semantic Web technology from the ground up – not-for-profit, community-based •Freebase: – also partially based on Wikipedia, but adapted – export as RDF possible, but not very linked data-friendly – commercially developed by Metaweb, but can be used freely (CC- BY license) The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 39
  • RDFa - Embedding RDF in Web Pages •Problem: we have the data, but what’s the best way to publish it and put it online? •Options: – Just put a file with RDF in it online: •http://kantenwerk.org/metadata/foaf.rdf – A method called “content negotiation”: •start: http://dbpedia.org/resource/National_Asset_Management_Agency •web server figures out if a normal HTML page or RDF is wanted •http://dbpedia.org/page/National_Asset_Management_Agency (HTML) •http://dbpedia.org/data/National_Asset_Management_Agency.rdf (RDF) – put RDF inside the HTML Web page (embedded RDF): •RDFa has emerged as standard for this The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 40
  • RDFa - Embedding RDF in Web Pages (ctd.) •technically easy: – no twiddling with server necessary – many platforms allow you to publish HTML snippets (within limits) •human-readable data (HTML) and machine- understandable data (RDF) are always in sync •getting a lot of attention and uptake (more than anything else on the SW before), e.g. – Google + Yahoo! (read RDFa) – BestBuy (uses GoodRelations e-commerce ontology) – Tesco (uses Yahoo! products vocabulary) – O’Reilly (uses GoodRelations and other ontologies) – Drupal (RDFa built starting with version 7) The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 41
  • RDFa - Embedding RDF in Web Pages (ctd.) <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML+RDFa 1.0//EN" "http://www.w3.org/MarkUp/DTD/xhtml- rdfa-1.dtd"> <html> <head> <title>My Homepage</title> </head> <body> <h1>About me</h1> <p>Hi! My name is John Doe, and this is my <b>lovely wife</b>, Mary Jane Doe. </p> <img src="http://missmba.files.wordpress.com/2009/10/marge-simpson1.jpg"/> </body> </html> The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 42
  • RDFa - Embedding RDF in Web Pages (ctd.) <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML+RDFa 1.0//EN" "http://www.w3.org/MarkUp/DTD/xhtml- rdfa-1.dtd"> <html xmlns:foaf="http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/" xmlns:dct="http://purl.org/dc/terms/"> <head> <title about=”” property=”dct:title”>My Homepage</title> </head> <body> <h1 about="">About <span rel="foaf:primaryTopic" resource="#me">me</span></h1> <p about="#me" typeof="foaf:Person">Hi! My name is <span property="foaf:name">John Doe</span>, and <span rel="foaf:knows"> <span about="#jane" typeof="foaf:Person">this is my <b>lovely wife</b>, <span property="foaf:name">Mary Jane Doe</span></span></span>. </p> <img resource="#jane" rev="foaf:depiction" src="http://missmba.files.wordpress.com/2009/10/marge-simpson1.jpg"/> </body> </html> The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 43
  • RDFa - Embedding RDF in Web Pages (ctd.) <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?> <!DOCTYPE html PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD XHTML+RDFa 1.0//EN" "http://www.w3.org/MarkUp/DTD/xhtml- rdfa-1.dtd"> <html xmlns:foaf="http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/" xmlns:dct="http://purl.org/dc/terms/"> <head> <title about=”” property=”dct:title”>My Homepage</title> </head> <body> <h1 about="">About <span rel="foaf:primaryTopic" resource="#me">me</span></h1> <p about="#me" typeof="foaf:Person">Hi! My name is <span property="foaf:name">John Doe</span>, and <span rel="foaf:knows"> <span about="#jane" typeof="foaf:Person">this is my <b>lovely wife</b>, <span property="foaf:name">Mary Jane Doe</span></span></span>. </p> <img resource="#jane" rev="foaf:depiction" src="http://missmba.files.wordpress.com/2009/10/marge-simpson1.jpg"/> </body> </html> The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 43
  • RDFa - Embedding RDF in Web Pages (ctd.) •For the adventurous: try out RDFa •go to http://www.w3.org/2007/08/pyRdfa/ •enter URI of example web page: •http://kantenwerk.org/downloads/rdfa_example.html •Output format: “Turtle” •Go! The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 44
  • RDFa - Embedding RDF in Web Pages (ctd.) The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 45
  • RDFa - Embedding RDF in Web Pages (ctd.) •Even more adventurous: try this with some “real-life” RDFa – http://stores.bestbuy.com/1895 – http://www.clothingattesco.com/menswear/Onebody-Ski-gloves/ invt/ew921763 – http://fast.morfeo-project.eu/workshops/ugs2009/ The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 46
  • Thank you for your patience! The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 47
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  • References • Social Bits: http://www.socialbits.net • DERI: http://www.deri.ie • Siegel, David (2009). “The Power of the Semantic Web to Transform your Business”. Portfolio. • “Cloud of Data” - Paul Miller’s blog and podcasts. http://cloudofdata.com • Video: Tim Berners-Lee on the Web of Linked Data @ TED2009 - http://www.ted.com/talks/ tim_berners_lee_on_the_next_web.html • Video: Gordon Brown on UK’s digital future, March 2009 - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0tNkRkPPmOE The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 49
  • References (ctd.) •W3C RDFa Parser (to try out RDFa): – http://www.w3.org/2007/08/pyRdfa/ •Google and Rich Snippets (RDFa): – http://www.google.com/support/webmasters/bin/answer.py? answer=99170&cbid •Effect of RDFa for BestBuy ranking in Google: – http://priyankmohan.blogspot.com/2009/12/online-retail-how-best- buy-is-using.html •Effect of RDFa in Yahoo search results: – http://www.ysearchblog.com/2009/08/28/see-more-searchmonkey/ The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 50
  • References (ctd.) •Linked Data Business Models: – http://www.chiefmartec.com/2010/01/7-business-models-for-linked- data.html •Example of BestBuy page with RDFa (try in RDFa parser) – http://stores.bestbuy.com/1895 •Example of Tesco page with RDFa: – http://www.clothingattesco.com/menswear/Onebody-Ski-gloves/invt/ ew921763 •List of open governmental datasets: – http://linkeddata.deri.ie/node/72 The Semantic Web (and what it can deliver for your business) 51