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Natural Hazards Revision Hobart High 2008
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Natural Hazards Revision Hobart High 2008

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Transcript

  • 1. Natural Hazards Revision
  • 2. Earthquakes and Volcanoes
    • Types of Hazards
    • Plate Tectonics
      • Earthquakes
      • Volcanoes
    • Tropical Storms
    • River Floods
    • Droughts
    • Global Warming
    • Ability to Cope – LEDC vs MEDC
  • 3. Plate Tectonics
  • 4. Types of Boundaries
  • 5. Where do Volcanoes occur
  • 6. Where do earthquakes occur
  • 7. Case Study –Earthquake, Kobe, Japan, MEDC
    • Need to know
      • When
      • Where
      • Why
      • Effects
        • Primary
        • Secondary
      • Aid
  • 8. Earthquake -Gujurat India, LEDC
    • Need to know
      • When
      • Where
      • Why
      • Effects
        • Primary
        • Secondary
      • Aid
  • 9. Volcano – Mount Pinatubo, Philippines
    • Need to know
      • When
      • Where
      • Why
      • Effects
        • Primary
        • Secondary
      • Aid
  • 10. Questions
    • What causes earthquakes and volcanic activity?
    • What are the main processes at work at constructive and destructive plate margins?
    • Describe how plate movements lead to the formation of fold mountains like the Himalayas
    • In what ways do conservative plate margins differ from other plate boundaries
  • 11. Natural Hazards - Flooding
    • Causes of River Flooding
    • Case Studies of Flooding
      • LEDC
      • MEDC
      • EU
  • 12. Flooding Causes
    • Heavy Rain: The river cannot cope and this extra water causes the level of the water in the river to rise and a flood to take place. WHY?
    • The following factors may encourage flooding:
      • A steep-sided channel.
      • A lack of vegetation or woodland.
      • A drainage basin consisting of mainly impermeable rock.
      • A drainage basin in an urban area.
  • 13. LEDC Bangladesh or China
    • Know your causes
      • Human
        • Eg Deforestation
      • Physical (Natural)
        • Eg Heavy monsoon rain between April and September
    • Understand the Solutions
    • Know a specific event
  • 14. MEDC Mississippi (USA) & Rhine (Germany)
    • Know your causes
      • Human
      • Physical
    • Understand the Solutions
    • Know a specific event
  • 15. Drought
    • Keyterms use p 40 revision guide to revise & define
      • Drought
      • Desertification
      • Soil Erosion
      • Deforestation
  • 16. Droughts & Humans
    • Droughts occur when a long period of abnormally dry weather leads to a severe water shortage. Extreme weather conditions are not the only cause of droughts, however - they are often caused by the activity of man as well. Human activities which can help trigger droughts include:
      • Constructing a dam on a large river may help provide electricity and water to irrigate farmland near the reservoir. But it may also cause drought downstream by severely reducing the flow of water.
      • Widespread cutting down of trees for fuel reduces the soil's ability to hold water, - drying out the ground, triggering desertification , and leading to drought.
  • 17. What measures are taken in UK
    • Reuse
    • Hosepipe bans
    • Cutting down on waste & leakage
    • Collect your own
    • Effects in UK
    • Water Quality Problems
    • Less irrigation
    • Cracking & subsidence
    • Rationing
  • 18. Case Study – The Sahel, North Africa
    • Location – You should know the general location and some of the countries
    • Explain the significance of the ITCZ
    • How have humans made it worse
    • What are the effects
    • How do people cope
  • 19. Tropical Storms
    • Revolves with winds over 200km/hr, heavy rain, high seas
    • hurricanes , typhoons or tropical cyclones
    • Where, between 5 & 20 degrees latitude of the equator
  • 20. Why do they occur
    • Hurricanes need a lot of heat to form, which is why they usually occur over tropical seas. It works like this:
    • Rising warm air rises fast (by warm seas over 27 degrees), causing towering clouds, heavy rainfall, and intense low pressure.
    • The low pressure sucks in air, causing very strong winds which spiral - clockwise in the northern hemisphere (anti in the Southern) - around the centre of the low, at speeds of around 120 km/h (75 mph).
    • Seen from above hurricanes are huge circular bodies of thick cloud around 450 km (300miles) wide. The cloud brings heavy rain, thunder and lightning.
    • In the centre is the eye of the hurricane , about 45 km across (30miles) across. Often there will be no cloud in the eye. Seen from below it will seem calmer, with a circle of blue sky above. The eye is formed because this is the only part of the hurricane where air is sinking.
    • In the northern hemisphere, the prevailing easterly tropical winds tend to steer hurricanes toward land - although their course is unpredictable. As they move inshore their power gradually reduces, because their energy comes from sucking up moist sea air
  • 21. Effects
    • Winds – Destruction of property & communications
    • Rains – Flooding
    • High Seas – Storm surges
  • 22. Reducing the effects of tropical storms includes:
    • Studying tropical storms once they form
    • Providing an early warning system
    • Long-term planning in areas prone to tropical storms
  • 23. Case Study MEDC Hurricane Katrina Tropical Storm LEDC Bangladesh
    • When
    • Where
    • Effects
  • 24. Compare & Contrast
    • How do MEDCs cope and why
    • How do LEDCs cope and why