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Dispensing Lab Specialized Drug Delivery Systems And Health AccessoriesDocument Transcript
Specialized Drug Delivery System and Health Accessories Objectives: 1. To name and illustrate the different specialized dosage forms found in the pharmacy 2. To review the proper use of nebulizer and implants 3. To describe the different specialized dosage forms found in the pharmacy. Procedures: Name different specialized dosage forms found in pharmacy. Illustrate the determined dosage forms. Questions: Describe the following: Implants Insufflations Irrigation solutions Linctuses Liniments Lotions Lozenges Mixtures Mouthwashes Poultices If a patient comes to you and asks you on how to use his nebulizer, what advice can you give him? How will you advice your allied professionals on proper use of implants? Conclusions: Questions: Describe the following: Implants Defines as sterile solid drug products made by compression, melting, or sintering. They generally consist of the drug and rate-controlling excipients. They are usually implanted between surgical cavities and below the skin. Insufflations These are medicated powders designed to be blown into the ear, nose, throat or body cavities by means of a device known as an insufflator. Bulk insufflation has largely disappeared and has been replaced by individual doses of powdered drugs supplied in hard capsules and inhaled from a device which breaks the capsule and allows the patient to inhale the powder. This type of insufflation is used mainly for drug delivery into the respiratory tract by inhalation. Irrigation solutions These are sterile, pyrogen-free solutions usually intended for irrigation of body cavities, operation cavities, wounds or the urogenital system. Linctuses Linctuses are viscous, liquid oral preparations that are usually prescribed for the relief of cough. They usually contain a high proportion of syrup and glycerol which have a demulcent effect on the membranes of the throat. The dose volume is small (5ml) and, to prolong the demulcent action, they should be taken undiluted. Liniments Liniments are fluid, semi-fluid or, occasionally, semi-solid preparations intended for application to the skin. They may be alcoholic or oily solutions or emulsions. Most are massaged into the skin (counter-irritant or stimulating types) but some are applied on a warm dressing or with a brush (analgesic and soothing types). Liniments should not be applied to broken skin. Lotions These are fluid preparations for external application without friction. They are either dabbed on the skin or applied on a suitable dressing and covered with a waterproof dressing to reduce evaporation. Lozenges Lozenges are solid preparations consisting of sugar and gum, the latter giving strength and cohesiveness to the lozenge and facilitating slow release of the medicament. They are used to medicate the mouth and throat and for the slow administration of indigestion or cough remedies. Mixtures Mixtures are liquid oral preparations consisting of one or more medicaments dissolved or suspended in an aqueous vehicle. Official mixtures are not usually formulated for a long shelf-life. Mouthwashes These are similar to gargles but are used for oral hygiene and to treat infections of the mouth. Poultices Poultices are paste-like preparations used externally to reduce pain and inflammation because they retain heat well. After heating, the preparation is spread thickly on a dressing and applied as hot as the patient can bear, to the affected area. If a patient comes to you and asks you on how to use his nebulizer, what advice can you give him? I would advice the patient to inhale through a facemask or mouthpiece when using a nebulizer so that the drug or the medicine could entirely be inhaled and would not be able escape. The patient should inhale the aerosol mist with regular breaths. A single treatment takes between five to thirty minutes to complete. How will you advice your allied professionals on proper use of implants? Implants can only be implanted by surgeons. As a pharmacist, I would advice if pain is felt at the site of the implant, the patient or client must immediately report it to his/her physician for proper intervention. A gauze wrap must be kept in for 24 hours after the insertion and should be removed. The sterile strips of tape should be left over the area for three days. They also must know that the patient should be careful not to bump the site or get that area wet for at least 3 days after the procedure. Lifting heavy objects is prohibited within 24 hours of implantation. They must also be aware that swelling and bruising are common for a few days. Conclusions: Specialized drug delivery systems are modifications of those dosage forms previously presented, are relatively new on the market, or do not fit into categories in the mainstream dosage forms already available. They may be relatively new, use new or relatively new delivery systems, or use unique delivery systems or unique devices before, during or after administration. Dramatic changes have been introduced, with new technology and new devices now on the market. Specialized drug delivery system development is largely based on promoting the therapeutic effects of a drug and minimizing its toxic effects by increasing the amount and persistence of a drug in the vicinity of the target cell. ILLUSTRATIONS OF DIFFERENT SPECIALIZED DOSAGE FORMS FOUND IN PHARMACYImplantsLotionsInsufflationsLozengesIrrigation solutionsMixturesLinctusesMouthwashesLinimentsPoultices