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Residential Land Development Process

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  • 1. Residential DevelopmentProcess/ Pro forma
  • 2. Table of Contents
    Introduction 5
    The Lot and Block Survey System 7 - 14
    Development of Regional Impact 15 - 27
    Site Plan Preparation 28 - 39
    Samples of Master Plan communities/ 40 - 49
    Individual Parcels
    Infrastructure Process 50 - 60
  • 3. Table of Contents con’t
    Sample of Municipality Permit 61 - 63
    Package Requirements
    Sample of Municipality Permit 64 - 66
    Process and Schedule
    Phasing the Community 67 - 71
    Conclusion 72
  • 4. Getting Started
    • So you think you want to get into the Land Development and Construction Business?
    • 5. If you think you are ready, be prepared for a long, tedious and sometimes arduous venture!
    • 6. The initial start up process will take thousands of man hours for conceptual design and development, and can take any where, from 6 month's to 2 years in duration to complete the initial design and Municipality approval process for a Master Plan Project.
  • Introduction
    This is an overview of the Development Process from the point of, moving through the various stages of the process, starting with conception, through municipality approval of a residential construction project. The proposed project will be a residential subdivision with a total of 400 units, the consumer targeted for the community will be first time buyers (affordable housing) and step up buyers. Price range of the units will be between $ 95,000.00 to $ 125,000.00.
    On various slides throughout the presentation you will notice words in color and underlined, these are links to offer a more detailed definition of the systems, methods and entities involved with creating, and approving a successful master planned community.
  • 7. Land Use, Acquisition and Development
    Overview and Start of the
    Development Process
  • 8. Lot and Block Survey System
    The system begins with a large tract of land. This large tract is typically defined by one of the earlier survey systems such as metes and boundsor the Public Land Survey System. A subdivision survey is conducted to divide the original tract into smaller lots and a plat map is created. Usually this subdivision survey employs a metes and bounds system to delineate individual lots within the main tract. Each lot on the plat map is assigned an identifier, usually a number or letter. The plat map is then officially recorded with a government entity such as a city engineer or a recorder of deeds. This plan becomes the legal description of all the lots in the subdivision. A mere reference to the individual lot and the map's place of record is all that is required for a proper legal description.
  • 9. In real estate, a lot is a tract or parcel of land owned or meant to be owned by some owner(s). A lot is essentially considered a parcel of real property in some countries or immovable property (meaning practically the same thing) in other countries. Possible owner(s) of a lot can be one or more person(s) or another legal entity, such as a company/corporation, organization, government, or trust. A common form of ownership of a lot is called fee simple in some countries. Lots can come in various sizes and shapes. To be considered a single lot, the land described as the "lot" must be contiguous. Two separate parcels are considered two lots not one. Often a lot is sized for a single house or other building. Many lots are rectangular in shape, although other shapes are possible as long as the boundaries are well-defined.
  • 10. Methods of determining or documenting the boundaries of lots include metes and bounds, quadrant method, and use of a plat diagram. Use of the metes and bounds method may be compared to drawing a polygon. Metes are points which are like the vertices (corners) of a polygon. Bounds are line segments between two adjacent metes. Bounds are usually straight lines, but can be curved as long as they are clearly defined. The part of the boundary of the lot next to a street or road is the frontage. Developers try to provide at least one side of frontage for every lot, so owners can have transportation access to their lots. As the name implies, street frontage determines which side of the lot is the front, with the opposite side being the back.
  • 11. Local governments often pass zoning laws which control what buildings can be built on a lot and what they can be used for. For example, certain areas are zoned for residential buildings such as houses. Other areas can be commercially, agriculturally, or industrially zoned. Sometimes zoning laws establish other restrictions such as a minimum lot area and/or frontage length for building a house or other building, maximum building size, or minimum setbacks from a lot boundary for building a structure. This is in addition to building codes which must be met. Also minimum lot sizes and separations must be met when wells and septic systems are used. In urban areas, sewers and water lines often provide service to households. There may also be restrictions based on covenants established by private parties such as the developer. There may be easements for utilities to run water, sewage, electric power, or telephone lines through a lot.
  • 12. Something which is meant to improve the value or usefulness of a lot can be called an appurtenance to the lot. Structures such as buildings, driveways, sidewalks, patios or other pavement, wells, septic systems, signs, and similar improvements which are considered permanently attached to the land in the lot are considered as real property, usually part of the lot but often parts of a building, such as condominiums, are owned separately. Such structures owned by the lot owner(s), as well as easements which help the lot owners or users, can be considered appurtenances to the lot. A lot without such structures can be called a vacant lot, spare ground, an empty lot, or an unimproved or undeveloped lot.
  • 13. Many times, developers divide a large tract of land into lots to make a subdivision out of it. Certain areas of the land are dedicated (given to local government for permanent upkeep) as streets and sometimes alleys for transportation and access to lots. Areas between the streets are divided up into lots to be sold to future owners. The layout of the lots is mapped on a plat diagram, which is recorded with the government, typically the countyrecorder's office. The blocks between streets and the individual lots in each block are given an identifier, usually a number or letter.
  • 14. Land originally granted by the government was commonly done by documents called patents. Lots of land can be sold/ bought by the owners or conveyed in other ways. Such conveyances are made by documents called deeds which should be recorded by the government, typically the county recorder's office. Deeds specify the lot by including a description such as one determined by the "metes and bounds" or quadrant methods, or referring to a lot number and block number in a recorded plat diagram. Deeds often mention that appurtenances to the lot are included in order to convey any structures and other improvements also.
  • 15. Sample of PLSS
  • 16. Development of Regional Impact
  • 17. DRI-
    "…..means any development which, because of its character, magnitude, or location, would have a substantial effect upon the health, safety, or welfare of citizens of more than one county."
  • 18. DRI Purpose
    • Identifies issues Early in the process
    • 19. Provides Extra- Jurisdictional Approach
    • 20. Allows for State and Regional Agency Expertise and Technical Assistance
    • 21. Assesses and Mitigates Project Impacts to State and Regional Resources and Facilities
  • DRI Types and Thresholds
    14 Categories of Development
    • Residential
    Developments
    • Post- Secondary Schools
    • 22. Retail Service Development
    • 23. Hotel and Motel Development
    • 24. Recreational Vehicle Development
    • 25. Multi- Use Development
    • 26. Airports
    • 27. Attractions and Recreational Facilities
    • 28. Hospitals
    • 29. Industrial Facilities
    • 30. Mining Operations
    • 31. Office Development
    • 32. Petroleum Storage Facilities
    • 33. Port Facilities
  • DRI Uniform Standards
    • Identifies Resources and Facilities of Concern to State and Region
    • 34. Defines what Constitutes a "Significant Impact"
    • 35. Establishes Uniform Standards for Mitigation of Regional Impacts
    • 36. Listed Vegetation and Wildlife Species
    • 37. Archaeological and Historical Resources
    • 38. Public Facilities
    • 39. Transportation
    • 40. Air Quality
    • 41. Adequate Housing
    • 42. Weather Event Preparedness
  • Role of the Developer
    • Initiates the Process with a Proposed Development Plan
    • 43. Files and Completes' Application for Development Approval
    • 44. Participates in the Review Process and Responds to Questions
    • 45. Participates in the Public Hearing
    • 46. May Appeal the Adopted Development Order
    • 47. Implements the Development Order and Provides Mitigation
    • 48. Submits Annual Reports
  • Role of Local Government
    • Responsible for Land Use and Development Approvals
    • 49. Participates in the DRI Review Process
    • 50. Conducts the Public Hearing
    • 51. Adopts or Denies the Development Order
    • 52. Includes Conditions (Mitigation) of Approval or Denial of the Development Order
    • 53. Primary Enforcer of the Development Order
  • Role of Regional Planning Councils
    • Assists the Developer through the DRI Process
    • 54. Lead Role for Coordinating the Review Process with local, regional, state and federal agencies (Pre- Application Conference, Sufficiency Review and Regional Assessment Report)
    • 55. Recommends Conditions of Approval or Denial to Local Government
  • Role of Department of Community Affairs
    • General Supervision of Administration and Enforcement of Program
    • 56. Adopt Rules
    • 57. Agreement Authority
    • 58. Determines when a Development Qualifies for DRI Review
    • 59. Binding Letters of DRI Status or Vested Rights
    • 60. Clearance Letters
    • 61. Monitoring and Enforcement
    • 62. Approves Preliminary Development Agreements
    • 63. May Appeal the Adopted Development Order
  • DRI Review Process
  • 64. Sample of a Proposed Airport DRI
  • 65. Steps Necessary to Record a Subdivision Plat
    • Development Plan Approval
    • 66. Preliminary Subdivision Plan Approval
    • 67. Final Engineering Approval
    • 68. Final Plat Approval
    • 69. Subdivision Review Fees
    (All fees are to be paid at the time of plat recording)
  • 70. Land Acquisition/ Entitlement
    Planned Urban Development, or PUD, is a zoning class that allows for residential and commercial buildings. The PUD classification allows builders to develop residential, retail, and professional buildings into one community, as well as recreation areas such as parks, so that residents can live, work, and play locally.
    A parcel of land is selected, land use is designated and requested by the potential buyer and approved by the governing municipality. Infrastructure Engineering, Surveying and Geotechnical firms are selected by the potential developer. Land use's typically are residential, mixed use, commercial, as well as recreation areas such as parks.
  • 71. Preparing a Site Plan
    What is a Site Plan?A Site Plan is a drawing depicting the site of a proposed or existing project. Some of the key elements of a Site Plan are property boundaries, land topography, vegetation, proposed and/or existing structures, easements, wells, and roadways. 
    Why is a Site Plan Needed?A site plan is required for most appointments, permit applications, pre-application meetings, and submittals.  It provides a visual image of your proposal and is used to assist in determining if your project conforms to land use policies and regulations.
    A Site Plan submitted as part of a permit application needs to show all of the following items. 
  • 72. Sample of Site Plan Submittal Requirements
    Submittal Requirements
    • Complete sets of the Site Plan(12 folded copies for DRC review, 10 copies for small scale site plans)
    • 73. Storm water Calculations (2 copies)
    • 74. Soils Report(if applicable, 2 copies)
    • 75. Lift Station Calculations(if applicable, 2 copies)
    • 76. Site Plan Application & Application Fee
    • 77. Concurrency Application (whichever is applicable) & Review Fee
    • 78. Application for Arbor(for tree removal)& Arbor Permit Fee
    • 79. Residential Projects Only: A dated copy of School Impact Analysis submitted to the School Board
  • General Information
    • Name of Project
    • 80. Statement of intended use of site
    • 81. Legal Description of the property and size of parcel in acres or square feet
    • 82. Name, Address, Telephone Number and Fax Number of:
    • 83. Owner or Owners of record
    • 84. Engineer (plans must be sealed by a Registered Engineer)
    • 85. Applicant and Firm
    • 86. Vicinity Map, showing relationship of proposed development to the surrounding streets and thoroughfares.
    • 87. Date, North Arrow and Scale, Number of Sheets (scale shall be no smaller than 1 (one) inch to fifty (50) feet)
  • All Existing & Proposed Building Restriction Lines (i.e. highway setback lines, easements, covenants, right-of-ways, and building setbacks, if different than those specified by the Zoning Regulations)
    Site Dimensions & Setbacks to Property Lines
    Existing Topography with a maximum of 1 (one) foot contour intervals
    Finished Grade Elevations
    Adjacent Driveways, Curb cuts, or Street Intersections
    Utility Lines (size & types)
    Fire Hydrants, Fire Lanes, and Fire Dept Connection (Siamese)
    Landscape & Irrigation Plans
    Handicap Accessibility
  • 88. Building and Structures
    • Intended Use
    • 89. Number of Stories
    • 90. Height and dimensions of Building
    • 91. Number of Dwelling Units and Density for Multi-Family Site Plans
    • 92. Projected Number of Employees
    • 93. If Restaurant, show Number of Seats & Occupancy Load
    • 94. Square footage for Proposed Development – gross square footage, non-storage area, square footage of each story, gross square footage of sales area, etc.
    • 95. Photograph or Sketch of Proposed Sign and location depicted on plan
  • Vehicle and Pedestrian Specifications
    Streets, Sidewalks, Driveways, Parking Areas, and
    Loading Spaces
    • Engineering Plans and Specifications for Streets, Sidewalks, and Driveways
    • 96. All Parking Spaces Designated
    • 97. Number of Parking Spaces
    • 98. Number and Location of Handicapped Spaces
    • 99. Number and Designation of Loading Spaces
    • 100. Number of square feet of Paved Parking and Driveway Area
    • 101. Surface Materials of Driveways
    • 102. Cross-sections at fifty (50) foot intervals or greater for off-site improvements as recommended by the Development Review Manager
    • 103. Fire Lanes
    • Location of Proposed Driveway(s) and Median Cut(s)
    • 104. Internal Traffic Circulation Plan, including directional arrows, and signs to direct traffic flow
    • 105. Location of Traffic Control Signs and Signal Devices
    • 106. Designate Location of Sidewalks
    • 107. Coordinate Walkways, Driveways, etc., with facilities in adjacent developments
    • 108. All Proposed Streets and Alleys
    • 109. The Extension or Construction of Service Roads and Access thereto on-site must be shown where applicable
  • Stormwater
    • Engineering Plans and Specifications for collection and treatment of Storm Drainage, including a description of the Preservation of any Natural Features, such as lakes, and streams or other natural features.
    Dredge and Fill
    • If any dredging or filling operation is intended in development area, application shall be made to the Development Review Manager. No such work shall be done prior to issuance of such permit
  • Soils
    • Soil classification map as an overlay for comparison with proposed development activities. Indicate soil classifications in drainage calculations as identified by the United States Department of Agriculture Soil Conservation Service in the "County Soil Survey" and "Soil Survey Supplement". Site specific soil analysis by a qualified soil engineer shall be furnished unless waived by the Development Review Manager
    Erosion Control
    • Provisions for the adequate control for erosion and sediment, indicating the location and description of the methods to be utilized during and after all phases of clearing, grading, and construction.
  • Limits of Flood Plain
    • Indicate flood elevation for 100-year flood on the site plan as established by the United States Geological Survey Map series entitled, "Map of Flood Prone Areas" or "Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM)", and submit a certified copy of a topographic survey.
    Proposed Water and Sewer Facilities
    • Utility Agreement and FDEP Permit applications for water and sewer line extensions if sewer/water is provided by the County. If other utility company is provider, then a letter from that utility company authorizing the capacity is required.
    • 110. Water: Size, material, and location of water mains, plus valves and fire hydrants, plus engineering plans and specifications.
    • 111. Sanitary Sewer Systems: Size, material, and location of lines plus engineering plans and specifications, with submittal of a profile where required or location of septic tank and drainfield.
  • Solid Waste
    • Location(s) and access provisions for refuse service, including pad screening, fencing, and landscaping.
    Landscaping, Arbor, Recreation, and Open Space
    • Landscape plan, irrigation systems plan, and provision for maintenance. Include size, type, and location of all landscaping, screens, walls, fences, and buffers.
    • 112. Application for Arbor Permit and tree survey.
    • 113. Recreation and open space areas, in square feet and as a percentage of overall site.
  • Wetlands
    • Wetlands area shall be delineated by survey certified by a Registered Professional Land Surveyor following field verification of boundaries by the Natural Resources Officer or the SJRWMD.
    Existing Conditions
    • Driveways and median cuts
    • 114. Sidewalks, streets, alleys, and easements (note widths and type)
    • 115. Drainage systems to include natural and structural (size and materials, invert elevation)
    • 116. Size and location nearest water mains, valves, and fire hydrants
    • 117. Sanitary sewer systems (size, invert elevations, etc., to be included)
    • 118. Gas, power, and telephone lines and utility poles, where available
  • Sample 1:
    Master Planned
    Development
  • 119. Master Planned Development
  • 120. Master Planned Development
  • 121. Sample 2:
    Master Planned
    Development
  • 122. Land Use/ Plat Map
  • 123. Master Planned Development
  • 124. Conceptual Master Plan
  • 125. Sample of Individual
    Parcel/ Plat
  • 126. Parcel Located in Plat Map
  • 127. Completed Structure on Parcel
  • 128. Infrastructure
    Process
  • 129. Infrastructure Process/ Earthwork
  • 130. Infrastructure Process/ Grading
  • 131. Infrastructure Process
    Infrastructure is the basic physical and organizational structures needed for the operation of a society or enterprise, or the services and facilities necessary for an economy to function. The term typically refers to the technical structures that support a society, such as roads, water supply, sewers, power grids, telecommunications, and so forth. In some contexts, the term may also include basic social services such as schools, hospitals, Transportation , Energy , Water management, Communications , Waste management and Geophysical.
  • 132. Most infrastructure is designed by civil engineers, except for telecommunications, electricity and monitoring networks, that are designed mainly by electrical engineers. In the case of urban infrastructure, the general layout of roads, sidewalks and public places may sometimes be designed by urbanists or architects, although the detailed design will still be performed by civil engineers.
    In terms of engineering tasks, the design and construction management process usually follows these steps:
  • 133. Preliminary Studies:
    • Determine existing and future traffic loads, determine existing capacity, and estimate the existing and future standards of service;
    • 134. Conduct a preliminary survey and obtain information from existing air photos, maps, plans, etc.
    • 135. Identify possible conflicts with other assets or topographical features;
    • 136. Perform environmental impact studies:
    Evaluate the impact on the human environment (Noise pollution, odors, electromagnetic interference, etc..);
    Evaluate the impact on the natural environment (disturbance of natural ecosystems);
    Evaluate possible presence of contaminated soils;
  • 137.
    • Given various time horizons, standards of service, environmental impacts and conflicts with existing structures or terrain, propose various preliminary designs;
    • 138. Estimate the costs of the various designs, and make recommendations
    Detailed Survey:
    • Perform a detailed survey of the construction site;
    • 139. Obtain As Built drawings of existing infrastructure;
    • 140. Dig exploratory pits where required to survey underground infrastructure;
    • 141. Perform a geotechnical survey to determine the bearing capacity of soils and rock;
    • 142. Perform soil sampling and testing to estimate nature, degree and extent of soil contamination;
  • Detailed Engineering:
    • Prepare detailed plans and technical specifications;
    • 143. Prepare a detailed bill of materials;
    • 144. Prepare a detailed cost estimate;
    • 145. Establish a general work schedule
    Authorization:
    • Obtain authorization from environmental and other regulatory agencies;
    • 146. Obtain authorization from any owners or operators of assets affected by the work;
    • 147. Inform emergency services, and prepare contingency plans in case of emergencies
  • Tendering:
    • Prepare administrative clauses and other tendering documents;
    • 148. Organize and announce a Call for Tenders;
    • 149. Answer contractor questions and issue addenda during the tendering process;
    • 150. Receive and analyze tenders, and make a recommendation to the owner
    Construction Supervision:
    • Once the construction contract has been signed between the owner and the general contractor, once all authorizations have been obtained, and once all pre-construction submittals have been received from the general contractor, the construction supervisor issues an Order to Begin Construction;
    • Regularly schedule meetings and obtain contact information for the general contractor (GC) and all interested parties;
    • 151. Obtain a detailed work schedule and list of subcontractors from the GC.
    • 152. Obtain detailed traffic diversion and emergency plans from the GC;
    • 153. Obtain proof of certification, insurance and bonds;
    • 154. Examine shop drawings submitted by the GC;
    • 155. Receive reports from the materials quality control lab;
    • 156. When required, review Change request s from the GC, and issue Construction Directives and Change Orders;
    • 157. Follow work progress and authorize partial payments;
    • 158. When substantially completed, inspect the work and prepare a list of deficiencies;
    • 159. Supervise testing and commissioning;
    • Verify that all operating and maintenance manuals, as well as warranties, are complete;
    • 160. Prepare "As Built" drawings;
    • 161. Make a final inspection, issue a certificate of final completion and authorize the final payment
  • Sample of Municipality
    Permit Requirements
  • 162. TO SUBMIT FOR A RESIDENTIAL PERMIT YOU MUST HAVE:
    PARCEL ID NUMBER / ADDRESS / OR LEGAL PRINTOUT (PROPERTY APPRAISAL SITE) & UNIT OR SUITE NUMBER IF APPLICABLE (IF APARTMENT/CONDO NUMBER OF DWELLING UNITS PER BUILDING)
    2 SETS OF SITE PLANS
    2 SETS OF ARCHITECT OR ENGINEER SEALED PLANS
    2 SETS OF ENERGY CALCULATIONS (3RD COPY OF THE TOP 2 PAGES)
    2 SETS OF RAISED SEALED TRUSS PROFILES
    PRODUCT APPROVAL FORM (2 COPIES)
    GAS SPREAD SHEET FORM (IF APPLICABLE )
    1 APPLICATION FILLED OUT COMPLETELY
  • 163.
    • 1 DINO (HISTORICAL / ARCHAEOLOGICAL DISCOVERY)
    • 164. 1 NOTICE OF COMMENCEMENT (IF WORK OVER $2500 - NOT REQUIRED FOR TENTS)
    • 165. 1 POWER OF ATTORNEY (IF CONTRACTOR HAS NOT SIGNED ALL REQUIRED PAPERWORK OR IS NOT APPEARING IN PERSON)
    • 166. 1 OWNER BUILDER FORM (IF NO CONTRACTOR)
    • 167. 1 ESTOPPEL LETTER (IF REQUIRED)
    • 168. 1 ARBOR PERMIT (IF REQUIRED)
    • 169. IF NOT COUNTY WATER & SEWER, NEED UTILITY LETTER FROM PROVIDER OR WELL / SEPTIC PERMIT/LETTER (OR LIFT STATION)
    • 170. A DEPOSIT OF $100 PER $100,000 OF VALUE (OF THE PROJECT) IS APPLIED ON EACH PROJECT.
  • Sample of Municipality
    Permit Process Schedule
  • 171. Application Submittal(1 day)The application and other required documentation is submitted to the Building Department
    Addressing (1-2 days - if not in a platted sub)The application is passed to addressing which will assign or verify an address for the 911 system.
    Zoning Division (1-2 days)Zoning will review and verify the site and building plans for setback and any other land development requirements. Impact fees will also be set
  • 172. Flood Prone Areas(1-2 days - if required)Flood Prone will review the application and inform or notify the applicant of any necessary requirements
    Wetlands Areas(2-3 days - if required)Wetlands will review the application and inform or notify the applicant of any necessary requirements
    Plan Review (3-5 working days)The plans will be reviewed. A list of inspections that will be required is relayed to the customer
    Update and IssueA permit tech will contact the customer with what fees they will need to pay and any items required prior to the permit being issued. The customer will come to the County Services Building to pay and will receive the permit.
  • 173. Phasing of the
    Project
  • 174. As you can see, there is a lot of coordination and cooperation required between the Developer and the Governing Municipality, the relationship established in the beginning of the process will become essential if a project is going to be successful, cost effective and a harmonious place for future occupants.
    At this stage of the process, the Master Plan Community has been approved and Land development permits have been issued by the governing municipality. The land development and infrastructure process will be segmented or phased to mirror the vertical construction process. As mentioned at the beginning of the presentation, the subdivision will have a total number of 400 units. The project will be phased into four groups of 100 units each, if the phasing is coordinated correctly with the infrastructure process, each phase can act as a independent project within the overall community.
  • 175. To illustrate the process, the land development and infrastructure process will start in Phase 1 and continue to Phase 2, once Phase 1 has passed all governing authority's applicable inspections (roads, storm water system, sewer system, compliant water testing of the water supply system and all required hardscapes are completed), then vertical construction of Phase 1 can begin. Each building lot must have the following: (water supply stub out, sewer stub out, electrical service provisions and communications), this is to prevent any major delays in completion of the project by missed critical components of the infrastructure process. As Phase 2 is completed, Phase 3 can begin the land development and infrastructure process, Phase 2 is now ready for vertical construction, and once Phase 3 is completed, Phase 4 can begin the land development and infrastructure process, and again Phase 3 is ready for vertical construction and finally Phase 4 is completed and is for vertical construction.
  • 176. Completed Master Planned Community
  • 177. Phase 1Phase 3
    Phase 4
    Phase 2
  • 178. Conclusion
    The overall process started with a large proposed subdivision and finished with the sample of permit requirements, and the permit process schedule for an individual lot. The next presentation will be Part 3, and will focus on the vertical construction process of a single unit within the subdivision.
    Some of the topics covered in the vertical construction process will be:
    Types and methods of single family detached housing construction, Cost Calculations, Site office setup, Model Selection and Trap System, Marketing/ Branding Product and Grand opening of the Community, Sales Contract Procedure, Options Selection Center, Purchasing and Estimating Function, QA/ QC inline inspection program, OSHA/ MSDS/ SWPPP Procedure's, Customer Care/ Warranty Standards, Start Rates (Even Flow Construction Process) and Obtaining The Certificate of Occupancy.
  • 179. Thank You,I hope you have found this presentation informative and educational!