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The Dynamic Earth

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  • 1. The Dynamic Earth
  • 2. Earth Facts:
    • circumference around the poles is 40,007 km
    • circumference around the equator is 40,074 km
    • Earth is NOT a perfect sphere… it is a oblate spheroid, a slightly flattened sphere
    • Earth’s mass is approximately 6.0 x 10 24 kg
    • Earth’s average diameter is 12,735 km
    • Difference between the height of the tallest mountains and the depth of the deepest ocean trenches is only 20 km
  • 3. Layers above the Earth
    • Hydrosphere: all of the water that covers the Earth
    • Atmosphere: blanket of gases that surround the Earth; 78% Nitrogen; 21% Oxygen; The rest (1%) is combination of argon, carbon dioxide helium and water
    • Atmosphere is divided up into 5 regions
  • 4. Layers inside the Earth
  • 5. Layers inside the Earth Crust: The thin, solid outermost zone of the Earth
    • Makes up only 1% of Earth’s mass
    • Oceanic Crust: crust under the oceans
    • Only 5km to 10km thick
    • Continental Crust: crust that makes up the continents
    • 15km to 80km thick
    • Thickest beneath high mountain ranges
  • 6. Layers inside the Earth Mantle: Zone of rock nearly 2,900km thick Makes up almost 67% of Earth’s mass Layers of the Mantle: Lithosphere: uppermost part of the mantle and the crust above it; cool and brittle. The boundary between the crust and mantle is referred to as the MOHO Asthenosphere: solid rock with the ability to flow due to heat and pressure (plasticity) Mesosphere: increasingly dense and solid rock layer (aka “Lower Mantle”)
  • 7. Layers inside the Earth Core: Center of the earth made up mostly of iron Outer core: dense liquid layer about 2,250km thick Inner core: dense solid layer about 1,228km thick Together the inner and outer core make up about 33.3 % of Earth’s mass
  • 8.  
  • 9. P and S Waves Liquids and Solids How Do We Know? Seismic Wave Studies We will talk more about seismic waves when we study Earthquakes!
  • 10.  
  • 11. The Earth As A Magnet
  • 12. The Earth’s Gravity Sir Isaac Newton’s Law of Gravitation: The force of attraction between two objects depends on the mass of the objects and the distance between them. Weight: A measure of the strength of the pull of gravity on an object Weight and Mass are NOT the same…. EUREKA !
  • 13.  
  • 14. The Earth is not perfectly round it is slightly wider around the Equator So… a person standing at the Equator is farther from the center of the Earth than a person standing at the North Pole. The person at the Equator will weigh less because he is farther from the center of the Earth.
  • 15. The Movements of the Earth How fast is the Earth spinning? 0.5 km/sec Called: ROTATION Time it takes for Earth to ROTATE once on it’s axis: 24 hours How fast is the Earth revolving around the Sun? 30 km/sec Called: REVOLUTION Time it takes for Earth to REVOLVE once around the sun: 365.24 days (1 year) How far is the Earth from the sun when it is CLOSEST TO IT? 147,100,000km Called: Perihelion How far is the Earth from the sun when it is FARTHEST FROM IT? 152,600,000km Called: Aphelion
  • 16.  
  • 17. The Earth is tilted on it’s axis
  • 18. The Reasons for the Seasons
  • 19.