Inside the Atom~Notes
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  • 1. Inside The Atom
  • 2. Structure of the Atom
    • There are two regions
    • The nucleus
    • With protons and neutrons
    • Positive charge
    • Almost all the mass
    • Electron cloud- Most of the volume of an atom
    • The region where the electron can be found
  • 3. Subatomic particles Electron Proton Neutron Name Symbol Charge Relative mass Actual mass (g) e - p + n 0 -1 +1 0 1/1840 1 1 9.11 x 10 -28 1.67 x 10 -24 1.67 x 10 -24
  • 4. Size of an atom
    • Atoms are small.
    • Measured in picometers, 10 -12 meters
    • Hydrogen atom, 32 pm radius
    • Nucleus tiny compared to atom
    • IF the atom was the size of a stadium, the nucleus would be the size of a marble.
    • Radius of the nucleus near 10 -15 m.
    • Density near 10 14 g/cm
  • 5. Counting the Pieces
    • Atomic Number = number of protons
    • # of protons determines kind of atom
    • the same as the number of electrons in the neutral atom
    • Mass Number = the number of protons + neutrons
    • All the things with mass
  • 6.  
  • 7. Symbols
    • Contain the symbol of the element, the mass number and the atomic number
    • THIS IS NOT THE SAME AS WHAT IS IN THE PERIODIC TABLE!
    X Mass number Atomic number
  • 8. Symbols
    • Find the
      • number of protons
      • number of neutrons
      • number of electrons
      • Atomic number
      • Mass Number
    F 19 9
  • 9. Symbols
    • Find the
      • number of protons
      • number of neutrons
      • number of electrons
      • Atomic number
      • Mass Number
    Br 80 35
  • 10. Symbols
    • if an element has an atomic number of 34 and a mass number of 78 what is the
      • number of protons
      • number of neutrons
      • number of electrons
      • Complete symbol
  • 11. Symbols
    • if an element has 91 protons and 140 neutrons what is the
      • Atomic number
      • Mass number
      • number of electrons
      • Complete symbol
  • 12. Ions
    • Under normal conditions, atoms have the same number of electrons as protons
    • When atoms react chemically, they can gain or loose electrons
    • When an atom has
    • gained or lost an electron
    • it is now considered an ion
  • 13. A neutral atom of sodium has 11 protons and 11 electrons When sodium reacts chemically, it typically looses one electron; giving it 11 protons and 10 electrons Remember: each proton has a positive charge + each electron has a negative charge - Sodium ION with 11 protons (11 +) and 10 electrons (10-) Now has a NET charge of (1+)
  • 14. A neutral atom of chlorine has 17 protons and 17 electrons When chlorine reacts chemically, it typically gains one electron; giving it 17 protons and 18 electrons Remember: each proton has a positive charge + each electron has a negative charge - Chlorine ION with 17 protons (17 +) and 18 electrons (18-) Now has a NET charge of (1-)
  • 15. A neutral atom of lithium has 3 protons and 3 electrons When lithium reacts chemically, it typically looses one electron; giving it 3 protons and 2 electrons Remember: each proton has a positive charge + each electron has a negative charge - Lithium ION with 3 protons (3 +) and 2 electrons (2-) Now has a NET charge of (1+) 1 + Li 3 6 Li 3 6
  • 16. 1 + If no charge here: ATOM NEUTRAL (same number of protons as electrons) If charge here: ION Pos charge = more protons than electrons Neg charge = more electrons than protons Li 3 6 Li 3 6
  • 17. Isotopes
    • Dalton was wrong.
    • Atoms of the same element can have different numbers of neutrons
    • different mass numbers
    • called isotopes
    3 protons; 3 neutrons Mass # 6 3 protons; 4 neutrons Mass # 7 BOTH Li
  • 18. Naming Isotopes
    • Put the mass number after the name of the element
    • carbon- 12
    • carbon -14
    • uranium-235
  • 19. Atomic Mass
    • How heavy is an atom of oxygen?
    • There are different kinds of oxygen atoms.
    • More concerned with average atomic mass.
    • Based on abundance of each element in nature.
    • Don’t use grams because the numbers would be too small
  • 20. Measuring Atomic Mass
    • Unit is the Atomic Mass Unit (amu)
    • One twelfth the mass of a carbon-12 atom.
    • Each isotope has its own atomic mass we need the average from percent abundance.
  • 21. Atomic Mass
    • Calculate the atomic mass of copper if copper has two isotopes. 69.1% has a mass of 62.93 amu and the res has a mass of 64.93 amu.
  • 22. Atomic Mass
    • Magnesium has three isotopes. 78.99% magnesium 24 with a mass of 23.9850 amu, 10.00% magnesium 25 with a mass of 24.9858 amu, and the rest magnesium 25 with a mass of 25.9826 amu. What is the atomic mass of magnesium?
    • If not told otherwise, the mass of the isotope is the mass number in amu
  • 23. Atomic Mass
    • Is not a whole number because it is an average.
    • are the decimal numbers on the periodic table.
    6 C 12.01
  • 24. 11 protons; 10 electrons 16 protons; 18 electrons 13 protons; 10 electrons Na 11 23 + S 16 32 2- Al 13 27 3+
  • 25. How Many Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons???? N 7 14 3- Ca 20 41 2+ Cl 17 33 1-