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Notes for Chapter 2 in the Environmental Book

Notes for Chapter 2 in the Environmental Book

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Chapter 2 Notes Resources Chapter 2 Notes Resources Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 2 Renewable and Nonrenewable Resources
  • Natural Resources: All of Earth’s organisms, air, water and soil as well as oil, gas and ores that are removed from the ground
  • Renewable Resources Any material or energy source that cycles or can be replaced within the period of a human lifespan
  • Renewable Resources
    • Crops (Food and Fiber)
    • Soil
    • Wind
    • Sunlight
    • Water
    • Organic Matter
    • Geothermal Energy
  • Food and Fiber
    • Crops grown for human and livestock consumption
    • Wild and planted forest crops
    • Wild and domesticated animals
    Have to be careful not to use these faster than we can replenish them
  • Soil Mixture of living and nonliving things (tiny rocks, minerals, organic matter, water and air) that provides habitat for plants and organisms. Takes thousands of years to form Hot, humid climates form larger amounts more quickly Dry climates form small amount over longer periods Soil only “renewable” as long as living organic matter stays fertile.
  • Wind
    • Air in motion
    • Blows because the Earth’s surface is not heated evenly
    • Considered a resource because it generates energy
    • Renewable because it is inexhaustible
  • Sun
    • Solar energy
    • Provides heat and light
    • Provides energy needed by autotrophs (producers) to produce their own food
    • Essentially inexhaustible; estimated that it can continue to provide energy for 5 billion years
  • Water
    • Amount of water on Earth today is same as when Earth was formed
    • Constantly cycles and changes form
    • Only 3 percent is fresh water for use
    • In many parts of world, clean, unpolluted water becoming scarce
    • Water used to generate energy
  • Biomass Fuels
    • Organic matter that contain stored solar energy
    • Mostly plant parts; wood, dried vegetation, crop residues and aquatic plants
    • Some derived from animal wastes
    • Become one of the most commonly used and renewable energy sources
    http://www.eia.doe.gov/kids/energyfacts/sources/renewable/biomass.html
  • Geothermal Energy
    • Heat generated deep within the Earth
    • Fueled by the decay of radioactive elements
    • Heat is transferred by water that absorbs heat from center of Earth
    • Used to drive electric generators and heat buildings
    • Inexhaustible energy source
  • Non-Renewable Resources Any material or energy source that CAN NOT be replaced within the period of a human lifespan
    • Ores
    • Rocks
    • Coal
    • Petroleum and Natural Gas
    Non-Renewable Resources
  • Ores
    • Mineral deposits from which valuable metals and nonmetals can be recovered at a profit
    • Metallic Ores: iron, aluminum, copper, zinc, lead, silver, gold, manganese and others
    • Non metallic Ores: fluorite, salt, clay, sand, gravel, quartz, diamonds, gypsum, sulfur, talc and others
    • Once they are gone… they are gone
  • Rocks
    • Mixtures of one or more minerals
    • Marble, sandstone, granite, limestone shale and slate
    • Mostly used as ornamental stones in buildings and the grounds around them
    • Fossil fuels do NOT come from dinosaurs! They come from decayed plant and animal remains from the ocean. From the TIME of the dinosaurs!
    Fossil Fuels
  • Coal
    • Fossil fuel that forms when wetland plants die, become buried, and undergo physical and chemical changes over millions of years
    • Starts out as peat~50% carbon
    • Over time peat becomes lignite ~ 70 % carbon
    • Lignite becomes bituminous coal (soft coal) ~ 85 % carbon
    • Bituminous coal becomes anthracite (hard coal) > 90% carbon… burns very cleanly
  • Petroleum and Natural Gas
    • Fossil fuels that are the remains of plants, bacteria, algae, and other microscopic marine organisms
    • Oil well drilled in Titusville PA in 1859 marked the beginning of the oil boom in US
    • Source rocks: rocks in which oil and gas form
    • Reservoir rocks: rocks that collect flowing oil and gas
  • Petroleum and Natural Gas
    • Oil is denser, found at the bottom of the reservoir
    • Gas migrates to the top
    • Oil and natural gas used as fuels and in manufacturing of lubricants, fertilizers, plastics, and many other substances
  • Fractional distillation of oil
  • Global Energy Use and Production
    • Experts say that the world’s total energy consumption increased by nearly 50% from 1973 to 1993
    • In the US, we only produce 5% of the world’s petroleum, but USE 31% of it!
    • In PA
    • 55% Coal
    • 33% Nuclear
    • 2% Natural gas
    • 2% Petroleum
    • .5% Hydroelectric
  • Alternative Energy Resources
    • Solar Energy
    • Wind
    • Hydropower
    • Geothermal Energy
    • Nuclear Power
    • Trash
    • Hydrogen
  • Solar Energy
    • Passive Solar Heating System: sun’s energy is collected through large south facing windows and absorbed by water, tile, bricks and released slowly as air cools
    • Solar Cells (photovoltaic cells) convert solar energy directly into electricity
  • Solar Energy
    • Solar Thermal Systems: concentrated sunlight used to heat water to boiling… produces steam
    • Steam rotates a turbine which generates electricity
  • Wind
    • Wind used for many years to produce energy
    • Newer “wind farms” have many turbines that produce electricity to run farms, schools, business, hotels.. Etc..
  • Hydropower
    • Energy from rivers and streams
    • Dams create large bodies of water that can be released to run through turbines and create electricity
    • 23 dams in PA that generate electricity
  • Geothermal Energy
    • Energy from water that is heated thousands of feet below the Earth’s surface
    • Brought to the surface as either hot water or steam
    • Used to run turbines
  • Nuclear Power
    • Uses fission (splitting of nucleus) of uranium to generate electricity
    • Fission generates heat which turns water into steam to run turbines
    • Problems with safety and waste disposal
    • Non-Renewable
  • Trash
    • Trash can be burned to generate electricity
    • Trash can also produce fuel as it decomposes; pipes drilled in landfills release methane
  • Hydrogen
    • Because H is in water the supply is almost inexhaustible
    • Works like a battery
    • Only waste is water
    • Problem with H and O storage and transportation
  • Availability of Resources
    • Resource availability can be affected by several things:
    • Costs of extracting them from Earth
    • Costs of processing
    • Natural Events
  • Removing Earth’s Resources Harvesting Food and Fiber
    • Early farmers used tools like; hoe, sickle, animal drawn car, ax and handsaw
    • Now have tools like; cultivators, tractors, combines, and chain saws or circular saws (for harvesting timber)
  • Removing Earth’s Resources Quarries
    • Quarries are excavation pits in Earth’s crust from which rock resources are removed
    • Dimensional stone: rock removed as large slabs
    • Crushed stone: rock removed by blasting to fragment rock
  • Removing Earth’s Resources Oil and Gas Wells
    • Oil rig has four major systems
    • Power supply
    • Mechanical system
    • Rotating equipment
    • Circulation system
  • Natural Events Can Affect Resource Availability Severe Weather
    • Drought: crops wither or die
    • Too much precipitation: crops rot
    • Unseasonably Cold: crops freeze and spoil
    • Unseasonably Warm: crops bloom too soon and then are subject to damage when it gets cool again
  • Natural Events Can Affect Resource Availability Biological Infestations
    • Occur when unwanted organisms enter or infect a natural resource
    • Pathogens: organisms that cause disease
    • Cryprosporidium: pathogen whose eggs can enter surface water when heavy rains increase the amount of animal wastes in runoff
  • Natural Events Can Affect Resource Availability Natural Oil Seeps
    • Oil seeps are NATURAL events (not accidents)
    • Oil seeps through reservoir rocks into water supply
    • Can cause contaminated freshwater and affect aquatic organisms that are used as human food sources
  • Natural Events Can Affect Resource Availability Fire
    • Fire important to forest regeneration
    • Timber industry looses millions of dollars each year to fires
    • 1980 eruption of Mt. St. Helens destroyed almost 99,000 acres of timber land.
  • Distribution and Management of Natural Resources Pennsylvania Coal
    • PA produces more than half of it’s electricity in coal burning power plants
    • Mostly bituminous coal from western part of state
  • Mining Pennsylvania Coal Underground Coal Mines
    • Two main methods:
    • Room and pillar method : miners dig “rooms” in the coal beds and leave “pillars” to help support the mine roof. Once most of the coal is removed from the room, the pillars are removed and the roof falls in
    • Longwall Method : a cutting head moves back and forth across a coal seam, causing pieces of coal to fall onto conveyor belts. Special supports moved along wall as it is mined. Roof falls in as work down the wall and supports are moved.
  • Mining Pennsylvania Coal Above Ground Coal Mines
    • Bulldozers and front-end loaders remove coal that is close to the surface
    • Explosives used to loosen coal
    • Three methods:
    • Area surface: flat terrain
    • Contour surface: coal seam along side of hill
    • Open pit: coal seams are relatively thick
  • Municipal Solid Waste Landfills
    • A landfill is a regulated area where wastes are placed in land
    • Lined with plastic or clay to prevent leaks
    • Wastes compacted and covered with soil
    • Groundwater monitored
    • Gas produced (50% methane, 50% carbon dioxide) captured and converted to fuels
  • Municipal Solid Waste Combustion (burning)
    • Advantages
    • Reduces waste volume up to 90%
    • Reduces waste mass up to 75%
    • High temperatures destroy bacteria
    • Generates energy, electricity
    • Disadvantages
    • Pollutes air
    • Technology developed to reduce most of the dangerous substances: SCRUBBER- uses liquid spray to neutralize acidic gases in smoke FILTERS-remove ash from smoke
  • Municipal Solid Waste Bioremediation Plants
    • Heated tanks filled with bacteria that break down municipal solid waste
    • By-products: Carbon and Methane. Methane burned to produce heat and electricity which is reused by the plant
  • Municipal Solid Waste Composting
    • Biological method of waste disposal in which worms, bacteria, fungi and other organisms decompose wastes
    • Organisms digest and excrete the organic matter
    • As the biological processes occur, temperature increases and more organisms are attracted to waste pile
    • Produces dark brown substance called HUMUS
  • Municipal Solid Waste Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Source Reduction
    • Alters the design, manufacture, or use of materials to reduce the amount and toxicity of the waste generated
    • Purchasing goods with little or no extra packaging
    • Using environmentally friendly cleaning products to reduce toxic wastes
    • Reusing products
  • Municipal Solid Waste Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Recycling
    • Activities that reuse a product’s raw materials to manufacture new products
    • Collect recyclable materials
    • Manufacture new materials:
    • Glass, plastic, steel, aluminum melted down and reformed
    • Paper is shredded, mixed with water to make slurry, pressed, and dried produce recycled paper
  • Municipal Solid Waste Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Recycling
    • Purchasing recycled products
    • Creates incentive to collect recyclables
    • Saves resources for future
  • Municipal Solid Waste Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Recycling
    • What can be recycled:
    • Most paper
    • Some glass; beverage bottles
    • Plastics with codes from 1-7
    • PETE: Polyethylene terephthalate - Fizzy drink bottles and oven-ready meal trays
    • HDPE: High-density polyethylene - Bottles for milk and washing-up liquids
    • PVC: Polyvinyl chloride - Food trays, cling film, bottles for squash, mineral water and shampoo.
    • LDPE: Low density polyethylene - Carrier bags and bin liners.
    • PP: Polypropylene - Margarine tubs, microwaveable meal trays.
    • PS: Polystyrene - Yoghurt pots, foam meat or fish trays, hamburger boxes and egg cartons, vending cups, plastic cutlery, protective packaging for electronic goods and toys.
    • OTHER: Any other plastics that do not fall into any of the above categories. - An example is melamine, which is often used in plastic plates and cups.
    • Metals: aluminum , steel
    • Recycling aluminum saves 95% of the energy used to process raw aluminum
    • Takes less than 60 days
    • Collect cans take to recycling center
    • Cans are cleaned, crushed and baled
    • Shredded, melted, mixed with raw aluminum; cast into ingots
    • Rolled into long, thin sheets and used at manufacturing plants