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Strong Acids (break down completely to give off many H+ ions)
Weak Acids (only partially breaks down, gives less H+) Mark Bishop Acid animation
Common Acids: All others considered Weak (examples) Acetic acid (vinegar) HC 2 H 3 O 2 Carbonic acid HCO 3 Weak Acid The Formula H 2 SO 4 HCl HBr HI HNO 3 HClO 4 Sulphuric acid Hydrochloric acid Hybrobromic acid Hydroiodic acid Nitric acid Perchloric acid The Formula Strong Acids
Base: A substance that releases OH- ions in an aqueous solution
STRONG bases are also poisonous and corrosive to skin
Common Bases: (Hydroxides of Group 1 and Group 2 Metals are STRONG) All others are WEAK LiOH NaOH KOH RbOH CsOH Ba(OH) 2 Ca(OH) 2 Sr(OH) 2 Lithium hydroxide Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Rubidium hydroxide Caesium hydroxide Barium hydroxide Calcium hydroxide Strontium hydroxide The Formulae Strong Bases
Some bases (VERY FEW) don’t have OH- Most commonly: ammonia NH3
Reactions between acids and bases When and acid and a base react with each other, the characteristic properties of both are destroyed. This is called neutralization .
Reactions between acids and bases General formula for acid base reaction: Acid + Base -> H 2 O + Salt “ Salt” means any ionic compound formed from an acid/base reaction NOT JUST NaCl !! Neutralization Reaction Animation
Neutralization HCl + NaOH -> H 2 O + NaCl acid base water salt
Neutralization Another Example HNO 3 + KOH -> H 2 O + KNO 3 H OH K NO 3 acid base water salt
Indicators An indicator is a compound that will change color in the presence of an acid or base
Universal indicator (pH paper) Used for the full pH range
Red Litmus-Turns blue in base
Blue Litmus-Turns red in acid
Phenolphthalein-Turns pink in base
pH pH stands for “potential hydrogen” and is a measure of how many H+ ions there are in solution. The MORE H+ there are, the LOWER the pH will be.
pH Scale Shows the range of H+ concentrations High H+ concentration Low H+ concentration