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Acids Bases and Salts
Acids Bases and Salts
Acids Bases and Salts
Acids Bases and Salts
Acids Bases and Salts
Acids Bases and Salts
Acids Bases and Salts
Acids Bases and Salts
Acids Bases and Salts
Acids Bases and Salts
Acids Bases and Salts
Acids Bases and Salts
Acids Bases and Salts
Acids Bases and Salts
Acids Bases and Salts
Acids Bases and Salts
Acids Bases and Salts
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Acids Bases and Salts

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Notes on Acids Bases and Salts for ChemCom

Notes on Acids Bases and Salts for ChemCom

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  • 1. Acids Bases and Salts Brainpop~Acids and Bases
  • 2. Acid: A substance that releases H+ ions in an aqueous solution “ aqueous” means: water
  • 3. Characteristics of Acids:
    • Acids have a sour taste
    • Acids react with metals
    • Acids contain Hydrogen
    • Many are poisonous and corrosive to skin
    H
  • 4. Strong Acids (break down completely to give off many H+ ions)
  • 5. Weak Acids (only partially breaks down, gives less H+) Mark Bishop Acid animation
  • 6. Common Acids: All others considered Weak (examples) Acetic acid (vinegar) HC 2 H 3 O 2 Carbonic acid HCO 3 Weak Acid The Formula H 2 SO 4 HCl HBr HI HNO 3 HClO 4 Sulphuric acid Hydrochloric acid Hybrobromic acid Hydroiodic acid Nitric acid Perchloric acid The Formula Strong Acids
  • 7. Base: A substance that releases OH- ions in an aqueous solution
  • 8. Characteristics of Bases:
    • Bases usually taste bitter
    • Bases feel slippery
    • Bases contain hydroxide ions
    • STRONG bases are also poisonous and corrosive to skin
    OH -
  • 9. Common Bases: (Hydroxides of Group 1 and Group 2 Metals are STRONG) All others are WEAK LiOH NaOH KOH RbOH CsOH Ba(OH) 2 Ca(OH) 2 Sr(OH) 2 Lithium hydroxide Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Rubidium hydroxide Caesium hydroxide Barium hydroxide Calcium hydroxide Strontium hydroxide The Formulae Strong Bases
  • 10. Some bases (VERY FEW) don’t have OH- Most commonly: ammonia NH3
  • 11. Reactions between acids and bases When and acid and a base react with each other, the characteristic properties of both are destroyed. This is called neutralization .
  • 12. Reactions between acids and bases General formula for acid base reaction: Acid + Base -> H 2 O + Salt “ Salt” means any ionic compound formed from an acid/base reaction NOT JUST NaCl !! Neutralization Reaction Animation
  • 13. Neutralization HCl + NaOH -> H 2 O + NaCl acid base water salt
  • 14. Neutralization Another Example HNO 3 + KOH -> H 2 O + KNO 3 H OH K NO 3 acid base water salt
  • 15. Indicators An indicator is a compound that will change color in the presence of an acid or base
    • Universal indicator (pH paper) Used for the full pH range
    • Red Litmus-Turns blue in base
    • Blue Litmus-Turns red in acid
            • Phenolphthalein-Turns pink in base
  • 16. pH pH stands for “potential hydrogen” and is a measure of how many H+ ions there are in solution. The MORE H+ there are, the LOWER the pH will be.
  • 17. pH Scale Shows the range of H+ concentrations High H+ concentration Low H+ concentration

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