Grammar book semester 2


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Grammar book semester 2

  1. 1. Dante<br />Grammar Book Semester 2<br />
  2. 2. Conditional<br />Used to express probability, possibility, wonder, or conjecture. <br />Can be translated as “would,” “could,” “must have been,” or “probably.”<br />Endings attach to the end of the infinitive:<br />-AR, -ER, A<br />
  3. 3. Present Perfect<br />The present perfect tense is used to express past actions that continue into the present or continue to express the present. <br />The present perfect is formed by using the past participle of the verb with a conjugation of the auxiliary verb haber. <br />Past participles are formed by adding “ado” to an –ar verb and “ido” to an –er or –ir verb. <br />
  4. 4. Past Perfect <br />The past perfect tense is used when a past action was completed prior to another past action. It is often used with the following: “ya”, “antes”, “nunca”, “todavía”, or “después”.<br />The past perfect tense is a compound tense.<br />To form the past perfect tense, used the imperfect form of the auxillary verb “haber” and the past participle of the verb. <br />
  5. 5. Present Perfect Irregulars<br />These verbs are irregular with respect to the formation of the past participle. To form a perfect tense, an appropriate conjugation of haber should be placed before the participle.<br />
  6. 6. Subjunctive Perfect Tenese<br />Subjunctive perfect tenses are used when a verb clause requiring the use of the subjunctive is in the present, past, or future perfect tense when expressed in the main clause. <br />Like the indicative perfect tenses, the subjunctive verb tenses use the past participle of the verb and an appropriate conjugation of the verb haber.<br />
  7. 7. Tanto y Tan<br />“Tan” and “tanto” are both used in Spanish to express equality. Tan is used with another adjective, and tanto is used as a pronoun. Like other Spanish pronouns, the ending of tanto changes to agree with the noun it is replacing. <br />El libroes tan buenocomo la pelicula. (The book is as good as the movie)<br />Juan tienetantodinerocomoMaría. (Juan has as much money as Maria)<br />
  8. 8. Impersonal “Se”<br />The pronoun “se” can be used with the third person singular or plural form of a verb to express thoughts or statements that lack a definite subject. For example:<br />Se abrenlastiendas a lasnueve de la manaña. – They open the stores in the morning. <br />¿Comó se dice “the dinosaur” en español? – How does one say “the dinosaur” in Spanish?<br />
  9. 9. Saber vs. Conocer<br />Both the verbs “saber” and “conocer” are translated as “to know” in English. However, they are used differently in Spanish. <br />The verb saber is used to express knowledge of facts and information. Ex. YoséqueCristóbalCólonnacío en el 1451. <br />The verb conocer is used to express familiarity with people, places, things, or literary works. Ex. Yoconozcosu amigo Juan. <br />
  10. 10. Informal Commands <br />To form an informal affirmative command, simply conjugate a verb to its “tú” form, and then drop the “s”. <br />Comer – Tú come<br />Cantar – Túcanta<br />To form an informal negative command, first, conjugate a verb to its “yo” form. Then, add the opposite vowel ending, followed by an “s”. <br />Comer – No tú comas<br />Cantar – No túcantes<br />
  11. 11. Formal Commands<br />To form a formal affirmative command, conjugate a verb to its “yo” form and add the opposite vowel ending. <br />Comer - Usted coma<br />Cantar – Ustedcante<br />To form a formal negative command, follow the same process used to form the affirmative formal command, but add the world “no” to the beginning of the expression. <br />Comer – No usted coma<br />Cantar – No ustedcante<br />
  12. 12. Informal Irregular Commands<br />These verbs take different forms in the second person affirmative imperative form. <br />Decir – Di<br />Hacer – Haz<br />Ver – Vi<br />Poner – Pon<br />Salir – Sal<br />Saber – Sé<br />Tener – Ten<br />Venir - Ven<br />
  13. 13. Formal Irregular Commands<br />These verbs (TVDISHES) take a different form in the negative second person and both the affirmative and negative third person command forms. An “s” can be added to these stems to create a negative second person command. <br />Tener – Tenga<br />Venir – Venga<br />Dar - Dé<br />Ir – Vaya<br />Ser – Sea<br />Hacer – Haga<br />Estar – Esté<br />Saber - Sepas<br />
  14. 14.
  15. 15. Subjunctive Irregulars<br />The stems of these verbs change when conjugated in the present subjunctive. Regular subjunctive verb endings are then added, depending on the last two letters of the verb. <br />Tener – Tenga<br />Venir – Venga<br />Dar - Dé<br />Ir – Vaya<br />Ser – Sea<br />Hacer – Haga<br />Estar – Esté<br />Saber - Sepas<br />
  16. 16. Impersonal Expressions<br />Impersonal expressions, such as those shown, often denote the use of the subjunctive. <br />Beware for expressions that appear to be impersonal expressions but convey something as a fact i.e. “esevidenteque”. These expressions should use the ordinary indicative form of a given verb. <br />
  17. 17. Subjunctive Expressions of Emotion<br />The subjunctive can also be used to express emotion. Common words used to express emotion include: <br />The subjunctive is always used when the subject in the main clause of a complex sentence expresses emotion. <br />When there is an expression of emotion, but no change in subject, the infinitive instead of the conjugated verb is used. <br />
  18. 18. Subjunctive Conjunctions of Time<br />The subjunctive is also used when the main clause is a command or in the potential future. For example:<br />Trabajaréhastaquemisniños me llamen. (I will work until my children call me)<br />These conjunctions of time are often used with the subjunctive:<br />
  19. 19. Demonstratives<br />Demonstratives – <br />Ese - this<br />Este - that<br />Aquel – that<br />Dame esolibro. <br />Dane eso. <br />Demonstratives can be used as nouns or pronouns. The ending of a demonstrative can change in order to agree with the noun that it describes or replaces. <br />