Food safety course
For food handlers in Latvia
C. Heaster
EU and Latvian laws and regulations
regarding the food chain
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ISO 22000
Recommended International Cod...
Food surveillance and control in Latvia
 Anyone commercially involved in any step of the food chain

must be registered w...
Why hygiene?
 Prevent illness or death from food poisoning
 To provide food that will be a blessing to the people




...
2.1 Food safety and security

 Food safety: prepared food is safe to eat.
 Food security: (in this context) the raw
ingr...
Food borne illness statistics in
Latvia and Europe
Disease

Confirmed cases Highest
incidence rate

Campylobacteriosis

19...
Number of cases
Deaths
Microbiology

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Bacteria
Viruses
Parasites
Fungi/ Mould
Bacteria
 Bacteria: single cell, microscopic organisms.

Over 1,000,000 would fit on a pinhead and
still not be visible t...
 Harmful bacteria = „pathogens‟ and only



1% of bacteria cause food poisoning.
Others cause food to rot and decay =
„S...
Break the food poisoning chain
 Warmth: Most bacteria grow rapidly at body

temperature (37 degrees C), but can grow
betw...
The invincible (but dry) McDonald’s
hamburger
 A Utah man has

unearthed a
McDonald's hamburger
he bought in 1999 and the...
Break the food poisoning chain

 Food: Pathogenic bacteria can grow well in
high protein foods (meat, eggs). Foods
with a...
Break the food poisoning chain

 Time: Bacteria multiply by dividing in 2



(binary fission) every 10 to 20 minutes
und...
Warmth

Moisture

Food

Time
Viruses

 Viruses cause disease by infecting humans


and then killing infected cells as they are
released.
In order to ...
Viruses commandeer cells, force them to make
more virus. When the cell explodes, it dies,
releasing thousands of new virus...
Parasites
 Parasites produce disease by taking nutrients




from the host, and by taking up space (e.g. in
brain). In ...
Fungi/ Moulds

 Moulds are a multi-cellular form of fungi


which can grow on food in a damp and
dark environment.
Some ...
Diseases

 Food poisoning is caused by bacteria:



Microbes multiply in the food and then
infect the host, or they prod...
Food poisoning
Bacteria

Source

Staphylococci

Humans: nose, mouth, Intense vomiting and
skin.
watery diarrhea start 1-4 ...
Food poisoning
Bacteria

Source

Symptoms &
onset time

Enterotoxic E coli Contaminated water Acute-onset watery
(eg, trav...
Foodborne diseases
Bacteria

Source

Symptoms &
onset time

Precautions

Enterohemorrhagic
E coli O157

Improperly cooked
...
Foodborne diseases
Bacteria

Source

Symptoms &
onset time

Precautions

Listeria

Unpasteurized soft
cheeses (Brie,
Camem...
Prevention of foodborne illnesses

 Education
 Prevent contamination: Hygienic premises,



quality food selection, de...
#1 Campylobacter

 At least 60% of supermarket chickens
infected. Frequently found on chicken
packaging.

Prevalence of C...
#1 Campylobacter
 Very small infectious dose: <500




bacteria.
Incubation period: 2-5 days (1-11 days)
Symptoms:
 Pr...
Don’t wash chickens!

 Do not wash meat and poultry carcasses

prior to cooking to prevent water droplets
from contaminat...
#2 Norovirus ‘Winter vomiting disease’

 Resistant to alcohol disinfection!
 Best prevention – washing hands with warm
...
#2 Norovirus ‘Winter vomiting disease’

 The virus is easily transmitted from one

person to another. It can be transmitt...
#1 cause of death: Listeria
 If a person becomes ill, the



overall mortality rate is 2030%.
If infected during pregna...
#1 cause of death: Listeria
 L. monocytogenes is found in soil and water.
 Vegetables can become contaminated from

the ...
#1 cause of death: Listeria

 Listeria can grow in the refrigerator. Keep






fridge clean.
Prevent cross contaminat...
How to safely clean up vomit
You will need:
-Disposable gloves
-Disposable gown

-Disposable mask
1/3 cup of bleach in 3.5...
How to safely clean up vomit

 DISINFECT: 1/3 cup of bleach in 3.5L of

water for hard surfaces.
 AIR DRY: allow bleach ...
Differences in video

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She cleans with granules
Doesn‟t wash with soapy water ?!
Doesn‟t wash with bleach!
Doesn‟t...
Prevention of illness

 Education, motivation
 Cleaning and disinfection: Everything



that could come into contact w...
How to clean and disinfect the kitchen
 When cleaning, remove kitchen clothes,
and put on PVC apron and thick rubber
glov...
How to clean and disinfect the kitchen

 Floors: Sweep floors with GREEN broom
and dustpan, wash with NDDA. Wait 30
minut...
How to clean and disinfect cookware

 Wash large pots in dishwashing liquid.



Rinse with hot water. Then place on thei...
How to clean and disinfect crockery
and utensils

 Coffee cups: straight in dishwasher. Allow




to air dry, and then ...
How to clean and disinfect the fridge

 Clean regularly, especially the handle.
 Wipe up spills straight away.
 Wash al...
Causal factors relating to outbreaks of food poisoning
(In England and Wales 1970-1982)

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
...
2.2. Food contamination
What causes food contamination?
Food contamination occurs when something is found in
food that sho...
Chemical contamination
- why we rinse 
 Cleaning chemicals:




Using chemicals not intended for kitchen use.
Not usi...
Physical contamination

 Foreign bodies in food are physical

hazards that should not be there. Some
are dangerous, all a...
Allergens

 This is not a food poisoning problem, but



it is important to recognize that some
foods can cause life thr...
3. Personal hygiene


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

Wash your hands
Wear appropriate dress
Don‟t come to work sick
Cover injuries. Use utensi...
Wash your hands

 Wet hands, apply soap.
 Rub soap into all parts of your hands
 Rinse your hands with for at least 20
...
When to wash you hands
When to wash your hands:
• Before you start working with food
• after using the toilet
• after work...
Wear appropriate dress
 Don‟t wear jewelry except for a plain wedding




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

band that can be properly and easily c...
Don’t come to work sick
 Food handlers should be free from any illnesses such
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as gastroenteritis...
Law about sick people working
 11.12.1997. likums "Epidemioloģiskās






drošības likums“
If a worker suspects they ...
4. Food Hygiene:
4.1. Good hygiene and
manufacturing practice

 Cross contamination
 Temperature management (Cooking,

...
Cross contamination
 The way bacteria and viruses are moved from
one area to another – from a dirty area to a
clean one.
...
Ways to avoid cross contamination
 Meticulous personal hygiene
 Workflow and practices properly planned
 Use utensils r...
Temperature Management
Cooking and reheating
 Cooking food to a minimum
core temperature of 75
degrees will ensure most
b...
63 °C

71 °C

74 °C

Picture: http://www.emedicinehealth.com/food_safety_cooking-health/article_em.htm
Temperature Management –
Cooking and simmering bulk liquids:
 Temperature distribution within bulk liquids during




...
Temperature Management – Cool
spots
Temperature management
Defrosting

 Defrost food thoroughly before cooking or





reheating.
Defrost frozen food eithe...
Temperature management
Defrosting

 You should always:
 defrost food in a refrigerator or microwave

(on the defrost set...
Temperature Management:
Cooling food

 Food that has just been cooked or taken out

of the oven to cool should not be lef...
Temperature Management:
Cooling food

 use a washed and sanitised thermometer






to check temperature
cool food in ...
Temperature
Management:
Cooling food

 Don‟t overpack the

fridge as this stops cool
air circulating freely
and the fridg...
Pest Control
Pest Control
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Eliminate moisture, & fix leaky pipes or clogged drains.
Keep counters, tables, an...
4.2. Food safety assurance and self
control system basic principles

 HACCP = Hazard Analysis and Critical
Control Points...
HACCP - eliminate risks
1. Hazard analysis: what could go wrong at each
2.

3.
4.

stage of food preparation (e.g. harmful...
HACCP - eliminate risks
5. Establish Corrective actions: Decide what to
do if something goes wrong (E.g. If the
temperatur...
Keep Food safe
Food hygiene safety course ISO Certificate Dr Cindy Heaster Carelinks Christadelphian Soup Kitchen
Food hygiene safety course ISO Certificate Dr Cindy Heaster Carelinks Christadelphian Soup Kitchen
Food hygiene safety course ISO Certificate Dr Cindy Heaster Carelinks Christadelphian Soup Kitchen
Food hygiene safety course ISO Certificate Dr Cindy Heaster Carelinks Christadelphian Soup Kitchen
Food hygiene safety course ISO Certificate Dr Cindy Heaster Carelinks Christadelphian Soup Kitchen
Food hygiene safety course ISO Certificate Dr Cindy Heaster Carelinks Christadelphian Soup Kitchen
Food hygiene safety course ISO Certificate Dr Cindy Heaster Carelinks Christadelphian Soup Kitchen
Food hygiene safety course ISO Certificate Dr Cindy Heaster Carelinks Christadelphian Soup Kitchen
Food hygiene safety course ISO Certificate Dr Cindy Heaster Carelinks Christadelphian Soup Kitchen
Food hygiene safety course ISO Certificate Dr Cindy Heaster Carelinks Christadelphian Soup Kitchen
Food hygiene safety course ISO Certificate Dr Cindy Heaster Carelinks Christadelphian Soup Kitchen
Food hygiene safety course ISO Certificate Dr Cindy Heaster Carelinks Christadelphian Soup Kitchen
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Food hygiene safety course ISO Certificate Dr Cindy Heaster Carelinks Christadelphian Soup Kitchen

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Food handling preparation hygiene safety course ISO Certificate Dr Cindy Heaster Carelinks Christadelphian Soup Kitchen Riga, latvia ISO 22000
Recommended International Code of Practice – General Principles of Food Hygiene:
CAC/RCP 1-1969, rev. 3 (1997), Amd. (1999).
Code of Hygienic Practice for Precooked and Cooked Foods in Mass Catering; CAC/RCP 39-1993.
Eiropas Parlamenta un Padomes regulas (EK) Nr. 852/2004 „Par pārtikas higiēnu”.
Eiropas Parlamenta un Padomes regula (EK) Nr. 466/2001
REGULATION (EC) No 178/2002 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 28 January 2002 laying down the general principles and requirements of food law, establishing the European Food Safety Authority and laying down procedures in matters of food safety
Bacteria: single cell, microscopic organisms. Over 1,000,000 would fit on a pinhead and still not be visible to the naked eye. They are found everywhere; soil, water, air, food and on people. Bacteria produce disease either by infecting humans or by producing toxins which cause disease.
Examples: Salmonella, Clostridium perfringens, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium botulinum, Campylobacter, E.coli, Shigella, Listeria.
Harmful bacteria = ‘pathogens’ and only 1% of bacteria cause food poisoning. Others cause food to rot and decay = ‘Spoilage bacteria’
Not all bacteria are harmful! E.g. Bacteria in our gut produce vitamin K, necessary for clotting, and the good bacteria on our skin stop us getting infected by pathogenic bacteria.
Break the food poisoning chain. Warmth: Most bacteria grow rapidly at body temperature (37 degrees C), but can grow between 5 and 63 degrees = danger zone. Some bacteria multiply between 0 and 20 degrees.
Moisture: All bacteria need moisture, and many dried or dehydrated foods such as milk powder, powdered eggs etc. will allow bacterial growth if they become moist. It’s therefore very important to keep dried foods dry. And also important that all cooking equipment is allowed to dry properly after use.
Parasites produce disease by taking nutrients from the host, and by taking up space (e.g. in brain). In the UK, food poisoning from parasites is rare. It is much more common in the developing world.
Toxoplasmosis is the most likely cause of parasitical food poisoning in the UK. It is caused by a parasite that is found in the digestive systems of many animals, particularly cats.
Humans can get toxoplasmosis by consuming undercooked contaminated meat or food or water contaminated with the faeces of infected cats.

Examples: Toxoplasmosis, Giardia, Fluke.

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Food hygiene safety course ISO Certificate Dr Cindy Heaster Carelinks Christadelphian Soup Kitchen

  1. 1. Food safety course For food handlers in Latvia C. Heaster
  2. 2. EU and Latvian laws and regulations regarding the food chain           ISO 22000 Recommended International Code of Practice – General Principles of Food Hygiene: CAC/RCP 1-1969, rev. 3 (1997), Amd. (1999). Code of Hygienic Practice for Precooked and Cooked Foods in Mass Catering; CAC/RCP 39-1993. Eiropas Parlamenta un Padomes regulas (EK) Nr. 852/2004 „Par pārtikas higiēnu”. Eiropas Parlamenta un Padomes regula (EK) Nr. 466/2001 REGULATION (EC) No 178/2002 OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL of 28 January 2002 laying down the general principles and requirements of food law, establishing the European Food Safety Authority and laying down procedures in matters of food safety Eiropas Parlamenta un Padomes regulas (EK) Nr. 853/2004, kas nosaka īpašus higiēnas noteikumus attiecībā uz dzīvnieku izcelsmes pārtiku. Eiropas Komisijas regula (EK) Nr. 2073/2005 „Par pārtikas produktu mikrobioloģiskajiem kritērijiem”. MK noteikumi Nr. 637 ,,Obligātās nekaitīguma prasības materiāliem un priekšmetiem, kas nonāk saskarē ar pārtiku“ (01.08.2006.).
  3. 3. Food surveillance and control in Latvia  Anyone commercially involved in any step of the food chain must be registered with the Latvian PVD (Food and Veterinary services). The PVD monitors both those involved in food production, preparation and distribution. PVD functions:  ensure the safety of existing foods and their components;  participate in food (including GM food and feed) safety assurance policy implementation;  participate in the implementation of nutrition policies Food safety and general safety:  Asses the safety of food products and components as well as materials and articles in contact with food. Evaluate known and unidentified food risks.  Evaluate drinking water safety and quality requirements and their potential impact on food production.
  4. 4. Why hygiene?  Prevent illness or death from food poisoning  To provide food that will be a blessing to the people   who eat it Decrease costs due to food wastage Prevent outbreaks so that we can keep on feeding people. We must be able to prove that we have taken „due diligence‟ by having:         Systems of control to minimise risks Training Implementation of cleaning schedules Personal hygiene Inspection of deliveries Pest control Record keeping Written records – „if it‟s not written down, it‟s not fact, just emotion‟
  5. 5. 2.1 Food safety and security  Food safety: prepared food is safe to eat.  Food security: (in this context) the raw ingredients are of good quality due to good hygiene practices along the food chain.
  6. 6. Food borne illness statistics in Latvia and Europe Disease Confirmed cases Highest incidence rate Campylobacteriosis 190 579 Czech Giardiasis 167 025 Romania Salmonellosis 134 606 Slovakia Hepatitis A 16 741 Latvia Yersiniosis 8 132 Lithuania Shigellosis 7 121 Bulgaria Cryptosporidiosis 7 027 Ireland E.coli VTEC/ STEC 3 160 Ireland Botulism 112 Luxembourg Source: European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC), Annual epidemiological report on communicable diseases in Europe, 2010 (http://ecdc.europa.eu)
  7. 7. Number of cases
  8. 8. Deaths
  9. 9. Microbiology     Bacteria Viruses Parasites Fungi/ Mould
  10. 10. Bacteria  Bacteria: single cell, microscopic organisms. Over 1,000,000 would fit on a pinhead and still not be visible to the naked eye. They are found everywhere; soil, water, air, food and on people. Bacteria produce disease either by infecting humans or by producing toxins which cause disease.  Examples: Salmonella, Clostridium perfringens, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium botulinum, Campylobacter, E.coli, Shigella, Listeria.
  11. 11.  Harmful bacteria = „pathogens‟ and only  1% of bacteria cause food poisoning. Others cause food to rot and decay = „Spoilage bacteria‟ Not all bacteria are harmful! E.g. Bacteria in our gut produce vitamin K, necessary for clotting, and the good bacteria on our skin stop us getting infected by pathogenic bacteria.
  12. 12. Break the food poisoning chain  Warmth: Most bacteria grow rapidly at body temperature (37 degrees C), but can grow between 5 and 63 degrees = danger zone. Some bacteria multiply between 0 and 20 degrees.  Moisture: All bacteria need moisture, and many dried or dehydrated foods such as milk powder, powdered eggs etc. will allow bacterial growth if they become moist. It‟s therefore very important to keep dried foods dry. And also important that all cooking equipment is allowed to dry properly after use.
  13. 13. The invincible (but dry) McDonald’s hamburger  A Utah man has unearthed a McDonald's hamburger he bought in 1999 and the sandwich looks exactly the same as the day it was first flipped 14 years ago http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article2313276/Man-keeps-McDonalds-burger-14-years-looksexactly-the-day-flipped-Utah.html#ixzz2omHXMsSZ Explanation: „the patty loses water in the form of steam during the cooking process. The bun, of course, is made out of bread. Toasting it reduces the amount of moisture. This means that after preparation, the hamburger is fairly dry. When left out open in the room, there is further water loss as the humidity within most buildings is around 40%. So in the absence of moisture or high humidity, the hamburger simply dries out, rather than rot. With moisture loss, we take away an element required by microbes to grow and cause spoilage. ‘
  14. 14. Break the food poisoning chain  Food: Pathogenic bacteria can grow well in high protein foods (meat, eggs). Foods with a high protein content which are ready to eat are therefore „high risk‟ foods because pathogenic bacteria could multiply and not be killed before the food is eaten.
  15. 15. Break the food poisoning chain  Time: Bacteria multiply by dividing in 2  (binary fission) every 10 to 20 minutes under optimum conditions. One bacterium can become more than one million in just 3.5 hours. 1000 bacteria can become more than one million in 1 hour and 40 minutes. One million bacteria per gram of food may cause food poisoning.
  16. 16. Warmth Moisture Food Time
  17. 17. Viruses  Viruses cause disease by infecting humans  and then killing infected cells as they are released. In order to cause disease, only a few (10100) virus particles are needed. They don‟t need to grow on food – just to get on it.  Examples: Hepatitis A, Norovirus,
  18. 18. Viruses commandeer cells, force them to make more virus. When the cell explodes, it dies, releasing thousands of new virus particles.
  19. 19. Parasites  Parasites produce disease by taking nutrients   from the host, and by taking up space (e.g. in brain). In the UK, food poisoning from parasites is rare. It is much more common in the developing world. Toxoplasmosis is the most likely cause of parasitical food poisoning in the UK. It is caused by a parasite that is found in the digestive systems of many animals, particularly cats. Humans can get toxoplasmosis by consuming undercooked contaminated meat or food or water contaminated with the faeces of infected cats.  Examples: Toxoplasmosis, Giardia, Fluke.
  20. 20. Fungi/ Moulds  Moulds are a multi-cellular form of fungi  which can grow on food in a damp and dark environment. Some moulds release toxins which are poisonous (e.g. aflatoxin which can be found on contaminated nuts, corn, wheat and other grains.
  21. 21. Diseases  Food poisoning is caused by bacteria:  Microbes multiply in the food and then infect the host, or they produce toxins which are released into food. Toxins – short onset time. Foodborne diseases: Microbes causing these diseases don‟t need to multiply in food. These bacteria and viruses simply use food and water to get access to the gut. Very few are needed to cause illness. Longer onset time than food poisoning.
  22. 22. Food poisoning Bacteria Source Staphylococci Humans: nose, mouth, Intense vomiting and skin. watery diarrhea start 1-4 h Untreated milk. after ingestion and last as long as 24-48 h Keep skin clean. Don‟t sneeze or cough on food. Wash hands, cover cuts. B cereus Contaminated fried rice, meatballs, dust, soil, vegetables Vomiting, abdominal pains 1-6 h after eating Diarrhoea 8-16h after eating contaminated food Don‟t store food at room temperature. Keep yourself and kitchen clean. C perfringens Inadequately cooked meat, poultry, or legumes. Animal and human waste. Soil, vegetables, insects. Acute onset of abdominal Separate raw and cramps with diarrhea starts cooked food. Keep 8-24 h after ingestion. premises clean. Wash vegetables and hands. Cool food quickly. C botulinum Canned foods (eg, smoked fish, mushrooms, vegetables, honey) Descending weakness and paralysis start 1-4 d after ingestion, followed by constipation. Mortality is high Forms spores and releases toxins which cause illness Symptoms & onset time Precautions Wash vegetables. Thoroughly cook food. Don‟t use food from damaged cans or jars or home canned products.
  23. 23. Food poisoning Bacteria Source Symptoms & onset time Enterotoxic E coli Contaminated water Acute-onset watery (eg, traveler's and food (eg, salad, diarrhea starts 1-2 d after diarrhea) cheese, meat) ingestion +/- Vomiting and abdominal cramps Lasts for 1-2 d Salmonella Precautions Use clean water. Separate raw and cooked food. Beef, poultry, eggs, Abrupt onset of diarrhea Don‟t wash chickens. and dairy products and fever; in some cases, Separate raw and bloody diarrhea, +/cooked food. abdominal pain and vomiting, beginning 6-48 h after exposure, lasts 7-12 d
  24. 24. Foodborne diseases Bacteria Source Symptoms & onset time Precautions Enterohemorrhagic E coli O157 Improperly cooked Starts 3-4 d after hamburger meat and ingestion previously spinach Can lead to serious kidney damage. Thoroughly cook food. Keep raw and cooked separate. Double wash fruit and vegetables. Campylobacter Domestic animals, cattle, chickens. Untreated milk. Abdominal pain and fever starts 1-3 d after exposure and recovery is in 5-8 d. Foul-smelling watery diarrhea followed by bloody diarrhea. Thoroughly cook food. Keep raw and cooked separate. Double wash fruit and vegetables. Only use pasteurized milk. Shigella Potato, egg salad, lettuce, vegetables, milk, ice cream, and water Abrupt onset of bloody diarrhea, cramps, tenesmus, and fever starts 1230 h after ingestion. Lasts 3-7 d Separate raw and cooked food. Hepatitis A Contaminated water, raw and undercooked shellfish. Untreated milk. 15-50 DAYS after ingestion. Nausea and vomiting, tiredness, abdominal pains, fever, jaundice. Thoroughly cook food, wash hands, keep raw and cooked food separate.
  25. 25. Foodborne diseases Bacteria Source Symptoms & onset time Precautions Listeria Unpasteurized soft cheeses (Brie, Camembert). Meat pate 1-70 days after ingestion. Mild flu like illness. Septicaemia and meningitis in young, elderly and immunocompromised. Miscarriage/ stillbirth. Avoid eating high risk foods. Clean refrigerator regularly. Listeria can multiply at refrigerator temperatures. Norovirus Infected food handler. Contaminated water or objects, airborne. VOMITING, +/- diarrhoea, fever, abdominal pains 1-2 days after ingestion. Wash hands, Thoroughly clean toilet areas. HIGHLY INFECTIOUS
  26. 26. Prevention of foodborne illnesses  Education  Prevent contamination: Hygienic premises,   quality food selection, delivery, storage, personal hygiene Prevent microbes from growing and producing toxins: Time and temperature controls Prevent cross contamination
  27. 27. #1 Campylobacter  At least 60% of supermarket chickens infected. Frequently found on chicken packaging. Prevalence of Campylobacter spp., Escherichia coli, and Salmonella Serovars in Retail Chicken, Turkey, Pork, and Beef from the Greater Washington, D.C., Area doi: 10.1128/AEM.67.12.54315436.2001 Appl. Environ. Microbiol.December 2001 vol. 67 no. 125431-5436
  28. 28. #1 Campylobacter  Very small infectious dose: <500   bacteria. Incubation period: 2-5 days (1-11 days) Symptoms:  Prodrome: fever, headache, myalgia.  Disease: fever up to 40 °C up to a week. Abdominal pains and cramps, watery diarrhoea which may be bloody. There may be nausea but vomiting is rare.  Late complications: reactive arthritis, paralysis  Destroyed at temperatures >48 °C
  29. 29. Don’t wash chickens!  Do not wash meat and poultry carcasses prior to cooking to prevent water droplets from contaminating kitchen surfaces. Take raw poultry straight from the package into the cooking pan.
  30. 30. #2 Norovirus ‘Winter vomiting disease’  Resistant to alcohol disinfection!  Best prevention – washing hands with warm     soapy water before eating. Very low infectious dose (10-100 virus particles) Norovirus causes inflammation of the stomach or intestines or both. This is called acute gastroenteritis. Symptoms: diarrhea, projectile vomiting, nausea, stomach pain, fever, headache, body aches 12 to 48 hours after infection Most people with norovirus illness get better within 1 to 3 days.
  31. 31. #2 Norovirus ‘Winter vomiting disease’  The virus is easily transmitted from one person to another. It can be transmitted by contact with an infected person; by consuming contaminated food or water or by contact with contaminated surfaces or objects (Cross contamination)  The virus can stay in your stool for 2 weeks or more after you feel better.  You are most contagious when you are sick with norovirus illness, and during the first 3 days after you recover from norovirus illness.
  32. 32. #1 cause of death: Listeria  If a person becomes ill, the   overall mortality rate is 2030%. If infected during pregnancy, 22% of mothers lose their baby. Symptoms: The symptoms of listeriosis include fever, muscle aches, and sometimes nausea or diarrhea, headache, stiff neck (meningitis), confusion, loss of balance, or convulsions can occur. But infected pregnant women may experience only a mild, flu-like illness.
  33. 33. #1 cause of death: Listeria  L. monocytogenes is found in soil and water.  Vegetables can become contaminated from the soil or from manure used as fertilizer.  Animals can carry the bacteria and can contaminate meats and dairy products.  Processed foods, such as soft cheeses and cold cuts, can be contaminated after processing.  Unpasteurized (raw) milk or foods made from unpasteurized milk can be contaminated. http://www.webmd.com/a-to-z-guides/listeriosis-topic-overview
  34. 34. #1 cause of death: Listeria  Listeria can grow in the refrigerator. Keep    fridge clean. Prevent cross contamination: use different coloured chopping boards. Observe temperature rules. Use a clean meat thermometer to determine whether foods are cooked to a safe temperature. Reheat leftovers to at least 165°F (74°C). Serve foods safely. Keep cooked hot foods hot [140°F (63°C) or above] and cold foods cold [40°F (4°C) or below].
  35. 35. How to safely clean up vomit You will need: -Disposable gloves -Disposable gown -Disposable mask 1/3 cup of bleach in 3.5L of water for hard surfaces  CLEAN: Put on disposable gloves,    disposable gown and mask, wipe up vomit with paper towels. If on the carpet, put baking soda on the area to absorb liquid, then remove with paper towels. Dispose of all paper towels in plastic bag. Use soapy water to wash all affected surfaces Rinse with water Dry
  36. 36. How to safely clean up vomit  DISINFECT: 1/3 cup of bleach in 3.5L of water for hard surfaces.  AIR DRY: allow bleach solution to dry  RINSE: all surface with clean water If clothing has touched vomit or diarrhoea: wash on hot wash with detergent and bleach for maximum time. WASH YOUR HANDS WITH SOAPY WATER http://www.disinfect-for-health.org/wp-content/themes/disinfect/pdfs/NorovirusIncident_8.5x11_Eng_Color.p
  37. 37. Differences in video     She cleans with granules Doesn‟t wash with soapy water ?! Doesn‟t wash with bleach! Doesn‟t wash her hands afterwards!
  38. 38. Prevention of illness  Education, motivation  Cleaning and disinfection: Everything   that could come into contact with food. Personal hygiene: Don‟t work when sick. WASH YOUR HANDS Food hygiene: Prevent cross contamination. Observe temperature and timing.
  39. 39. How to clean and disinfect the kitchen  When cleaning, remove kitchen clothes, and put on PVC apron and thick rubber gloves.  Bench tops and walls: Wipe off visible contamination with paper towel. Then spray with DESRESON, wait 5 minutes, then rinse off with clean water, wipe again with paper towels and allow to dry.
  40. 40. How to clean and disinfect the kitchen  Floors: Sweep floors with GREEN broom and dustpan, wash with NDDA. Wait 30 minutes. Rinse with clean water.
  41. 41. How to clean and disinfect cookware  Wash large pots in dishwashing liquid.  Rinse with hot water. Then place on their side in the dishwasher. Hang on hooks in store area. Glass and metal bowls: Rinse with hot water, then wash in the dishwasher.
  42. 42. How to clean and disinfect crockery and utensils  Coffee cups: straight in dishwasher. Allow   to air dry, and then place in cleaned box Bowls: Rinse food off with HOT water (>80 degrees), then put in dishwasher. Allow to air dry, and then place on shelves Cutlery: Rinse with HOT water, then in dishwasher. Put cutlery holder in the dishwasher too. Allow to air dry, put in cutlery holder on the shelves.
  43. 43. How to clean and disinfect the fridge  Clean regularly, especially the handle.  Wipe up spills straight away.  Wash all surfaces with warm, soapy water,   rinse thoroughly. Dry surfaces with paper towel. Spray with disinfectant, rinse and wipe dry with paper towel.
  44. 44. Causal factors relating to outbreaks of food poisoning (In England and Wales 1970-1982) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Causal factor Preparation too far in advance Storage at ambient temperature Inadequate cooling Inadequate reheating Contaminated processed food Undercooking Contaminated canned food Inadequate thawing Cross contamination Raw food consumed Improper warm holding Infected food handlers Use of leftovers Extra large quantities prepared % of outbreaks 57 38 30 26 17 15 7 6 6 6 5 4 4 3
  45. 45. 2.2. Food contamination What causes food contamination? Food contamination occurs when something is found in food that shouldn‟t be there. Contaminated food can be unsafe for consumption. There are three ways that food can be contaminated.  Microorganisms : bacteria, fungi, yeasts, mould and viruses.  Chemicals: These include cleaning chemicals or foods with naturally occurring toxins like green potatoes.  Physical: These include potentially dangerous physical objects found in food, such as hair, plastic, glass, elastic bands, wood chips or band-aids.  Allergens
  46. 46. Chemical contamination - why we rinse   Cleaning chemicals:    Using chemicals not intended for kitchen use. Not using chemicals according to instructions Not rinsing chemicals off surfaces after required contact time has finished. (Also, chemicals intended to be rinsed off leave a film on the floor which attracts dirt and the floor ends up more dirty)  Naturally occurring toxins in food   Under cooked red kidney beans: eating just 4 under cooked beans can cause diarrhoea Green potatoes: Green parts of potatoes should be removed as they contain glycoalkaloids which are not destroyed by cooking. Throw away any potatoes with more than an inch or two of green coloring.
  47. 47. Physical contamination  Foreign bodies in food are physical hazards that should not be there. Some are dangerous, all are unwanted and all are very unpleasant. Flies and insects Jewelry Hair Cigarette ends Screws, nuts, bolts, pieces of broken equipment
  48. 48. Allergens  This is not a food poisoning problem, but  it is important to recognize that some foods can cause life threatening reactions in some people. The most common food allergens include milk, eggs, peanuts, tree nuts, sesame, fish, shellfish, wheat and soy (these cause up to 90% of allergic reactions). Allergy and Anaphylaxis Australia http://www.allergyfacts.org.au/allergy-and-anaphylaxis/what-is-anaphylaxis
  49. 49. 3. Personal hygiene      Wash your hands Wear appropriate dress Don‟t come to work sick Cover injuries. Use utensils, not hands for handling food where possible. Do not cough or sneeze directly onto food. Wash hands after coughing or sneezing
  50. 50. Wash your hands  Wet hands, apply soap.  Rub soap into all parts of your hands  Rinse your hands with for at least 20   seconds under warm, running water Wipe your hands with a disposable towel, turn off the tap using your disposable towel Disinfect hands with the provided alcohol based hand disinfection solution
  51. 51. When to wash you hands When to wash your hands: • Before you start working with food • after using the toilet • after working with raw food • after eating • after blowing your nose • after combing or touching your hair • after smoking • after breaks • after treating an injury • after contact with rubbish • after cleaning • after changing soiled clothing • and in other appropriate cases
  52. 52. Wear appropriate dress  Don‟t wear jewelry except for a plain wedding      band that can be properly and easily cleaned. (Jewelry, or parts of it, can fall into food, and harbour bacteria underneath and in it) Don‟t wear nail varnish or false nails. Keep hair clean. Hair should tied back and covered so that it can‟t be touched or fall into food. Wear clean clothes when working in the kitchen, and use aprons provided. Do not wear uniforms / aprons outside the food preparation area Avoid using strong perfumes/after-shaves
  53. 53. Don’t come to work sick  Food handlers should be free from any illnesses such             as gastroenteritis or flu Cease working and report to the manager when feeling ill with: vomiting; diarrhoea; rash or purulent wound; jaundice; temperature; nausea; sore throat; cold or cough; stomach pain. In Latvia, it is required that food handlers be given the all clear from a GP after being sick from with vomiting or diarrhoea. Picture: http://www.consultant360.com/content/osteomyelitis-associated-cat-scratch-disease
  54. 54. Law about sick people working  11.12.1997. likums "Epidemioloģiskās     drošības likums“ If a worker suspects they are sick, they must inform the manager and visit a primary care physician. The sick worker should inform their manager of the restrictions placed on their ability to work by the physician. The manager must not allow the infected worker to engage in work which may place others at risk. If the patient is no longer infectious, the physician should record this on their health card and inform them that they may work without restriction.
  55. 55. 4. Food Hygiene: 4.1. Good hygiene and manufacturing practice  Cross contamination  Temperature management (Cooking,    reheating, cooling, thawing) Cleaning and disinfection Controlling food pests Store food correctly
  56. 56. Cross contamination  The way bacteria and viruses are moved from one area to another – from a dirty area to a clean one.  Common sources: Storing raw and ready to eat foods together  Leaving food uncovered  Using the same utensils for raw and ready to eat foods  Handling raw and then ready to eat foods without washing hands or equipment. 
  57. 57. Ways to avoid cross contamination  Meticulous personal hygiene  Workflow and practices properly planned  Use utensils rather than hands to touch        food Raw and cooked foods kept separate during transport, storage and preparation Store raw foods below cooked foods in refrigerator Food should be handled as little as possible Food handlers shouldn‟t work if sick Clean surfaces appropriately Separate chopping boards for raw and ready to eat Safe rubbish disposal
  58. 58. Temperature Management Cooking and reheating  Cooking food to a minimum core temperature of 75 degrees will ensure most bacteria are destroyed.  Liquids should be stirred frequently with a clean utensil  Food should never be reheated more than once and any uneaten reheated food thrown away.  Cutting food into smaller portions will make cooking easier and core temperatures will be achieved sooner. Picture: https://www.halton.ca/cms/one.aspx?portalId=8310&pageId=37644
  59. 59. 63 °C 71 °C 74 °C Picture: http://www.emedicinehealth.com/food_safety_cooking-health/article_em.htm
  60. 60. Temperature Management – Cooking and simmering bulk liquids:  Temperature distribution within bulk liquids during    cooking is not uniform. Stable convection currents are set up and liquid outside these currents may remain stationary at a low temperature. While some areas of a liquid may be visibly boiling, other areas may be at a temperature that allows the multiplication of Cl. perfringens (one of the most common causes of food poisoning). Especially when a pan has no lid, and the pan contents are unstirred, clostridia within the cool spots can survive and multiply under virtually ideal conditions. Pans should be stirred at least every 10 minutes using a clean utensil. Excessive cold air draughts should be kept away from cooking areas, and lids kept on pans between stirring.
  61. 61. Temperature Management – Cool spots
  62. 62. Temperature management Defrosting  Defrost food thoroughly before cooking or   reheating. Defrost frozen food either in a microwave, or in the fridge. If using the fridge, defrost food on the bottom shelf, away from other foods just in case it drips as it is defrosting. You can keep fully defrosted food in the fridge for a short time until it is ready to be cooked or reheated. Cook or reheat the food immediately if defrosted in the microwave.
  63. 63. Temperature management Defrosting  You should always:  defrost food in a refrigerator or microwave (on the defrost setting)  allow plenty of time to defrost thoroughly, especially for large objects that take longer to defrost all of the way to the centre, such as large chickens or other pieces of meat  reheat cooked food to 75ºC or hotter  check the temperature of the food with a washed and sanitised probe thermometer after cooking or reheating.
  64. 64. Temperature Management: Cooling food  Food that has just been cooked or taken out of the oven to cool should not be left out more than 2 hours.  Hot food should not be put directly into the fridge. If you put food in the fridge when it is still hot it may cause the internal fridge temperature to rise, putting all food stored in the fridge at risk of being in the temperature danger zone.  Once the food is in a suitable storage container, cool the food on the bench to about 21°C.
  65. 65. Temperature Management: Cooling food  use a washed and sanitised thermometer    to check temperature cool food in clean, shallow and uncontaminated storage containers cover and mark containers with the food type, the time and the date, before putting them in the cool room, fridge or freezer check that the temperature inside the fridge is below 5°C while cooling food.
  66. 66. Temperature Management: Cooling food  Don‟t overpack the fridge as this stops cool air circulating freely and the fridge will not keep the foods properly chilled.
  67. 67. Pest Control
  68. 68. Pest Control              Eliminate moisture, & fix leaky pipes or clogged drains. Keep counters, tables, and floors cleaned and free of crumbs & spills. Store food in airtight containers! Take out garbage regularly, don‟t let it build up. When Shopping, inspect packages for signs of damage before you buying it. Eliminate expired baking ingredients. Fresh fruit on the counter should be checked often for signs of overripening or decay. Dispose of fruit in outdoor cans to prevent eggs from hatching inside! Run your garbage disposal regularly. Do dishes in a timely manner: Don‟t let dishes pile up in the sink for long periods of time. Install new door sweeps on exterior doors. Repair damaged screens. Seal cracks outside the home & around the kitchen, especially the stove and around water pipes. http://www.responsiblepestcontrolaz.com/bugs-pests-infesting-food-kitchens/
  69. 69. 4.2. Food safety assurance and self control system basic principles  HACCP = Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points. A food safety system to make all aspects of food production safer.  Hazard: Anything that causes harm (microbiological, physical, chemical, allergenic)  Critical Control points: A hazard which can be controlled and the control measures in place a tat step are essential to protect food safety (e.g. Cooking meat long enough and at the right temperature will kill the bacteria which are present. But not cooking enough = unsafe to eat)
  70. 70. HACCP - eliminate risks 1. Hazard analysis: what could go wrong at each 2. 3. 4. stage of food preparation (e.g. harmful campylobacter bacteria on the chicken will survive if not cooked enough) Determine CCP (critical control points): recognise the most important points where things could go wrong (e.g. Adequate cooking will reduce bacteria to a safe level) Establish Critical limits (critical control point): Set a measurable limit that separates safe from unsafe food (e.g. Make sure that the core temperature reaches a minimum of 75 degrees) Establish Monitoring Procedures (E.g. Check the temperature at appropriate intervals)
  71. 71. HACCP - eliminate risks 5. Establish Corrective actions: Decide what to do if something goes wrong (E.g. If the temperature falls below 63 degrees, heat back up to about 75 degrees for at least 2 minutes) 6. Establish Verification Procedures: Prove that your HACCP plan is working, control measures are applied and corrective actions have been taken where needed (E.g. recording food temperatures) 7. Record Keeping and Documentation: Maintain an accurate record of all above (E.g. temperature registration)
  72. 72. Keep Food safe
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