This map shows where Germany launched their attacks on Norway
Allies:Britain, France and common wealth countries including Canada, Australia and New ZealandAxis Powers: Germany, Italy and JapanAllied troops positioned themselves at France’s border with Germany waiting for Germany’s next move but nothing happenedFrom October 1939-April 1940, nothing happened and these years are known as the “phony war”Blitzkrieg: War planes would lead the attack, attacking enemy positions and supply lines. With lightning speed, German tanks would crash through enemy lines, driving forward as far as they could. Soldiers would parachute into enemy territory, destroying vital communication and transportation links. The attack left the defending army confused and surroundedASK: WHY DO YOU THINK THE BLITZKRIEG ATTACKS USED BY THE GERMANS WERE SO SUCCESSFUL?
Image: British Navy evacuating its troops from Dunkirk
Think about: What if the British navy were unable to rescue the Allied soldiers? This was a huge rescue and if the bulk of the Allied army had been captured, would the outcome of the war have been different?
Image: Bombing of a building on No 23, Queen Victoria Street in London Ask: What types of feelings or thoughts does this picture evoke? Could you imagine living in a city that was being blown to pieces? What do you think it was like for the people living in London at this time?
Operation Sea Lion: Attempt to defeat Royal Air Force (RAF) in order for German forces to cross English Channel“the Blitz” destroyed buildings and terrified and killed civilians Be sure to make the distinction between Blitzkrieg and the Blitz
British had advanced radar system that warned them of German air raidsSep 1940 RAF shot down more and more German bombersDuring Battle of Britain more than 23,000 people, mostly civilians, were killedImage: A cathedral in Coventry, England after a blitz bombing
Image: A man carrying milk through the rubble on a London street; firefighters in the background
Image: A London library reduced to rubble ASK:If Hitler had been successful in conquering Britain, would the outcome of the war have been different? Why or why not?
After Germany was defeated in the Battle of Britain, Hitler launched “Operation Barbarossa” on June 22nd 1941
Who remembers what the Non-Aggression Pact is?Hitler saw the Soviet Union as a source of raw materials, agricultural land and labour for the German armyCapturing the Soviet Union was a part of Hitler’s long term plans for the new German EmpireImage: A man, his wife, and child are seen after they had left Minsk on August 9, 1941, when the German army swarmed in. The original wartime caption reads, in part: "Hatred for the Nazis burns in the man's eyes as he holds his little child, while his wife, completely exhausted, lies on the pavement." Germany was able to get deep into russian territory, something no other invader was ever able to do, including Napolean
1942: Germans launched another offensive in the Soviet Union, this time focusing on rich oil fields German troops got as far as Stalingrad but were stopped once again by the severe winterMENTION: There’s a picture in your textbook of a map on p. 135 that shows the Germans’ advances into eastern Europe
Joseph Stalin’s message to his army. It has been said that Stalin issued a proclamation that anyone who surrendered or retreated would be shotASK: WHAT DO YOU THINK ABOUT THIS MESSAGE? German’s got as far as StalingradImage: Entire German sixth army was killed by the Soviets in StalingradThe battle for Stalingradstarted at 6 p.m. on August 23, 1942. Within hours Stalingrad became an inferno,as 1,000 German planes carpet-bombed an industrial city filled with wooden houses and oil tanks. Sleeping children were hurled from their beds while hundreds of families were buried alive in the rubble of fallen buildings
IMAGE: After the battle, Stalingrad was reduced to rubble and many people were actually buried beneath this rubble
Tens of thousands of Soviet Unions at Birkenau. Nearly six million Soviet soldiers would be captured during the Second World War. Only about four of every nine would return to Russia.
ASK: If mother-nature was on the Germans’ side, would Hitler have been able to conquer the Soviet Union? Had he been able to conquer the Soviet Union, the outcome of the war? Why or why not?
The Main Campaigns of WWII(Part 1)THE WAR IN EUROPE
BLITZKRIEG (“LIGHTENING WAR”)
BLITZKRIEG: ALLIES VS. THE AXIS POWERS When war was declared April 1940 Germany in Sep. 1939, Allies renewed its blitzkrieg hurried to get their forces (“lightening war”), attacking organized Denmark and Norway Allied troops positioned Blitzkrieg extremely themselves on France’s successful-it used the border with Germany elements of Nothing happened for 7 surprise, speed and months…people started massive power to think war was never Using these going to happen (“Phony techniques, Germany War”) quickly conquered Norway, Denmark, Luxemb ourg, the Netherlands and
• Within days, German forces surrounded the French port of Dunkirk• If Allied troops surrendered, British troops would lose majority of its army• Allied forces had to escape before Germans captured the town• British Navy rounded up as many boats as possible and headed across the Channel for Dunkirk EVACUATION AT DUNKIRK
EVACUATION AT DUNKIRK CONT’D Evacuation began on May 26, 1940 Two days later, German air force bombed the port of Dunkirk. Evacuation was completed on June 4th More than 340,000 Allied soldiers were rescued After the evacuation, German forces swept through France and France eventually surrendered Britain and the Commonwealth now stood alone against Germany
THE BATTLE OF BRITAIN Once France surrendered, Hitler set his sights on Britain “Operation Sea Lion” July 1940, German air force started a massive bombing campaign which focused on destroying harbours and shipping facilities in southern England August 24th German forces bombed several areas of London and other British cities These raids became known as “the Blitz” and took place over many weeks
Germans had more air craft than Britain but were unable to defeat them British had a very advanced radar system British also used Spitfires and Hurricanes, two very effective fighter planes RAF was equipped with pilots, planes and supplies from Canada Hitler finally gave up on his plans to invade BritainBATTLE OF BRITAIN CONT’D
THE EFFECTS OF THE BLITZ
EFFECTS OF THE BLITZ CONT’D
OPERATION BARBAROSSA (“RED BEARD”)A German soldier walks toward the body of a killed Sovietsoldier and a burning BT-7 light tank in the southern SovietUnion in in 1941, during the early days of OperationBarbarossa.
HITLER BREAKS THE NON-AGGRESSIONPACT Hitler launched this tremendous attack on the Soviet Union and broke the pact that he had made with Stalin in 1939 Soviets were unprepared for the attack German army able to get deep into Russian territory By the fall, Germans had reached outskirts of
OPERATION BARBAROSSA CONT’D Germans were not prepared for the long and excruciatingly cold Russian winter and soon lost their advantage Germans got as far as Stalingrad but could not withstand the severe winter Germans could not turn back and suffered 300,000 casualties Germany surrendered in early 1943 After this attack, Soviet Union took back much of their territory and joined the war on the Allies’ side
Stand Firm.Die but do not Retreat.Joseph Stalin on The Siege of Stalingrad 1942-1943STALINGRAD
BEFORE THE BATTLE AFTER THE BATTLEBATTLE OF STALINGRAD
PRISONERS OF WAR: TENS OF THOUSANDS OF SOVIETSOLDIERS WERE CAPTURED BY THE GERMANS
Three German soldiers covered in snow and ice duringwinter on the Eastern front