Lesson 1 Causes of WWII


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  • Can anyone tell me how the causes of WWI can also explain the causes of WWIICauses of WWI (Militarism, Alliances, Imperialism and Nationalism) also played a role in WWIIMilitarism: Hitler built a strong military that helped him take over several regions of EuropeAlliances: Countries agreed to support one another if there was an attackImperialism: Britain, France, Germany, Italy and Russia all had colonies in Asia and Africa and each of these countries wanted raw materials from these coloniesNationalism: Pride and devotion to one’s country. Hitler wanted Germany to be a powerful nation again
  • Germany was forced to accept sole responsibility for WWIGermany was forced to give up control of their colonies and the territory was reducedHad to pay $30 billion in war reparationsGerman army was restricted to 100,000 menNot allowed to have an air forceAustria and Germany were forbidden to unite
  • Engagement: What do you think happens to people when they are completely stripped of their rights? When nothing becomes theirs anymore and everything is taken away from them, what do you think they are going to do? When a person in power is shamed and weakened by other people in power, what is that person capable of doing? They are going to revolt and that is exactly what Hitler did. He revolted. Do you think the consequences of the Treaty of Versailles were predictable?
  • Germany and the Great Depression
  • German money became worth less and less, price of basic goods continued to increase
  • After this slide, read “With Germany Unemployed,” by Heinrich Hauser (Conflict and Cooperation)
  • Go over the handout on Totalitarianism
  • 1920 Hitler joined the Nazis (translated in English: National Socialist German Worker`s Party) and by 1921 he was the leader
  • This is a picture of Neville Chamberlain and Adolf Hitler shaking hands after the deal was made for Germany to take over Sudetenland, Czechoslovakia
  • 3 million Germans lived in Sudetenland and Hitler wanted these people to be part of Germany
  • This is an image of children sitting in rubble after the Blitzkrieg attacks
  • Lesson 1 Causes of WWII

    1. 1. Causes of WWIIThe world at war…again
    2. 2. • Treaty of Versailles• Policy of Appeasement• Totalitarianism• Nazi-Soviet Non- Aggression Pact• Great Depression• Japan became aggressive Main causes of WWII
    3. 3. • Allied powers, U.S., Canada, Britain and France met at Paris Peace Conference in early 1919 (After WWI) to discuss what was going to happen to defeated Germany and Austria- Hungary• Purpose of this treaty was to prevent another war Treaty of Versailles
    4. 4. • Germany was crippled because of the Treaty of Versailles• Hitler determined to make Germany powerful again• He used this Treaty to appeal to the German people and to help him over throw the new democratic German gov’t Treaty of Versailles cont’d
    5. 5. • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nQwH2tpuCxc
    6. 6. • Germany suffered significantly from the effects of the Depression• The “War Guilt” clause of the Treaty put a great strain on German economy• To meet the payments, the gov’t printed large amounts of money in the 1920s which lowered the value of the German currency Germany and The Great Depression
    7. 7. • Britain, France, and the U.S. agreed to amend terms Germany’s reparation payments• Germany made a modest recovery• When stock market crashed in 1929, Germany’s economy was weakened and was more affected than most countries• Germany’s inability to make the reparation payments affected the economies of other countries Germany and the Great Depression Cont’d
    8. 8. • Totalitarian dictatorship: A dictatorship in which the gov`t uses intimidation, violence and propaganda to rule all aspects of social and political life if its citizens• ``Total`` manner in which dictators controlled citizens was something that was new• Modern technology allowed dictators to control populations because of the weapons that were available• Germany and Italy were fascist totalitarian regimes: the gov`t controlled economy and all resources• One leader has absolute power Totalitarianism
    9. 9. Hitler`s Fascist Germany
    10. 10. • Throughout the 20`s, Nazis gained support by criticizing the democratic gov`t in Germany (Weimer Republic) and the humiliating terms of the treaty of Versailles• 1933 Hitler became Chancellor of Germany and ruled through intimidation and fear• Banned all political parties other than Nazis• Used Gestapo (secret police) to enforce his rule• Defied terms of the treaty and used the money to build his military Totalitarianism: Hitler’s Germany
    11. 11. • 1924 Stalin became leader of Soviet Union• 1928 Stalin had total control of Soviet Union• Implemented series of 5 year plans to industrialize country and give gov`t total control of the economy• Stalin seized all privately owned land and controlled all media• Imposed strict censorship and travel restrictions on everyone Joseph Stalin`s communist Soviet Union
    12. 12. • Arrested anyone who was a ``threat``• The great purge of the 30`s: Stalin eliminated anyone who was opposed to communism; millions of people were convicted of crimes against the state and many were executed• Many died of starvation Stalin`s Soviet Union
    13. 13. Benito Mussolini`s Italy
    14. 14. • After WWII, Italy struggled economically and politically• Mussolini established the fascist party and challenged democracy• Created ``black shirts`` gang who attacked communists and socialists in the streets• 1922 March of Rome: gathered 26,000 black shirts and demanded the gov`t be turned over to him• After taking over Italy, he brought all communications (ie., industry, agriculture, labour) under fascist control Fascist Italy
    15. 15. • Appeasement: the policy of satisfying or giving into demands. When a country becomes aggressive, other countries give the aggressor what it wants to prevent warThe Policy of Appeasement
    16. 16. Appeasing Hitler
    17. 17. • Treaty of Versailles forced Germany to give up Rhineland• March of 1936 Hitler violated the Treaty and sent troops to Rhineland• Hitler became more aggressive• Britain and France did nothingAppeasing Hitler cont`d
    18. 18. • March 1938 Hitler`s troops moved into Austria and made it a part of Germany• Another violation of the treaty• Still, Britain and France did nothing Appeasing Hitler cont`d
    19. 19. • 1938 Hitler threatens to invade Sudetenland (Western region of Czechoslovakia, bordering Germany)• Britain and France panicked and a conference was called in Munich, Germany• Appeasers asked Hitler what he wanted in exchange for not going to war• Hitler wanted Sudetenland-it was given to him and he promised not to invade the rest of Czechoslovakia• He broke his promise and invaded Czechoslovakia on March 15th of 1939 Appeasing Hitler cont`d
    21. 21. • Soviet Union played no role in appeasement• Since it was a communist state, Britain and France wanted nothing to do with Soviet Union• Stalin tried to convince Britain and France to form a pact with Soviet Union to instill some fear into Hitler• His proposal was rejected• Stalin feared Nazi German as Hitler had long declared that he would take down communism in the Soviet Union Non-Aggression Pact
    22. 22. • Hitler approached Stalin to make a non-aggression pact• Agreement was that neither country would attack the other• Poland was divided between the two countries• Both Stalin and Hitler knew the other was lying about the non-aggression pact Non-Aggression Pact cont`d
    23. 23. • Hitler wanted to avoid a two front war when he invaded Poland• Stalin wanted to buy time for the inevitable war against Germany• Signing the pact cleared the way for Hitler to invade Poland• September 1st 1939 Hitler invades Poland and WWII begins …and the war begins
    24. 24. Discussion Questions:• What lessons were or were not learned from WWI?• What were the four main causes of WWI and how did they contribute to the causes of WWII?• Could WWII have been avoided? Homework