Urbanisation (problems and suggested solutions) In Zimbabwe
Urbanisation-problems associated&the possible solutionsNHLIZIYO DUMISANI (University Of Zimbabwe)
DEFINATION… The term urban area, from which urbanisation is derived isvery difficult to define. It varies from region to region (Madzingira et al, 2002). In Israel an urban area is defined as a non-agriculturalsettlement, presumably of any size (Jones, 1967). In Chile it is the centre with urban characteristics whilstin Norway localities of 200 or more inhabitants canconstitute an urban area(UN Demographic Yr. Bk, 1983) In Zimbabwe it is a designated urban area, that is areaswhich ha 2500 inhabitants or a compact settlementpattern, with the majority [more than 50%] of thepopulation employed persons engaged in non - agriculturalactivities (Madzingira et al, 2002).
Def.... The process by which towns & cities growbigger & more people go to live in them, (MacMillan dictionary). Urbanisation is a process whereby anincreasing proportion of a nations populationlive in urban areas (Waugh, 1990). Other scholars have simply definedUrbanisation as the proportion of a countrythat is urban.
Def ...cont* Urbanisation implies a cultural & socialpsychological process whereby people acquirethe material & non-material culture, includingbehavioural patterns form of organisation &ideas that originated in or are distinctive ofthe city. Debji (1991), defined urbanisation as aprocess of concentration, which in two ways:the multiplication of the points ofconcentration and the increase in size ofindividual concentrations.
Def.…cont.* Urbanization is the shift from a rural to andurban society & involves an increase in thenumber of people in urban areas during aparticular year. It is a result of the outcome ofsocial, economic, & political developmentsthat lead to urban concentration & growth inlarge cities, changes in land use &transformation from rural metropolitanpattern of organization to governance (NsiahGyaabah*)* Nsiah Gyaabah-Urban processes-Environmental & Health effects in Africa
Global Urbanisation Trends Global urban population is growing at a rapid pacefrom 17% in 1951 to 20% in 2001 and approaching41% by 2030 (Kadi, 2012). Developing countries urbanise faster thandeveloped countries hence they face greaterchallenges of urbanisation U.S.A was 40% urbanised in 1890, 70% in 1960and 75+ % in 1990. This gradual pace is in contrast with that one ofdeveloping nations e.g. Korea was 40% in 1970 and78% in 1990 (Henderson, 2002).
Global urbanisation trends By 2005 more than half of the worlds populationwill be in urban areas; over two-thirds of thispopulation will be in Less Developed Countries, asalleged by the world population patterns(Madzingira et al ,2002).
Major Causes Of Urbanisation (Africa)1). Natural IncreaseHigh birth rates than death ratesfuelled by improved medical care, better sanitation andimproved food supply which lower death rates2).Migrationrural poverty drives people from rural areas into largecities in search for greener pastures(employment, foodshelter, education etc. )Pushed out by factors e.g. poverty, environmentaldegradation, religious strife, political persecution,food insecurity, lack of basic infrastructure and servicesin rural areas.* Urbanisation in an African context was not a result ofindustrialisation but of absolute poverty(in rural Areas).
migration…cont.*or because people are pulled into urban areas byadvantages and opportunities of the city(education,electricity, water, employment etc.)- Even though in many African countries the urbanareasoffer few jobs for the youths, they are attractedthereby amenities of urban life (Tarver, 1996).
Problems associated with Urbanisationa). UnemploymentOne of the significantfeature of urbanisation inAfrica is that unlike inAsia and Europe, muchgrowth is taking place inthe absence of significantindustrial expansion,(Nsiah ).Consequently this lead to alarge number ofunemployed masses inurban areas
Problems cont.*b). Pollutioni).Air pollution hasresultedfrom the emission ofgasses, fumes and wastesmoke into theatmosphere.Overdependence onmotorised transporthasalso contributed to airpollution ( large amountof exhaust fumes)
Problems – pollution cont.*ii). Water pollution has resulted from poor sewagefacilities(inability of town municipals to handle everincreasing urban population), disposal of industrialwaste and/or heavy metals into water bodiesiii). Noise pollution from large factory engines, motorvehicle idling, unreasonably high radio volumesiv). Land pollution – uncollected refuge hips, peoplelittering everywhere
Problems Cont.*c) Poor Sanitation. Population growth-bothnatural increase &immigration- is always aheadof the housing supply in urbanarea.Rapid increase in urbanitessurpass gvt & town plannersability to provide adequateaccommodation.Consequently the poor areforced to crowd into alreadysqualid slums or settlersettlements as ‘temporary’alternatives.
ProblemsPoor Sanitation (Stats) The Herald(1999), Harare on its own has a longwaiting list that is more than 100 000 and todaythe population stands at over one million(Madzingira et al, 2002) These figures could have doubled considering thefact that 14 years have passed since these figurewere published and the rapid increase inurbanisation for developing countries. Rate of urban growth is so great that thegovernment cannot adequately supplyaccommodation, social services, health care,transportation services
Problems Cont.*d).Disease OutbreaksThe urban population ismore vulnerable todiseases such asHIV/AIDS, Malaria andS.T.IsUnhealthy environments &overcrowded housing inslums exposes the ‘urbanpoor’ to high rates ofinfectious diseases e.g.pneumonia, T.B, diarrhoea,Cholera.
Cholera Outbreak Zimbabwe - 2008 As of 1 December 2008, the Ministry of Healthin Zimbabwe has reported a total of 11 735cholera cases with 484 deaths since August 2008,affecting all provinces in the country. The overallcase fatality rate for cholera is 4% but hadreached up to 20–30% in remote areas. Out of the total number of cases, 50% hadbeen reported from Budiriro, a high densitysuburb of the capital city, Harare. Beitbridge, a town bordering South Africa,hasdreported 26% of all cases. (WHO,2008)http://www.who.int/csr/don/2008_12_02/en/
Problemsdiseases cont. Hatcliffe extension( Harare ) was initiallysuppose to hold 3000 families but to date theactual number of families residing in the areais not known. Varying figures that have beengive range between 30 000 and 80 000. Air and water Quality in many cities threatensthe health of millions of citydwellers(UNEP,1994).
Problems Cont.*e). Traffic JamUsing a private carhas become verycommon inthe world and such anattitude createstrafficcongestion in urbanareas
Problems Cont.*f). Increased crimeand anti –social behaviourUnemployed surplus inurban areas usuallyresort to crime &prostitutionin order to sustaintheir livelihoods.
Problems Cont.Water & Sewage problems Facilities are often ancientand inadequate to supportthe ever increasingpopulation levels Very little of sewage iscollected as a result andthe is left to flow inpathways Providing theinfrastructure forcollection and treatment ofsolid & liquid waste is oftenbeyond the resource ofmage cities
Possible solutions The most effective way to tackle urbanisationis to make the economy of villages and smallscale fully viable Economies can be revitalized if thegovernment undertakes a massive ruraldevelopment programme Surplus rural manpower should be absorbed inthe village themselves so as to reduce rural tourban migration
Possible solutions(traffic problems) The most effective way to curb trafficcongestion in urban areas is to encourage thepopulation to use public transport Control of volumes of traffic – heavy haulagetrucks should not be allowed to enter theinner city Increase road capacity (dual carriagesystems) Improve the traffic control systems- trafficlights should be fully computerized andconstantly serviced
Possible solutionsUrban Slums Implement ruthless government clean up campaignssuch as Operation Murambatsvina of 2005 Governments should construct low cost multi storeyflats to accommodate the slum dwellers E.g. in Zimbabwe Matapi - Mbare Promote schemes that involve the provision of tractsof urban land, which are divided into plots andprovided with basic supporting services e.g. water,drainage and electricity. The plots are then eithersold or leased to those who wish to build their ownhome on them. Construction of skyscrapers to ease the problem e.g.in Hong Kong where the idea has been more of a norm
Possible solutions Cont. Encourage people to enter into the informalsector to ease unemployment and antisocial behaviours Government should provide funds topromote entrepreneurship so that part ofthe surplus un employed will be employed Solutions to pollution problems include:banning heavy vehicles from CBDs;developing cleaner fuels, and providingmore litter bins in CBDs.
Possible solutions Cont. Some cities have encouraged the growth ofout-of-town shopping centres to help traffic,land price and pollution problems, by takingsome of the focus away from the CBD Government should introduce schemes wherethe local community will be closely involved inthe planning and building of new houses. Oftenthe government provide the materials, whilstthe local people built the buildings. Thegovernment will then provide an improvedinfrastructure and sewer systems