Sources of demographic data


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Sources of demographic data

  1. 1. SOURCES OF DEMOGRAPHIC DATA Nhliziyo Dumisani & Mashingaidze Privy
  2. 2. POPULATION CENSUS  The main source of demographic data worldwide  A census is the process of collecting, compiling, evaluating and disseminating demographic data at a specified time covering all persons in a country or in a well delimited part(s) of a country  Most countries, nations and states carry out their population censuses after every ten years as per United Nations recommendation  provide info on size, composition, spatial distribution and information on fertility and mortality in countries that may not have fully developed their vital registration system (Banda, 2003.4)
  3. 3. POPULATION CENSUS CONT***  Censuses are carried out on either defacto or dejure basis  On defacto basis a person(s) is enumerated where he/she is found whilst on dejure basis a person(s) is enumerated at their usual place of residence  Although censuses are the ideal method of collecting demographic data, they are time consuming in terms of planning and very expensive such that developing countries may fail to raise appropriate funds  *Indonesia had to cancel the scheduled 1940 census due to lack of funds (Saluhudi, 2002.146)  Censuses are also liable to errors of coverage and content
  4. 4. ADMINISTRATIVE RECORDS  Used in almost every country and a common example of such are health statistics from hospitals.  their reliability in providing accurate demographic data depends upon the completeness of the administrative recording process and the competence of reporting (Suharto, 2011).  Administrative recorded are a very cost effective data source in developing countries but unfortunately in most of the very same developing countries, have not yet fully developed their administrative recording systems.  -limited in content i.e. they do not provide information that is related to morbidity and are limited in content on mortality as well since they are mainly for administrative purposes.
  5. 5. VITAL REGISTRATION SYSTEMS  V.R.S’s are part of administrative records and are another major source of demographic data  V.R.S’s provide vital demographic information on a number of issues amongst which there is migrations, deaths, births, marriages, divorces, adoptions  V.R.S’s in developing countries are still lagging behind, thus why censuses have included questions on fertility  The majority of African countries do not have adequate civil registration and vital statistics systems, hence unable to produce current and continuous fertility and mortality statistics, including causes of death statistics at national and sub-national levels (  Countries with developed V.R.S’s however are able to produce periodic reports on vital demographic events like the number of live births by sex, date, place and time of birth, number of deaths by sex
  6. 6. SAMPLE SURVEYS  The most flexible of all data collection methods which can investigate almost every demographic variable  Household surveys in particular are key source of data on special phenomenon and what makes them an excellent choice for demographers is that they provide a mechanism for supplying data that may not be met by censuses and V.R.S  Due to the fact that censuses can bot be frequently carried out, surveys provide a basis for updating some census information at national or other large domains (Banda, 2003.6).  May examine such topics as fertility, mortality and morbidity
  7. 7. SAMPLE SURVEYS CONT.***  House hold surveys in particular are key source of data on social phenomenon .They are among the most flexible method of data collection.  The overall cost of a survey is generally lower compared to a census as the latter requires large amounts of manpower, financial, logistical and material resources.  In general sample surveys produce statistical information of better quality because, as stated earlier, it is more feasible to engage better and well- trained enumerators. It is also easier to provide better supervision because supervisors are usually well trained and the supervisor/ enumerator ratio can be as high as 1 to 4.
  8. 8. UNIVERSAL POPULATION REGISTERS Rare source of demographic data Commonly used in developed countries such as Sweden These registers collect statistics of persons on a permanent base from birth and are constantly updated on such events in a persons life as marriage, divorce, death and change of residence. Demographic data collected is mainly for administrative purposes