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Workshop designed to career counsel persons of the disabled population

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  • Non-physical disabilities report more negative experiences than employees with physical disabilities
  • According to Phillips (1975) employers with limited or no experience hiring persons who are deaf expressed concern over worker safety. (as cited in Unger, 2002).
  • Theories to incorporate:CBT to challenge negative cognitions Incorporating the client in the decision-making process of career choicesPerson-centered approach to focus on their own abilities versus our assumptions of capabilities
  • Closing the gap I think means education*** educating colleagues and then your clients on the issue. We can better our clients’ career development by being aware of the stereotypes and addressing the issues.
  • Csl454 Wshop

    1. 1. Career Counseling Disabled PersonsBy: Courtney Morris, Brittany Dumek, and Meghan StarkDePaul University<br />
    2. 2. Goal of Workshop<br />To provide counselors with the proper tools and techniques needed to effectively counsel the disabled population regarding concerns pertaining to career development.<br />Empowerment strategies<br />The importance of self-efficacy and self-esteem building<br />Expose career counselors to a wide variety of stereotypes/biases that concern the disabled population in the workforce.<br />In the end, career counselors should feel equipped enough to focus on ABILITIES versus disabilities when working with disabled clients. <br />
    3. 3. Definition of Disability<br />What is Disability?<br />According to the United States Department of Justice (1990), the Americans with Disabilities Act defines disability as, “a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more of life activities” (as cited in Snyder et. al., 2010, p.6)<br />
    4. 4. Why Focus on Disabilities in Career Counseling?<br />There is a growing need for counselors to become familiarized with the impact prejudices have when counseling individuals with disabilities (Smith, Foley, & Chaney, 2008, p. 305). <br />According to Freedman, Martin, and Schoeni (2004), approximately 20% of Americans have a disability (as cited in Smith et al., 2008, p. 305).<br />For career counselors in particular, these prejudices/misconceptions may especially come to surface when discussing career development issues.<br />Example<br />
    5. 5. Why this Workshop is Important? <br />There is a current underrepresentation of individuals with disabilities in the job market.<br />An estimated 23.9% of disabled individuals over 18 participate in the labor market in comparison to 72.4% of the general population (McMenamin et al., 2006).<br />Disabled individuals are less likely to be hired due to stereotypes of low productivity (Snyder et al., 2010).<br />Employers were less positive when presented with the idea of hiring disabled persons in the workplace (Unger, 2002).<br />“Despite increased laws to address employment discrimination and provide for workplace accommodations for qualified workers with disabilities, the employment rate of persons with disabilities has increased very little since the 80’s” (Unger, 2002). <br />72% of unemployed persons with disabilities stated they would like to work, however were not recognized as qualified workers by various businesses and industries (Unger, 2002).<br />
    6. 6. Stereotype Activity<br />
    7. 7. Common Misconceptions<br />Lack motivation<br />Expensive<br />Dependent<br />Incapable of making decisions without guidance<br />FOOD FOR THOUGHT…<br />79% of survey employers were hesitant to hire disabled persons due to their false perceptions of greater training and supervision needed for workers with disability (Unger, 2002, p. 4)<br />
    8. 8. Why These Are Misconceptions<br />LACK MOTIVATION/DEPENDENT <br />People with disabilities continue to demonstrate that they are “as loyal and skilled as employees without disabilities,” and can “perform the same range of jobs and work responsibilities as anyone else in the corporation” if provided appropriate training (Younes, 2001). <br />The disabled population frequently demonstrates “levels of performance, absenteeism, accidents, and turn over, equal to or better than the general workforce”(Braddock, Bachelder, Mackay, & Unger 2001).<br />EXPENSIVE <br />According to Younes (2001), accessibility is the “easiest barrier to overcome” (i.e., Braille letters on keyboards, moving cubicle closer to exit). In cases where expensive assistive technology is needed, training and funding may be needed. However, the cost of this equipment can be easily “recouped when highly talented and loyal employees are retained and promoted” (p. 89)<br />
    9. 9. FACT<br />Employers who have had previous experience with disabled persons tend to be more likely to hire them in the future; including but not limited to deafness, mentally challenged, epilepsy, and psychiatric disability. (Unger, 2002, p. 4)<br />Therefore, it is obvious that these stereotypes and negative perceptions of disabled persons are based on lack of experience working with this group, as well as unawareness. <br />
    10. 10. Gaps in Research<br />The disabled population continues to not only be underrepresented in the workplace, but also in both career and general counseling. <br />Research is there, but limited. <br />Additional research is needed to train counselors to effectively career counsel individuals with disabilities<br /> self-efficacy stressing capabilities versus disabilities.<br />If stereotypes are not addressed by counselors, career counseling will be a negative and discouraging experience for the disabled client. <br />
    11. 11. Career Counseling Strategies<br />Once aware of own biases/stereotypesand the discrimination disabled persons face, the career development process can begin.<br />According to Younes (2001), job readiness can be established by:<br />Identifying interests (goals):<br />When goals are not present, disabled individuals are less aware of their capabilities and lack standards to evaluate their progress against (Schunk, 1985).<br />Defining proximal goals versus general goals for the future will enhance self-efficacy and skill development levels for disabled persons (Schunk, 1985). <br />
    12. 12. Career Counseling Strategies <br />Incorporating Super’s developmental theory in order to establish:<br />Goals pertaining to their developmental stage (growth, exploration, establishment, maintenance…)<br />Goals pertaining to their life roles (citizen, spouse, student…)<br />To develop a better understanding of their personal values and career maturity. <br />
    13. 13. Career Counseling Strategies <br />Developing job search skills<br />Introducing support systems available outside of counseling<br />Providing assistance in application completion<br />Resume writing and development<br />Guiding them in a career portfolio development exercise (marketing strategies)<br />Mock interviews<br />Social skills development<br />
    14. 14. Career Counseling Strategies <br />Focus on working WITH the client, not FOR.<br />Understand how exposure to prejudice/discrimination in one’s life can result in low self-efficacy. Work to promote what they CAN do in the workplace throughout therapy.<br />According to Bandura (as cited in Tierney & Farmer, 2010) sense of efficacy derives from being immersed in situations requiring skills conducive to individuals’ own abilities. <br />Self-efficacy will increase when disabled individuals are motivated by own inspirations versus imposed goals (Schunk, 1985).<br />Focus on positive versus negative.<br />Work to empower the individual throughout the session by means such as encouraging autonomy. <br />Let them have power over their own decisions (avoid paternalistic actions).<br />
    15. 15. Importance of Promoting Self-Efficacy<br />Self-efficacy is of critical importance when working with disabled persons.<br />According to Frain, Tschopp, and Bishop (2009), self-efficacy and self-management prove to be the most important variables in empowerment with this population.<br />“We work to facilitate empowerment in our clients not to help them understand how important some things should be to them, but rather to help clients feel a sense of satisfaction and control over these important areas of life” (Frain, Tschopp, & Bishop, 2009, p. 33).<br />Working WITH not FOR.<br />
    16. 16. Self-Advocacy<br />Teaching clients different ways to voice their rights and needs proved to be a significant component in increasing feelings of empowerment (Frain, Tschopp, & Bishop, 2009, p.32).<br />EDUCATING and providing disabled clients with information pertaining to their legal rights, relevant workshops, and literature. <br />
    17. 17. CASE STUDY<br />JB is a 27-year-old male currently seeking job opportunities. He is seeking career counseling in hopes of being provided with a variety of options that match his skills and interests. He is University educated with a degree in Physics. Although he graduate with all honors and with excellent recommendations, JB is having difficulty maintaining a steady job. <br />JB was diagnosed with Autism at the age of three. He has been affected by his disability in multiple areas of his life. Although he is considered to be “highly functioning,” JB struggles with establishing lasting relationships. Some of his challenges include: making eye contact, showing appropriate affect, and interacting with others in general. <br />JB has abnormally high IQ of 170. He is incredibly gifted in areas pertaining to mathematics and has developed a passion for astrophysics. He enjoys routine and order, detail, and problem solving activities. Despite his high levels of intelligence, he continues to be told that he will “never be able to work with others,” and is “too awkward”. <br />Equipped with the skills learned in this workshop, how would you go about counseling JB??<br />
    18. 18. References<br />Frain, M. P., Tschopp, M. K., & Bishop, M. (2009). Empowerment variables as predictors of outcomes in rehabilitation. Journal of Rehabilitation, 75, 27-35.<br />Schunk, D.H. (1985). Participation in Goal Setting: Effects on Self-efficacy and Skills of Learning- Disabled. Journal of Special Education, 19, 307-316<br />Smith, L. S., Foley, P. F., & Chaney, M. P. (2008). Addressing classism, ableism, and heterosexism in counselor education. Journal of Counseling and Development, 86, 303-309.<br />Snyder, L. A., Carmichael, J. S., Blackwell, L. V., Cleveland, J. N., & Thornton, G. C. (2010). Perceptions of discrimination and justice among employees with disabilities. Employee Responsibilities and Rights Journal, 22, 5-18.<br />Tierney, P. & Farmer, S. (2010). Creative Self-Efficacy Development and Creative Performance Over time. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96, 277-293. <br />Unger, D. D. (2002). Employers’ attitudes toward persons with disabilities in the workforce: Myths or realities? Focus on Autism and Other Developmental Disabilities, 17(1), 2-11.<br />Younes, N. (2001). Getting corporations ready to recruit workers with disabilities. Journal of Vocational Rehabilitation, 16, 89-91.<br />