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Relative clauses

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Relative Clauses: (Use - Form - Examples). …

Relative Clauses: (Use - Form - Examples).
1) Defining,
2) Non-Defining.
- Activities.
- Solutions.

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  • 1. RELATIVE CLAUSES
    • DEFINING,
    • 2) NON-DEFINING.
  • 2. 1) Defining Relative Clauses
    • Son un tipo de oraciones subordinadas que aportan información esencial dentro de esa misma oración.
    • Su información no se puede omitir (a diferencia de las ‘non-defining’, que de hecho suelen aparecer entre comas, y la información que aportan es extra).
    • Ej: ‘Do you know the girl?’ _ Probablemente esta frase por sí sola, no aporta mucha información al oyente, de hecho (esto será dependiendo del contexto, pero para esta situación imaginaremos a alguien que pregunta a otra persona sobre una tercera que se encuentra en esa misma habitación, por lo tanto debemos matizar más sobre a qué chica se refiere), suena más informal y abrupta.
    • Mientras que: ‘Do you know the girl who is talking to John?’
  • 3. Ejemplos:
    • Ej: ‘Do you know the girl?’ _ Probablemente esta frase por sí sola, no aporta mucha información al oyente, de hecho ( esto será dependiendo del contexto, pero para esta situación imaginaremos a alguien que pregunta a otra persona sobre una tercera que se encuentra en esa misma habitación, por lo tanto debemos matizar más sobre a qué chica se refiere ), suena más informal y abrupta.
    • Mientras que: ‘Do you know the girl who is talking to John?’
  • 4. Cuadro resumen de los pronombres relativos:
  • 5. Cómo distinguir entre un pronombre SUJETO, OBJETO o sustituir por THAT:
    • Puede resultar difícil en ocasiones, distinguir los Pron. (who, which – that) que funcionan como SUJETO de los OBJETO solo por su forma.
    • Pero:
    • El Pron. Sujeto siempre aparecerá de la siguiente forma: PRON. SUJETO + VERB. Ej.: ‘ Have you seen the beggard  who / that was sleeping on the neighbour’s porch?’ – (En estos casos, cuando el Pron. Relativo funciona como Sujeto, y escribimos THAT, éste no se podrá omitir).
  • 6.
    • El Pron. Objeto siempre aparecerá de la siguiente forma: PRON. OBJETO + Nombre / Pronombre. Ej.: ‘ The beggard who /   (that ) Ann saw asleep on the neighbour’s porch’.  ( OJO : Sólo se pueden sustituir los pronombres SUJETO y/o OBJETO por THAT cuando se trate de oraciones de relativo ‘DEFINING’; y SÓLO se puede omitir THAT cuando éste funciona en la frase de relativo como pronombre objeto (al igual que los pronombres objeto en sí, y tal y como hemos visto en el ejemplo de arriba).
  • 7. ADVERBIOS DE RELATIVO:
    • Un adverbio de relativo (WHEN, WHERE y WHY) se usa normalmente en lugar de un pronombre precedido (o seguido) de una preposición , para matizar y clarificar el significado de éste:
    • - Ej.: ‘ This is the day  on which  I left for France. - This is the day  when  I left for France’.
  • 8. CUADRO RESUMEN DE LOS ADVERBIOS DE RELATIVO: (Nota: ¡¡Estos adverbios NO se sustituyen NUNCA por THAT, y TAMPOCO pueden omitirse!!)
  • 9. 2) Non-Defining Relative Clauses:
    • Son aquellas oraciones de relativo que dan una información extra del antecedente, información que no es imprescindible para la comprensión de la oración principal. (En español se llaman explicativas).
    • Las oraciones de relativo ‘non-defining’ no aportan información esencial o necesaria. Solo aportan información EXTRA con respecto de la frase principal a la cual hacen referencia.
    • Por ello, dicha información adicional suele ir entre comas. En español se llaman explicativas. de relativo ‘non-defining’ utilizan los mismos pronombres sujeto, objeto, y los mismos adverbios de relativo que en las ‘defining’.  PERO: No pueden ni sustituirse por THAT en ningún caso, ni OMITIRSE.
  • 10. Ejemplos:
    • ‘ The girl, who/whom  I met last night, is very pretty’.
    • ‘ Tom’s father, who is 78, goes swimming every day’.
    • ‘ She told me her address, which I wrote down on a piece of paper’.
    • ‘ Martin, whose mother is Spanish, speaks both Spanish and English fluently ’.
  • 11. Remember:
    • Defining relative clauses:
    •                - have no commas;
    •                - can replace who, or which with that;
    •               - can omit who, which or that when they are the object of the clause.
    • Non-defining relative clauses:
    •                - use commas (or pauses in spoken English);
    •                - do not use THAT;
    •                - cannot omit relative pronouns.
  • 12. Activities:
    • 1. Complete these sentences with the correct relative pronoun:
    •   1. Brigitte Bardot is a French actress who/that has protested against the slaughter of seals.  2. The fox is an animal .……………….. can be seen in many British cities.  3. Kate is the girl .……………….. father bought a baby crocodile.  4. The office .……………….. I work is a branch of the RSPCA.  5. Charlie is the hamster .……………….. is fatter than all the rest.  6. Mr Forrester is the butcher .……………….. had his shop window smashed by ALF members (Animal Liberation Front). 
  • 13.
    • 2. Underline the relative pronouns you could omit in these sentences.  
    • 1. The girl  who/that  we were talking to loves snakes.  2. Is that the woman who threw acid at the horses?  3. The book which I bought yesterday is about training dogs. 4. My friend Simon is the boy whose mother is a professor of zoology.  5. Do you know the people who made so much noise at the party last night?  6. Have you seen the bag where I keep my football kit? 
  • 14.
    • 3. Join each pair of sentences with a defining relative clause. Omit the  pronoun where possible. 
    • 1. Last week I bought a book. It’s a best-seller. 
    • Last week I bought a book which/ that is a best–seller. 
    • 2. This is the book. I found the information in it. 
    • ..............................................................................................  3. I didn’t recognise Susan. I talked to her.  .................................................................................................  4. She hasn’t given me back my book. She borrowed it from me last week.  ..............................................................................................  5. Have you seen the biscuits? They were on the top shelf.  ..............................................................................................  6. A woman gave me the application form. She told me how to fill it out.  ...............................................................................................   7. The novel is about a child. Her parents die in the jungle.  ..............................................................................................  8. Charles Chaplin was a famous comedian. He directed well-known films.  ...............................................................................................  9. You are going to meet a girl tomorrow. She is intelligent and pretty, too.  ...............................................................................................  10. I bought a new CD. Its songs are by different country music singers.  .............................................................................................. 
  • 15.
    • 4. Join each pair of sentences with a non-defining relative clause.  1. Fur coats are very popular among wealthy women. They produce indignation among animal lovers. 
    • Fur coats, which are very popular among wealthy women, produce indignation among animal lovers.  2. My English friends live in Leeds. They work for the RSPCA (Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty on Animals).  ...........................................................................................  3. Harry is very fond of pets. He’s got a dog, a cat, two hamsters and three budgies.  ............................................................................................  4. My brother studied zoology. He works in a natural history museum.  ...........................................................................................  5. The Tower of London is on the River Thames. It is one of the most famous buildings in Britain.  ...........................................................................................  6. Fiesta was written by Ernest Hemingway. It is also called The Sun Also Rises.  ..........................................................................................  7. The new tunnel will be opened next month. It is the safest in Europe.  ..........................................................................................  8. Michael is still asleep. He stayed up until 4 a.m. watching athletics.  ........................................................................................  9. Tina gave a big party in her house. Her parents were away on business.  .........................................................................................  10. Doris Lessing was born in Persia. She wrote The Golden Notebook.  ........................................................................................  11. Sara speaks good English. She has never visited England or America.  .........................................................................................  
  • 16. Soluciones:
    • ANSWERS: Grammar Test 6 
    • 1. 2. which/that; 3. whose; 4. where;5. which/that; 6. who/that  2. 2. -; 3. which; 4. -; 5. -; 6. -  3. 2. This is the book I found the information in. 3. We like people who/that are honest. 4. I didn’t recognise Susan, to whom I talked/who I talked to. 5. She hasn’t given me back the book which/that she borrowed from me last week. 6. Have you seen the biscuits which/that were on the top shelf? 7. The woman who/that gave me the application form told me how to fill it out. 8. The novel is about a child whose parents die in the jungle. 9. Charles Chaplin was a famous comedian who/that directed well-known films. 10. You are going to meet a girl tomorrow who/that is intelligent and pretty, too. 11. I bought a new CD which has songs by different country music singers.  4. 2.My English friends, who live in Leeds, work for the RSPCA. OR My English friends, who work for the RSPCA, live in Leeds. 3. Harry, who’s very fond of pets, has got a dog, a cat, two hamsters and three budgies. OR Harry, who’s got a dog, a cat, two hamsters and three budgies, is very fond of pets. 4. My brother, who studied zoology, works in a natural history museum. OR My brother, who works in a natural history museum, studied zoology. 5. The Tower of London, which is on the River Thames, is one of the most famous buildings in Britain. OR The Tower of London, which is one of the most famous buildings in Britain, is on the River Thames.