PHRASAL VERBSDEFINITION, TYPES AND EXAMPLES. Phrasal Verbs 1
DEFINITION:• Phrasal Verbs are verbs with more than one word. (Normally the verb followed by a preposition or/and an adverb).• Examples: pick up, put down, turn on, turn off• Phrasal verbs are also called two-part verbs and three-part verbs. Phrasal Verbs 2
Types:• There are two types of phrasal verbs: separable and non separable (that is the same as to say transitive or intransitive).►Non separable phrasal verbs are sometimes called inseparable. Phrasal Verbs 3
Non – separable. Rules:• Non separable (inseparable or intransitive) phrasal verbs must always remain together:• Example: take off = (non-sep) to depart CORRECT: The plane took off at noon. (verb + particle/preposition together) INCORRECT: The plane took at noon off. (both words MUST be together) Phrasal Verbs 4
Separable. Rules:• Separable (mainly transitive; the object is involved) phrasal verbs can be written three different ways:• Example: take off (sep) = to remove clothing CORRECT: Sara took off her jacket. (verb + particle together) CORRECT: Sara took her jacket off. (verb + particle separated by noun) CORRECT: Sara took it off. (verb + particle separated with a pronoun) INCORRECT: Sara took off it. (the pronoun MUST be in the middle) Phrasal Verbs 5
Phrasal Verbs vs. Prepositional Verbs:PREPOSITIONAL VERBS:There are a very large number of combinations of verb+preposition.Prepositions always have objects:• Please look after the children.• Ive fallen for you in a big way.In English, the preposition does not always come before itsobject; in certain kinds of sentences, it can come at the endof the clause:• What are you talking about? aboutPrepositional verbs are those which accept the passiveand/or the pronominal question, but not the adverbialquestion form. Phrasal Verbs 6
IS THE VERB A PHRASAL/PREPOSITIONAL VERB OR NOT? SEMANTIC CRITERIA FOR PHRASAL/PREPOSITIONAL VERBS.• The semantic unity in phrasal and prepositional verbs can often be manifested by substitution with a single- word verbs, for example: visit for call on, summon for call up, omit for leave out, see for look at, etc.• Furthermore, phrasal and prepositional verbs often have composite meanings which are not normally deducible from their parts, for example, make out (understand), take in (deceive),come by (obtain). The terms phrasal and prepositional verbs are not, however, restricted to such idiomatic combinations. We can distinguish three subclasses Phrasal Verbs 7
How to distinguish these types of verbs:Phrasal verbs.We say that a verb is phrasal because the particle after it is or acts in the end as an adverb (even though it is sometimes a preposition). They are different to prepositional verbs because:• 1. The accent is on the particle, not on the verb.Ill put ON my trousers.• 2. If the complement is a pronoun, it cannot be placed after the particle.*Ill put on THEM.• 3. An adverb cant be placed between the verb and the particle.*Ill put CAREFULLY on my trousers.• 4. The particle cannot be placed before the relative pronoun.*The trousers ON which I put.• 5. The object (substantive) can be placed between the verb and the particle.Ill put MY TROUSERS on.• 6. The pronoun (object) must be placed between the verb and the particle.Ill put THEM on. Phrasal Verbs 8
Prepositional verbs:We say that a verb is prepositional when the particle is not an adverb but a preposition. They can be distinguished from the phrasal verbs for the following reasons:• 1. The accent is on the verb, not on the particle.Ill LOOK after the children.• 2. If the object (substantive) is substituted by a pronoun, it must be placed after the particle.Ill look after THEM.• 3. It is grammatically acceptable to include an adverb between the verb and the particle.Ill look CAREFULLY after the children.• 4. The particle can be placed before a relative pronoun.These are the children AFTER WHOM I looked Phrasal Verbs 9
The end!• Now, move on to your photocopies on phrasal verbs, and prepositional verbs and do the activities. Phrasal Verbs 10
Activities. Phrasal Verb Practice -Assorted Verbs.• The concert was ___ because of the rain.a. called offb. blacked outc. turned off• How did he ___ their bad behavior.a. come tob. account forc. jot down• He must be about 90. He is really ___.a. getting onb. bringing upc. bringing forward• In the end everything ___ OK.a. turned outb. wore outc. climb up• Can you ___ all right or should I get a ladder?a. fall throughb. climb downc. barge in• I am sorry that I am late. I got ___ in traffic.a. lifted offb. held downc. caught up• I was so angry that I ___ in protest.a. gave upb. walked outc. ran over• The man was ___ of jail early for good behaviour.a. let outb. bent downc. sent down• Even though he was tired, he ___ going.a. kept onb. brought outc. fell over• After the accident a lot of people ___.a. turned outb. set outc. crowded around Phrasal Verbs 11
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