Thistheory emphasize changes in behavior that result from stimulus –response associations made by the learner.
There are some basic theories of language acquisition:1. Behaviorist theory For the acquisition of native2. Mentalist theory language3. Rationalist (cognitive T)4. Empiricist theory ( audiolingualism T) For the acquisition5. Cognitive-code theory foreign language
The five basic of the theory above are complementary each other, because they serve different types of learner of various cases of language learning. The first and the second language learning are not identical process. Though second language learning are strongly tied (terikat) up with first language acquisition. Native language growth gives the way for foreign language growth.
Behaviorist theory (founded by J.B. Watson) is a theory of native language learning, as reaction to traditional grammar. The major principle of the behaviorist theory rests on the analyzes of human behavior in observable stimulus-response interaction and the association between them. a. Example; The babies’ obtain native language through babbling b. his babblings and mutterings ,is rewarded. reinforces further articulation c. His babbling goes on imitating sounds, group of sounds, and as he grows up be combine the sentences d. By the age of five or six, babblings and mutterings grow into socialized speech.
There are five principles of behaviorism :1. Behaviorist theory dwells on spoken language. Language is primarily what is spoken and secondarily what is written. That is why spoken language must have a priority in language teaching.2. Behaviorist theory is the habit formation theory of language teaching and learning through learning of structural grammar.3. The stimulus-respond chain is a pure case of conditioning.4. All learning is the establishment of habits as the result of reinforcement and reward. Positive reinforcement is reward and negative reinforcement is punishment. Punishment is effective in quickly eliminating undesirable behaviors5. The learning can be the same for each individual. In other words, each person can learn equally if the conditions are the same for each person.
Beside reinforcement, there are also another development behavior. They are : 1. Shaping Is the process of gradually changing the quality of a response. There are 5 steps in improving behavior to the learners : A. Be punctual B. Be active in learning and give response to the teacher C. Get good score D. Do the homework E. Improvement2. Modeling In modeling, a learner only observe the teacher as a model.
BEHAVIOURIST THEORY COUNTER ARGUMENTS1. Basic strategies: 1. Basic strategies: • Imitation • Imitation, (i) children’s imitation of structures show no innovation, (ii) children vary in the amount that they • Reinforcement and imitate. rewarding • Reinforcement and rewarding, in fact, the parents correct (only) the simple structures not the complex ones. Hebert H. Clark and Eve V. Clark, (1977; 336) stated “Unfortunately this view of learning receives little support from the available evidence”
BEHAVIOURIST THEORY COUNTER ARGUMENTS2. Process of learning 2. Process of learning relies on • This process encourages the learner to • Generalization construct phrases, clauses, and sentence • Rewarding which was set of rules and drills, this • Conditioning obstruct or block the instinctive of production of language. which support the development of • Habit formation exercises may not analogical learning in naturally promote intrinsically-oriented children. language learning.
BEHAVIOURIST THEORY COUNTER ARGUMENTS3. This Process of 3. Process of learning language learning • There is threshold ambang batas level in a. repetition language learning. b. drilling • Before obtaining threshold level language learner is not creative, cannot use the language properly in new situation in a real sense. • It is that the intrinsic learning will be delayed due to the late acquisition of threshold level caused by previous settled set of rules and drills.
BEHAVIOURIST THEORY COUNTER ARGUMENTS4. Each individual will 4. It is impossible for learning to be the same learn language similarly for each individual. Because each person cannot learn equally well in the same conditions where learning takes place for their different background and experiences. • According to Chomsky, there must be some innate (or instinctive) capacities which human being posses that predispose (influence) them to look for basic patterns in language.
BEHAVIOURIST THEORY COUNTER ARGUMENTS5. It is suitable for 5. The strategies of behaviorist theory can only teaching structural be true for the early stages of learning which grammar . take place when the kids are in infancy and in early childhood periods. • Moreover, this theory is fruitful (successful) for the most part on animal experimentation and learning.
BEHAVIOURIST THEORY COUNTER ARGUMENTS6. Behaviorists believes 6. Many of the learning process are mostly too that learning is the complex, and for this reason there are result of stimulus and intervening campurtangan variables, which response. cannot be observed between stimulus and response. • “That’s why language acquisition can not take place through habit formation, since language learners are thrown between stimulus and response chain, for language is too far complicated to be learned in such a matter, especially given the brief time available”.