Seafood poisoning by Dulanjali M. Wijethilake

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Seafood poisoning by Dulanjali M. Wijethilake

  1. 1. EPITOME 1. • Introduction 2. • Global distribution of toxins 3. • Finfish poisoning 4. • Shellfish poisoning 5. • Other factors associate with seafood poisoning 6. • New and emerging toxins 7. • Detection methods of seafood poisoning 8. • Symptoms of seafood poisoning 9. • Hygienic errors for seafood poisoning 10. • Prevention, control and monitoring 11. • Long term consequences of seafood poisoning 12. • Future perspectives 13. • Sri Lankan situation of seafood poisoning 14. • Discussion Seafood Poisoning W.A.Dulanjali M. Wijethilake
  2. 2. A group of acute illnesses due to ingestion of contaminated finfish, bivalve mollusks and snails may result allergy, toxemia from foods, those inherently poisonous or those contaminated by poisons. Seafood containing poisons formed by bacteria or food borne infections. ( Source - medicaldictionary) Seafood Poisoning W.A.Dulanjali M. Wijethilake
  3. 3.  Seafood products are important both nutritionally and economically  About 16% of all animal protein  Seafood Vs. other food  Toxic microscopic algae  Indigenous factors  Accumulate through food chain Seafood Poisoning W.A.Dulanjali M. Wijethilake
  4. 4.  The toxins can produce various Neurological and gastrointestinal illness  Consumers are exposed to seafood poisoning while travelling abroad  Mainly fish and shellfish  Main issue is poisonous seafood shows no visible signs of contamination  Diagnosis may be complicated due to .. Seafood Poisoning W.A.Dulanjali M. Wijethilake
  5. 5.  Toxins normally accumulate in the a. Digestive gland b. Roe c. Viscera d. Flesh/muscles e. Skin  Adductor muscle in bivalve mollusks  Human activities also trigger the seafood poisoning Seafood Poisoning W.A.Dulanjali M. Wijethilake
  6. 6. Categories of Seafood poisoning Finfish poisoning Shellfish poisoning 1 Scombroid fish poisoning 2 Ciguatera fish poisoning 3 Puffer fish poisoning 4 Sardine poisoning 5 Hallucinogenic fish poisoning 6 Palytoxic fish poisoning 1 Paralytic shellfish Seafood Poisoning poisoning. 2 Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning 3 Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning 4 Amnestic shellfish poisoning. 5 Azapiracid poisoning Other factors 1 Parasites 2 Bacteria 3 Viruses 4 Heavy metals 5 Red whelk poisoning W.A.Dulanjali M. Wijethilake
  7. 7. Syndrome Amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) Azaspiracid shellfish poisoning (AZP) Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) Seafood Poisoning Affected Areas U.S. west coast including Alaska Atlantic Canada Georges Bank Chile Australia New Zealand United Kingdom England Scotland Ireland France Spain Morocco Norway Hawaii Gulf of Mexico Puerto Rico Caribbean Australia Many Pacific islands W.A.Dulanjali M. Wijethilake
  8. 8. Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) Swimmer's itch Dermatitis Seafood Poisoning Europe Japan Atlantic Canada South Africa Chile Thailand New Zealand Australia U.S. Gulf coast New Zealand U.S. west coast including Alaska New England coastal states Canada Chile Brazil Europe South Africa Asia Australia New Zealand Australia Florida worldwide throughout the tropics and subtropics W.A.Dulanjali M. Wijethilake
  9. 9. Figure 1 : Global distribution of PSP,NSP,DSP and ASP Seafood Poisoning W.A.Dulanjali M. Wijethilake
  10. 10. Figure 2 : Global distribution of CFP and AZP Seafood Poisoning W.A.Dulanjali M. Wijethilake
  11. 11. 1. Scombroid fish poisoning (SFP)  Most common cause  Histamine poisoning or pseudo allergic reaction  Scombroid fish species – Tuna, Bonito and mackerel  Non scombroid fish Figure 3 : formation of histamine Seafood Poisoning W.A.Dulanjali M. Wijethilake
  12. 12.  Histidine decarboxylase enzyme producing bacteria a. b. c. d. E.coli Klebsiella pneumonias Hafnia alvei Morganella morganii  Biogenic amines also play major role  Recommended Histamin levels I. 5mg/100g = safe II. 10-20/100g = maximum level III. >50mg/100g = unsafe Seafood Poisoning W.A.Dulanjali M. Wijethilake
  13. 13. 2. Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP)  Coral reef and inshore habitat fish species Eg – Barracuda, Amberjack, King mackerel, Groupers, Snappers  Toxin – Ciguatoxin (CTX) and Maitotoxin (MTX)  Agent – Gambierdiscus toxicus and benthic dinoflagellates  Mechanism Figure 4 : Structure of Ciguatoxin Seafood Poisoning W.A.Dulanjali M. Wijethilake
  14. 14. Figure 5 : Food chain accumulation of dinoflagellates  CFP does not affect the appearance, odour and taste Seafood Poisoning W.A.Dulanjali M. Wijethilake
  15. 15. 3. Puffer fish poisoning  Fishes include blowfish, globe fish, blue ringed octopus, gobies, starfish, horseshoe crab eggs  Toxin – Tetrodotoxin  Mechanism  Toxin concentrated in various parts Seafood Poisoning W.A.Dulanjali M. Wijethilake
  16. 16. 4. Sardine poisoning  Rare and very poorly reported one  Fish species include sardines, herrings and anchovies  Toxin - unknown  But … Seafood Poisoning W.A.Dulanjali M. Wijethilake
  17. 17. 5. Hallucinogenic fish poisoning  Ichthyoallyeinotoxism  Rare  Fish species include Siganus spinus  Exact toxin - unknown  Similarities with CFP Figure 5 : Siganus spinus Seafood Poisoning W.A.Dulanjali M. Wijethilake
  18. 18. 6. Palytoxic fish poisoning  Grazing animals on Palythoa sp.  Toxin – Palytoxin  Neurotoxic  Similarities with CFP Seafood Poisoning Figure 6 : Palythoa sp. W.A.Dulanjali M. Wijethilake
  19. 19. 1. Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP)  Most common and widespread shellfish poisoning  Toxin – Saxitoxin (STX)  Agent –Alexandrium sp., Gymnodinium catenatum and Pyrodinium spp.  Mechanism Figure 7 : Structure of saxitoxin Seafood Poisoning W.A.Dulanjali M. Wijethilake
  20. 20. 2. Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP)  Known since centuries  Toxin – Brevetoxins  Agent – Gymnodinium breve, Karenia brevis , Karenia brevisulcatum  Mechanism Figure 8 : Structure of brevetoxin Seafood Poisoning W.A.Dulanjali M. Wijethilake
  21. 21. 3. Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP)  Mild poisoning  Toxin – Okadaic acid and derivative  Agent – Dinophysis sp., Prorocentrum sp.  Filter feeding bivalves  Mechanism Figure 9 : Structure of Okadaic acid Seafood Poisoning W.A.Dulanjali M. Wijethilake
  22. 22. 4. Amnestic shellfish poisoning  One of the potentially serious poisoning  Toxin – Domoic acid  Agent - Pseudonitzchia sp.  Mechanism  20µg DA/g – Safety limit Figure 10 : Structure of Domoic acid Seafood Poisoning W.A.Dulanjali M. Wijethilake
  23. 23. 5. Azaspiracid poisoning  More recently discovered poisoning  Toxin – Azaspiraicd 1  Agent - Protoperidinium crassipes Figure 11 : Structure of Azaspiracid 1 Seafood Poisoning W.A.Dulanjali M. Wijethilake
  24. 24. 1. Parasites in seafood a. b. c. d. Anisakis simplex Diphyllobothrium sp. Paragonimus sp. Opisthocris sp. Figure 12 : Anisakis simplex (Leff) and Diphyllobothrium sp. (Right) Seafood Poisoning W.A.Dulanjali M. Wijethilake
  25. 25.  Protozoans a. b. c. d. Cryptosporidium parvum Entamoeba histolytica Giardia lamblia Cyclospora sp. Figure 13 : protozoans in fish species Seafood Poisoning W.A.Dulanjali M. Wijethilake
  26. 26. 2. Bacteria in seafood a. b. c. d. e. f. E.coli Staphylococcus aureus Salmonella sp. Vibrio cholerae Vibrio parahaemolyticus Listeria monocytogenes Figure 14 : Bacteria in fish species Seafood Poisoning W.A.Dulanjali M. Wijethilake
  27. 27. 3. Viruses in seafood a. Hepatitis A virus b. Norovirus 4. Heavy metals in sea food 5. Red whelk poisoning Seafood Poisoning W.A.Dulanjali M. Wijethilake
  28. 28.  The occurrence of seafood toxins seems to be increasing and new potential food poisoning hazard 1. 2. 3. 4. Azaspiracid Cyanobacteria toxins Pfiesteria toxin Other compounds – Gymnodinine and procentrolide Seafood Poisoning W.A.Dulanjali M. Wijethilake
  29. 29.  Mouse bioassays for  Limitations of specificity and accuracy  Due to ethical reasons  Alternatives a. Cell culture assays b. ELISA s c. HPLC – ASP detection , Tetradotoxin d. CE-MS e. LC-MS Seafood Poisoning W.A.Dulanjali M. Wijethilake
  30. 30. f. Ion exchange chromatography – Histamin g. Capillary zone electrophoresis – Histamin h. High voltage electrophoresis - Tetramine Figure 15 : Ion exchange chromatography machine Seafood Poisoning W.A.Dulanjali M. Wijethilake
  31. 31. Syndrome Symptoms Scombroid poisoning Breathing problems (in severe cases) Extremely red skin on face and body Flushing Hives and itching Nausea Vomiting Ciguatera fish poisoning Abdominal cramps Diarrhea (severe and watery) Nausea Vomiting Tetradotoxin fish poisoning Paresthesia of the lips and tongue Hypersalivation Sweating Headache Weakness lethargy Seafood Poisoning W.A.Dulanjali M. Wijethilake
  32. 32. Paralytic shellfish poisoning Numbness or tingling in mouth. This sensation may spread down to arms and legs. become very dizzy, have a headache in some cases, arms and legs may become temporarily paralyzed Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning The symptoms are very similar to Ciguatera poisoning Amnestic shellfish poisoning With nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea, followed by short-term memory loss, as well as other less frequent neurologic symptoms. Seafood Poisoning W.A.Dulanjali M. Wijethilake
  33. 33. Fish hygiene relates to “All conditions and measures necessary to ensure the safety and suitability at all stages of the fish handling". These hygienic measures  aim at preventing or reducing contamination and microbial growth. Seafood Poisoning fish W.A.Dulanjali M. Wijethilake
  34. 34.  Aspects related to the hygienic design of facilities during • On-board, • Transportation • Processing and distribution • Personnel hygiene • Cleaning and sanitation Seafood Poisoning W.A.Dulanjali M. Wijethilake
  35. 35. Faults doing by fishermen Situation Errors Fish in hold Fish kept in melted water Loosening ice with harbour water No sorting by species or catching date Unloading Unload straight on to pier by hand Pier is highly contaminated due to.. Pier is used for auctioning and packing Washing Use contaminated harbour water Washing water not change frequently Reloading Inappropriate vehicles Icing not done correctly Cross contamination Seafood Poisoning W.A.Dulanjali M. Wijethilake
  36. 36. Transportation Many different types of transportation •Refrigerated truks •Unrefrigerated trucks •Three wheelers •Motorbikes •bicycles Cutting Wooden cutting boards and it wash by harbor water No waste bins Figure 16 : Bad hygienic practices in Negombo fish landing centre Seafood Poisoning W.A.Dulanjali M. Wijethilake
  37. 37.  No seafood should be collected or consumed during or for several days after a bloom (red or green tide)  No seafood should ever be eaten uncooked and only freshly caught fish should be purchased  Keep seafood on ice or refrigerated at less than 4 C to prevent spoilage  Keep fresh tuna, mackerel, grouper, and mahi mahi refrigerated to prevent formation of histamine  In the case of shrimp removing head immediately  When catch big fishes degut first and the keep in ice Seafood Poisoning W.A.Dulanjali M. Wijethilake
  38. 38.  Freezing, drying, salting, canning and chilling may reduced the spoilage  Do not use bulbs when selling fish  care should be taken when eating shellfish, and special caution exercised with very large predatory tropical fish  the seafood has been cooked should be discarded, and the viscera of any fish should not be consumed  Proper hygienic practices Seafood Poisoning W.A.Dulanjali M. Wijethilake
  39. 39. Figure 17 : Posters exhibited in NARA – IPHT devision Seafood Poisoning W.A.Dulanjali M. Wijethilake
  40. 40. • Toxins can influence ecosystems from both the top-down (i.e., affecting predators and influencing grazing) and Ecosystem Seafood Poisoning • from the bottom-up (i.e., affecting plankton and benthic communities). • Long-term effects of biotoxins on the health of aquatic animals include increased susceptibility to disease, immunosuppression, abnormal development, and the induction of tumors. W.A.Dulanjali M. Wijethilake
  41. 41. Wildlife Seafood Poisoning • Fish kills, bird kills, manatees and whales • Sea lion mortalities - linked to the ASP toxin passed through the food web. • Humpback whales - associated with domoic acid poisoning. W.A.Dulanjali M. Wijethilake
  42. 42. Socioeconomic Seafood Poisoning • Public health impacts account for the largest economic impacts, followed by commercial fisheries and tourism. W.A.Dulanjali M. Wijethilake
  43. 43.  Occurrence of toxins which threaten valuable seafood resources seem to be increasing in frequency, intensity and geographic distribution  Overall, there are needs to develop and validate diagnostic methods for illness, remedial treatments, and antidotes where appropriate. Seafood Poisoning W.A.Dulanjali M. Wijethilake
  44. 44.  Urgent need to undertake appropriate risk assessments for marine toxins which take into account all relevant factors  More research is required to gain a better understanding of the factors that determine seafood toxicity, and to develop processes by which intoxicated seafood can be detoxified Seafood Poisoning W.A.Dulanjali M. Wijethilake
  45. 45.  New legislation will have important economic implications for national and international trade  Improved detection methods are also urgently required to replace mouse bioassays Seafood Poisoning W.A.Dulanjali M. Wijethilake
  46. 46.  There are global distribution of seafood poisoning cases.  There are life threatening finfish and shellfish poisoning in world  Not only microalgae but also other factors are cause for seafood poisoning Seafood Poisoning W.A.Dulanjali M. Wijethilake
  47. 47.  Occurrence of toxins which threaten valuable seafood resources seem to be increasing in frequency, intensity and geographic distribution  Most seafood poisoning types are neurotoxic and affect to CNS or Peripheral NS.  Behind the seafood poisoning main issue is improper hygienic practices of fishermen  Thus long term consequences occur to ecosystem, wild life and socioeconomic. Seafood Poisoning W.A.Dulanjali M. Wijethilake
  48. 48.  Harmful algae from http://www.whoi.edu/redtide/page.do?pid=15315  Jorge, R. R. (2007). Ciguatera1. 3-4.  Mclauchlin, J., Little, C. (2007). Hobb’s Food poisoning and food hyegiene, 7th edition. 219-222.  Roberts, D., Greenwood, M. (2003). Practical food Microbiology, 3rd edition. 228-229.  Science for environmental policy. Low toxic heavy metal risk for the average Spanish consumer of sea food.  Whittle, K., Gallacher, S. (2000). Marine toxins. Journal of British medical bulletin, 236-253. Seafood Poisoning W.A.Dulanjali M. Wijethilake
  49. 49. Seafood Poisoning W.A.Dulanjali M. Wijethilake

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