The PhD Process: laying the foundation for the rest of your career Julie Dugdale MAGMA-LIG Multi-agent systems group – Gre...
Objectives <ul><li>The goals of PhD research </li></ul><ul><li>Research and publication strategy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fou...
The Goals of PhD Research <ul><li>To research an area that interests us </li></ul><ul><li>But also.. </li></ul><ul><li>A f...
Research and Publication Strategy <ul><li>Many of these slides are based on: </li></ul><ul><li>“ A Strategy for Becoming a...
Four Stages of Professional Development <ul><li>A process of making yourself increasingly ‘more valuable’ to others </li><...
Four Stages of   Professional Development <ul><li>A process of making yourself increasingly more   valuable   to others </...
Development strategy for a researcher <ul><li>The following slide suggests: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Actively build a network...
Establish Your Network <ul><li>Same university, different departments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Take the initiative to find pe...
How To Develop a Research Strategy <ul><li>The Gordon Davis approach encourages detailed planning. </li></ul><ul><li>But, ...
How To Develop a Research Strategy <ul><li>A good personal research strategy rests on 7 ideas:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Iden...
1. Identify Research Needs <ul><li>Research needs or research questions can come from articles and discussions, </li></ul>...
2.& 3. Match against Personal Interests and Preferences, Strengths <ul><li>Theorize-synthesize </li></ul><ul><ul><li>disti...
4. ID Comparative Advantage <ul><li>Each researcher has some skills, expertise, or access to data to provide a comparative...
5. Plan Research Portfolio <ul><li>Davis applies the idea of an  investment portfolio  to developing a  set of research pr...
6. Consider Cumulative Effect <ul><li>Research should ideally not be a set of random projects with no central core </li></...
7. Be Ready for Opportunistic Action <ul><li>Planning shouldn’t prevent opportunistic action </li></ul><ul><li>Opportuniti...
Decide on a Research Methodology <ul><li>The question comes first! </li></ul><ul><li>Then decide how you want to answer it...
That’s the theory,  <ul><li>..but the practicality of doing research/PhD is a lot harder.. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Genius ...
<ul><li>Questions </li></ul>
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Ph D Process. Julie Dugdale

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A discussion/presentation given at the ISCRAM PhD Colloquium.

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Ph D Process. Julie Dugdale

  1. 1. The PhD Process: laying the foundation for the rest of your career Julie Dugdale MAGMA-LIG Multi-agent systems group – Grenoble Informatics Laboratory, France dugdale@imag.fr http://membres-lig.imag.fr/dugdale/index.php ISCRAM PhD Colloquium. Gotenburg, May 10th 2009
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>The goals of PhD research </li></ul><ul><li>Research and publication strategy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Four Stages of Professional Development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Establish Your Network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How To Develop a Research Strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research Methodology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Publishing (Simon) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The highs and lows of PhD Research </li></ul><ul><li>An interactive discussion session </li></ul>
  3. 3. The Goals of PhD Research <ul><li>To research an area that interests us </li></ul><ul><li>But also.. </li></ul><ul><li>A form of training in how to do research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop the ‘scientific mind’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Critical analysis of our work and others </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How to know when to stop (when our results are good enough for publication) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Apply a methodology, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How to write! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to obtain funding for our work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>PhD: A requirement for a career that we want to pursue </li></ul>
  4. 4. Research and Publication Strategy <ul><li>Many of these slides are based on: </li></ul><ul><li>“ A Strategy for Becoming a World-class Scholar in Information Systems ” </li></ul><ul><li>Gordon B. Davis. Honeywell Professor of MIS, Carlston School of Management, University of Minnesota </li></ul><ul><li>“ A research and publication strategy that has a high probability of success in turning a young academic into a respected world-class scholar (and achieving promotion and tenure).” </li></ul>
  5. 5. Four Stages of Professional Development <ul><li>A process of making yourself increasingly ‘more valuable’ to others </li></ul><ul><li>Apprentice : technical competence, supervised, but little initiative or risk-taking </li></ul><ul><li>Colleague : evidence of individual competence and initiative; building network </li></ul><ul><li>Mentor : uses network; helps apprentices and colleagues </li></ul><ul><li>Sponsor : uses large network to help; problem solver for organising and managing projects </li></ul>Dalton, Thompson & Price (1977)
  6. 6. Four Stages of Professional Development <ul><li>A process of making yourself increasingly more valuable to others </li></ul><ul><li>Apprentice : technical competence , but little initiative or risk-taking </li></ul><ul><li>Colleague : evidence of individual competence and initiative ; building network </li></ul><ul><li>Mentor : uses network; helps apprentices and colleagues </li></ul><ul><li>Sponsor : uses large network to help; problem solver on projects </li></ul>Dalton, Thompson & Price (1977)
  7. 7. Development strategy for a researcher <ul><li>The following slide suggests: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Actively build a network of colleagues (next slide) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Look for and take opportunities for independent work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take on a role of mentoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Build competence in project management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reporting, deliverables, communication mechanisms with partners, organisation of finance, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Establish Your Network <ul><li>Same university, different departments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Take the initiative to find people with same interests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop local collaborations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Invited talks, share papers, joint supervision of Masters students, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Local and regional faculty members in IS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attend workshops, conferences, the importance of coffee-break discussions! become active in Workgroups, coordinate activities, managing discussion email groups, reviewing conf. papers, aim  program committees for confs. editing, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Global faculty members in IS </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organise workshops, special sessions, study leaves,... </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Get yourself known! </li></ul><ul><li>Be Proactive! </li></ul>
  9. 9. How To Develop a Research Strategy <ul><li>The Gordon Davis approach encourages detailed planning. </li></ul><ul><li>But, are you a ‘planner’? Maybe explicit or implicit planning? </li></ul><ul><li>Planning Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reflection, a sense of direction and establish priorities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Planning disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Too constrained, miss something, no accidentally ‘falling’ into interesting areas? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>According to Gordon Davis: a ten-year plan is reasonable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>last 3 of Ph.D., 5 in 1st position, 2 beyond (depends on country) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan may be structured around a broad topic of interest (exact topics emerge over the period) </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. How To Develop a Research Strategy <ul><li>A good personal research strategy rests on 7 ideas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify research needs in field, and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Match them against personal interests and preferences . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Constrain choices based on personal competence and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal comparative advantage . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Plan personal research portfolio including </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Considering cumulative effect of research. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Be ready for opportunistic action . </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. 1. Identify Research Needs <ul><li>Research needs or research questions can come from articles and discussions, </li></ul><ul><li>See various taxonomies to help selecting an area of focus </li></ul><ul><li>Review papers as a means of assessing SOTA. </li></ul><ul><li>SOTA paper can be a way of defining an area </li></ul>
  12. 12. 2.& 3. Match against Personal Interests and Preferences, Strengths <ul><li>Theorize-synthesize </li></ul><ul><ul><li>distill existing ideas into a theory or framework </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>marshall data to test ideas and theories </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Manage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>organize the activities associated with a study </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Report </li></ul><ul><ul><li>explain project and contribution </li></ul></ul>Discover your talents: Research Needs Personal Interests Strengths/ Competences
  13. 13. 4. ID Comparative Advantage <ul><li>Each researcher has some skills, expertise, or access to data to provide a comparative advantage </li></ul><ul><li>Comparative advantages can be exploited </li></ul>
  14. 14. 5. Plan Research Portfolio <ul><li>Davis applies the idea of an investment portfolio to developing a set of research projects . </li></ul><ul><li>Factors to be considered for including a project in your ‘portfolio’: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Completion risk: Can it be finished? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Output risk: How long will it take? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance risk: Can you do it well? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Contribution risk: Will it represent a contribution? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Publication risk: Can you publish it? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Funding risk: Can you get it funded? </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. 6. Consider Cumulative Effect <ul><li>Research should ideally not be a set of random projects with no central core </li></ul><ul><li>What is the thrust of this work? </li></ul><ul><li>Projects should build upon one another </li></ul>
  16. 16. 7. Be Ready for Opportunistic Action <ul><li>Planning shouldn’t prevent opportunistic action </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities come in unexpected ways and unexpected times </li></ul><ul><li>Having some slack in the system. </li></ul><ul><li>Saying ‘ yes ’ and saying ‘no’ to opportunities. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Decide on a Research Methodology <ul><li>The question comes first! </li></ul><ul><li>Then decide how you want to answer it: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>unsupported speculation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>library research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>case study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>survey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>field study </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>field experiment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>laboratory experiment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mathematical or computational modeling </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. That’s the theory, <ul><li>..but the practicality of doing research/PhD is a lot harder.. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Genius is one percent inspiration and 99 percent perspiration .” T. A. Edison (1847–1931) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ People who are unable to motivate themselves must be content with mediocrity, no matter how impressive their other talents.” A. Carnegie (1835–1919) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological highs and lows </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research time is being eaten away by other commitments (teaching, administration, etc) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Questions </li></ul>

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